SURVEY OF SOVIET ECONOMISTS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS (5)

Created: 11/1/1971

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CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM JRELEASE IN FULL

SURVEY OF SOVIET ECONOMISTS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS

1

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Directorate of Intelligence

for officiajtuse only

FOR OKFICIAVTJSE ONLY

SURVEY OF SOVIET ECONOMISTS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS

1

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Directorate of Intelligence

FOR OFFICIA1/USK ONLY

FOREWORD

Contacts between Western and Soviet economistsroblem for those Western economists who are unfamiliar with the institutional organization of Soviet economic research activities or with individual Sovietrief survey of the pattern of economic research activity in the USSR is given in this report, the activities of the more important research organizations are described, and the most recently observed interests and affiliationsumber of the major Soviet economists are identified. Not fully covered in this report are specialized economic research organizations and the substantial number of economists, commodity specialists, and others active in these organizations- The activities of these specialized economic research organizations are focusedon research on detailed problems of industry, commerce, or agriculture rather than on theoretical and applied researcheneral character that is of wider interest to Western economists. Because of the considerable interest generated by recent Soviet activities in the field of econometrics andprogramming, however, some of the specialized research organizations and economists in this field are included. Also included are prominent economists or other administrators in government positions relating to economic planning orexample, in Cosplan or the Central StatisticalSoviet names, titles, and terms are transliterated according to the United States Board on Geographic Names throughout this report.

Notes on Ranks, Positions, and Degrees Indicated for Soviet Economists

Soviet economists may be distinguished by both rank and position within an organization and by academic degree. The transliterated tides for theseare compared below with those in universities in the Unitedubstantial number of the economists included in this report are not identified as holding advanced degrees. Such identification is difficult because Soviet sources often do not refer to the positions and degrees held by persons in official capacities or by the authors of books and journal articles.ailure to mention academic attainments does not necessarily mean that the economist In question holds no advanced degrees.

cademic Rank

Arpirc 'i* assistantember of the teaching staff or of

a laboratory.raduate studentrobationary period to determine his qualificationseaching position.

PrepodavaUflowest teaching posltjoo. Equivalent to an lo-

itructorS university.

Statihiysenior instructor.

Anuiitnt lowest of "full" academic ranks. Though close

to Militant professor, he Is notiicnl proleaor butittent within thedro.

second of "full" academic ranks. Close to

associate professor.

highest rank. Equivalentull professor in

a US university.

llektor

head of the university and equivalentniversitydi the reikiiwt or uni-vecttly administration.

ekutut. close to chairmancpa't-meni. if ihe fakufiet in large, itheaded by a

Nauchnyj totrudnA

headubdivisioneauffai. Kafrdta it close lachoir, bill usually there are severe) profusioniven kafiAta.

a scientific associate, usually detigiiatcd at tnladihly or USt&iy (junior orhese position* are usually tmi mi in research imtitutioim rather than in universities. occasionally oneudnA attachedniversity laboratory or computer canter.

Drgreti

rWrlfc

Doktor naui

AkadrmA

closely compatible to the phd. degree inin the united state* hecaute of (he variations in requirement* for the degree among institution* in both cuunuwi. the eitent ofdepend) on which lift trillionsthe degrees in the two countries are

a person, usuallyandidateicrices, in residenceniversity working toward the doctor of srsencea degree.

a detree higherettrcrnic arirocei.

hai-jig no oxaherpart to the urallrdormally rt requires no further trainanf bet does ramura the defense of anhesis.egree) were awardeds

an booorary tide that can becad-qmician or full memberiven academy. an honorary tula of torriewhal leiier rank iior correaponding member. foil memberihip in the academy of sciences, ussr. h, of course, highly prestigious. unless stated otherwise, the term aiadetnfcian moani an scad' emictan of the academy of sciences. ussr.

on terminology

because oi the lack of familiarity of many western economist! with soviet economic phraseology, an effort was made in the body of this report to substitute,umber of soviet phrases, terms that more accurately convey equivalent meanings in english. however, in manyore meaningful equivalent in english would have required the use of some further explanation. hence, the followingist of certain soviet terms appearing in the teniteral rendering into english accompaniedore detailed description of their meanings

Riuux i. tft!rem*no)

ccountability an orgaruution operauog on

a (nonoarhei basis charges its coats against its receipa from the title of good) Or services and seeks torofit or minimlie its

uNiintmrra) iuL Translation

Nor

eproduction

. NURB

PaJiltehttkaya tkonomhjaolitical economy

ProportlonaTnod ill

Proportionality or

Scienlillc-tecJinical

Zofco no mernoye nisvihVe . Regular development ..

Methdunarodnaia aotnWti- Intematjcoal socialistipcttieliiattiya ciabuticm of

Moruit term for thegenerally Included under the heading ofgrowth.

A standard that ts established by planner; and supervisors foe inventory levels, work accomplishments, and other variables.

A field ofation In economics that could more meaningfully be labeled "Marxist economic theory."

A field of economicthat deals with the internal consistency ofplanning and the determination of desirable

relative rates of growth of various industries.

Technological

Economic development in conformity with oa rural laws.

Specialization of the various Communist countries in different economic activi-

Material-technical supoly

Management

Kife-nefiia

Matematichcikaya mcsftf . Mathematical model

Cybernetics

distribution ofand materials of all types to producing organi-mfcora.

Translated as eithercontrol, governiiieat, direction, orIts most appropriate English rcoditMo,in cyberneticsis management or control.

A general characterizationrocess, object, orin terms ofwhich enables the relatively simpleof variables tohow the process,or concept wouldIn different situations.

The study ol communications and control In otganlred systems of varyingin its moremanifestationsmathematicaland computers.

in

Otnovnyye forulv

Obontnwye aredsttt

VUZy

tauk ..

Sooner khaz

funds

Circulating meant

. Higher educational instl-tu tiara

Academy of Science*

National

Council of Economy

A term restricted to fixed capital when that Is taken to Include stocks of durable physical assets (buildings, structures, sod equipment) that are used tor more than one year andalue of SO rubles or more. Working capital In the form of inventories of supplies, goods in process or In the finishedife span of lets than one year, and financial assets. Common PuuHn abbievia-tion (in the plural) for vynhtyteeoe*ased on thethat teaching andmust be combined, VUZy in chide universities, poly technicalnd other specialized Institutes. Their graduatesean ofpast high school. All VUZy are subordinate to tho Ministry of Higher Education. The general term for organi-Osnt administering and controlling Soviet science. Three main type* must be distinguished:cademy of Seser-eea, USSR. Union Republic Academy of Sciences;ranch Academy ofUnlets otherwise noted, nil references to the Academy of Sciences are to the All-Unlon Academy of Sciences.etailed discussion, see Section IV, A.

Common Russian acronym for aooet narodnogoystem ofeconomic councils was established7 In an abortive attempt to fa* til irate economic decision-making by economic The system was abolished

transliterated and translated titles of organizations and titles of journals, addresses of organizations, and an index of economists, see the Appendixes.

CONTENTS

Page

Foreword i

L iBfMtdnCDBiB 1

II- Organization and Direction of Economic Research .

A. Organization 3

II. Direction and Coordination 5

C. Scientific Problem 0

Sketch of Some Recent Dc ciopmciits in Soviet Economic 7

Engaged in Economic Research and Their Chief PersonnelAcademy of Sciences, USSR 10

of EconomicIX

of

of Economics of World Socialist Systems

of World Economics and International

of the United States of

Mathematical-Economics

DerssjOnent of the Academy of

of Economics and Organization of Industrial Production 18

Institutions Related to the Institute of Economics and

Organization of Industrial Production 10

xecutive Departments of the10

USSR10

Nature of Research Conducted Under CospUn, USSR 19

Research Ecunoouc Institute of

c Scientific Methods Commission for the Balance of the National

Economy

for the Study of Productive Resources82

of Complex Transportation Problems of83

t. Scientific Research Institute for the Organization ofand

Statistical

Nature of Research Conducted in the Central Statistical

23

Research Institute lor Planning Computer Centers

and Systems of Economic24

j State Committee on Prices: Scientific Research Institute on Price

Forrrution

Institute of Problems of25

State Committee for Construction Affairs: Scientific Research

Institute of Construction Economics

Page

of Trade: All-Union Scientific Research Institute for the

Study of Consumer Demand and Marketing Conditions 27

Committee on Labor and Wages: Scientific Research Insti-

tute of27

Ministry of Foreign Trade: Scientific Institute of Market Research 28

Ministry of Finance: Scientific Research Institute of28

of Agriculture 29

Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Economics 29

of Economics and Organization of Agriculture of

the All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences 30

Committee for Science and30

C Universities and Educational Institutes 31

Moscow State

Leningrad State

Moscow Institute of National

Moscow Financial

Leningrad Finance-Economics

Moscow Economic Statistics Institute

Moscow Engineering-Economics

Leningrad Engineering-Economics Institute

Institute of Economic

Analysis in the Soviet35

38

38

APPENDIXES

Appcrniix A: Transliterated and Translated Titles of Institutions and

Appendix B: Transliterated and Translated Tides of Journals

Appendix C: Addresses of Research Institutes and Organizations

Appendix D: Index of Economists

in

SURVEY OF SOVIET ECONOMISTS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS

I. INTRODUCTION

Genera] economic research in the USSR is performed mainly by economists at the professional level who are engaged in full-time research or in aof research and teaching. Most of these economists have completed three-year graduate courses in economics in universities and educationalor in research institutes leading to the degree of Candidate of Economic Sciences and many have attained the degree of Doctor of Economic Sciences. These highly trained economists constitutemall fraction of the, total number of -economists" in the USSR as enumerated in offical occupational statistics. In the USSR the term ekonomlst also is used to refer to personnel trained in business adirunistration and management skills such as accounting, to technologists or engmrscr-ecotiomists, and to senuprofessional and clerical personnel such as bookkeepers. Of the total number of economists in this broaderpecialized in "economics" in the higher educational establishments (oysshiye uchebnyyethereafter referred to asndn the middle schools. Still others lack even the middle school preparation.f "economists" are employed inenterprises,

Beyond the undergraduate level of training, there are over SOO holders of doctorates and0 candidates of economic sciences engaged inresearch, and consulting, or working in applied fields. In all there areraduate areas or recognized fields of activity included under the rubric of economic sciences. Most dissertations traditionally are written on politicalith contemporaryistant second. The recentlyspeciality of "economic cybernetics" is increasingly popular among younger graduate students as an area of specialization.

Economists at the professional level are disproportionately concentrated in Moscow, where the principal economic research establishments and most of the outstanding educational and governmental institutions are located. Leningrad and Novosibirsk also have sizable groups of economists. Most of these economists arc employed at research iostitutioris, although many are affiliated with more than one type of organi?ation. For example, numerous economists are affiliated with one of the economic research institutes of the Academy of Sciences

'In contrast to the tradlttoi.a) political ecooomyhe West, the Soviet<*business adm.ntsU.Uoo. and accountm*

W?of'devoted to coursesdeological in content Included under the after category are courser on Communist Party history, foundation of Marrfim-Lc.im.wn, dralecUcal and liUtortcal materialism, and history of economic doctrine..

in Moscowoncurrently with one oi the VUZyith one of theeconomic research esublishments such as the Scientific ResearchInstitute under Cosplan.

The organization and operation of economic research in the Soviet Union is the product of tho authoritarian political and social system. Economics, like all branches of science, it funded andnot as effectively as one mightthe government and monitored by the Communist Party of the Soviet Unionhe Politburo of the CPSU Centralhe ultimate authority on economic doctrine as well as policy It relies on the Council of Ministers of the USSR (the highest body of the executive arm of the central government and the apex of the economic administrativeto implement policy. Similarly, the enforcement of the party's position on economic science and doctrine is canned out by the Academy of Sciences (AN) and various government committees.

As in most Soviet professions, the prestige of an economist is positively correlaled with earnings, although both prestige and wages in social sciences in general, and economics in particular, do not rank as high as those in the physical and biological sciences or in engineering. Most economists would ap-pear in the 'above average' wage category, while research ecsanomists (typically employed in teaching as well as research positions) would be categorized as "high" wages earners (the average annual wage of all wage earners; above average,; and high,ubles).1

There are two distinguishable age groups of Soviet economists: those born0eferred to as the "Stalinistnd those born0 and affected only indirectly by the events of the Stalin era' The older element of the Stalinist generation were thrust into positions ofduring the great purges ofnd the survivors still, in general, tend to orthodoxy. The younger element of that generation, their education limited to the narrowest interpretation of Marxist ortltodoiy, also tend to beotable exceptions' are discussed Id Sectionn the other hand, theeneration, too young for positions of responsibility before Stahn's death, has generally been relatively mote receptive to change and innovation.ichotomy led one prominent liberal Soviet economist, visiting in the West Ino remark that in the USSR he could talk only to people belownd overears of age.

Marxist economic theory is ostensibly the basis for Soviet eccaaomic goals and policies. These goab and policies are achieved, according to Soviet theorists, through the application of operating principles embodiedet of "objectiven the sense that thesemerge and act independently of the will ofhey cannot be created, transformed or abolished by the will oftalin, in seeking to legitimize his overriding goal to mobilize the economy for rapid development and to maintain and enhance the country's internal and external power, dogmatically employed these Taws" to justify his policies. But given the general nature of these Taws" any policy that he wished

atehen converted by the officialubles tohe nominal value of the average wage would tome tout when converted to ckJIars by the average purchasing power ratio of the dollar and the ruble calculated from actual prices paid for various goods and services in the two economies, the average industrial wage would be equivalent

fenturo it not unique amongprofessional groups ciperience the same division.

to enforce could be conveniently.rationalized without recourse to economists or economic theory. Hence, during the Stalin era, economic science in the normal senseproblem solving" discipline, organized to deal with the efficient allocation of resources, was virtually non-existent.

While the role of "economic science" under Stalin was principally one of apologetics, the Khrushchevian eraramatic revival of economics in the conventional Western meaning of that term. The old Stalinist "command economy" methods were not suitable for modernizing and expanding an already developed economy but the new regime was less doctrinaire and more flexible.esult the Party was willing to allow professional economists greater freedom to discuss, to do research, and to seek solutions to problems confronting thehile ideological goals remained the same, economists wereto study practical problems such as the effectiveness of investment and the establishment of prices that would play an allocative role. Indeed, in the period from the denunciation of Stalin6 to the, the erosion of Marxist ideology proceeded apace, as liberal economistskeleton of theoretical constructs embracing the main elements of conventional Western equilibrium theory. However, the effort to harness this theory and adapt it to the needs of central planning without benefit of markets, or other capitalist institutions proscribed by the Party, has been frustrating for the economists and so far unsuccessful.

II. ORGANIZATION AND DIRECTION OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH A. Orgonizcrtion

Most economic research in the Soviet Union is performed in the variousof the Department of Economic Sdenoes of tho Academy of Sciences.esser extent, central governmental agencies and leading universities also contribute to the research effort There is very little economic research performed at other economic levels.

cademy of Sciences

The Soviet Academy of Sciences has no counterpart in the West Like the Institut de France, the Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, or the British Royalit is financed from the State budget But unlike the Western organizations, the Soviet Academy also has many research institutes under direct subordination in nearly all scientific fields, sponsors research projects (where results have an Immediate impact on the economy) at Institutes subordinate to other governmentalnd awards advanced degrees in most scientific fieldsunction limited to univeratiesinally, its charter directs the organization toommunist society in the USSR and to ensure worldcademy leaders must not only be eminent scientists, they must also be apt politicians.

All questions of the organization of economic research considered by the Council of Ministers or other state organs are sent through the Academy of Sciences or are considered with active participation of Academy representatives. The interest of the Academy's top leadership in economic theory, policy, and

'Thli policyiscussed In more detail in Section HI.

'Western academies. Including the National Science Foundation In the United States, sponsor research in scientific frelds but such research is long run in nature. Researchore current impact is handled by either those Western govern mental or private agencies and businesses benefiting from such research.

methodology has varied greatly over the years, but its presidents have been valuable sources of support for the advocates of change in Soviet economics.

Ihe elite among the economists at the professional level include principaDy those who have gained prominence both through exceptional research and through the performance of high-level adrnirustrative duties such as direction of economic research institutions or government organizations. Many of these have received recognition by election to full or corresponding membership in the Academy of Sciences. Academicians are elected by their peers for life at inter-vab of two years; the last election washere are two classes of mem be rsbip. Academician and Corresponding Member, although onlycan vote on matters of Academy policy and administration. Those members of the Academy who are economists or whose work is related toare listed below:

AcAittMi of Sciences

Yuan or

AcineMiciA.H

N.P. *

V.M. Ctiishkov 4

noaerntsev .. 8

L.V. Kantoiovlch 4

T.S. 6

AN Kolmogorov 9

N.V. Md'iiikov Milling 2

N.N. Neknuov.. 8

LS. 8

A.M. 8

S.G. Struoillln 1

A.N. 0

COWtKH-OKBP* MSMItgR

A.C.

GA

P.C. Bunkh

L.M.

nd

CJLEconomic*

LA.

AG.

AJ.

K_N.

V.F. Pugachev

T.V.

.

C.M-

T.T. Timofeycv

conronie*

VA.

T.l. Zaslavskaya ..

The organization of economic affairs vrfthin the Academy of Sciences is controlled by the Department of Economic Sciences. The Department isfor economic research in aU institutes and affiliates of the parent organization, in the republican academies, and in higher educational Institutions. The major research organizations under its subordination include the Institute of Economics, the Institute of the United Slates of America, the CentralInstitute, and the Siberian Department of the Academy of Sciences. These and other subordinate organizations are discussed in more detail in Section IV.

overnmental Agencies and VUZy

Several governmental agencies conduct economic research through their own research institutes. Gosplan and the Central Statistical Aoministrarion employ Urge numbers of economists in their normal operations, and in addition theyresearch institutes. Other research institutes are attached to ministries such as finance, foreign trade, or agriculture, and to government committees such as the State Committee on Prices (see Section IV).

Organizations subordinate to governmental agencies typically engage in applied research primarily in support of the administrative functions of thcir parent organizations. This approach differs from institutes under the Academy of Sciences which develop broad theoretical approaches to the solution of important economic problems and make general recommendations based on thoseSuch division of laboreneral rule, but there are notable exceptions on each side. For example, the Siberian Department of the Academy of Sciences performs much applied research for Siberian industry while several of Gos-plan's research institutes engage in totally theoretical problems.

Among the VUZy, those located in Moscow. Leningrad, and Novosibirsk tend to have economics faculties of relatively higher caliber and to -engage in more research on broader topics than do their counterparts elsewhere in the USSR. The economics, faculties in other VUZyreater proportion of their time to teaching and performimited amount of economic research, much of which is oriented toward local problems.

B. Direction and Coordination

At the present time there is no single organization responsible for overall direction and coordination of economic research on national problems- Nearly ail economic research Is financed directly from the State budget and thus Is controlled by both the Party and the government. Because of the large number of parent units to which research organizations are subordinate, however, the duwtion and coonlination of economic research on important national problems have often proved to be difficult The Soviet leadership is aware of this deficiency but rather than take firm measures to correct it has simply been content to "tinker" to hopes that the various agencies will contain the problem at lower levels. Those agencies involved in the coordination process Include the State Committee for Science and Technology; Gosplan, USSR; and the Department of Economic Sciences for the Academy of Sciences.

Committee for Science and Technology (SCST)

Since its inceptionhe SCST has performed the function of providing general state surveillance over the execution of the most important economic research and the formulation of policy recoirimeridations based on research findings. The SCST and the Academy of Sciences, whose mutualare defined by Soviet law, jointly work out an order! ng of research priorities. Both organizations join with the Ministry of Finance and Caspian in working out the budget allocation for research and development, deluding that for economic research. It Is believed that the SCST also has thefor implementing long-run economic projects.

U5SR

Gosplan, USSR, is responsible for the supervision of current economic research by government agencies in those individual cases where such research

is not in support of the administrative functions of the parent organization. As an overseer of the research and development budget, it must be assumed that Cosplun has some influence in guiding the direction and coordination of all economic retouch. Presumably because of the large number of economic research organizations and their relatively narrow interests, Cosplan performs its coordination function primarily by means of ad hoc conferences that are convened to discuss specific research problems and at whieh only several of these organizations are represented.

epartment of Economic Sciences of the Academy of Sciences,

USSR

Theof Economic Sciences is charged specifically with the direction and coordination of economic research among institutes of the Academy of Sciences, the departments of economics of the RSFSR regional affiliates of the Academy of Sciences, the institutes of economics of the academies of sciences of the union republics, and the economics faculties of VUZy. Direction and coordination are effected through an association of Soviet economic .scientificermanent stuff within thethat comprises those organizations under Department, of Economic Sciences subordination. In the performance of its duties the association assigns research priorities and coordinates the annual research plans of the member organizations. The association also promotes continuing coordination through the holding of regular national and regional conferences, through exchanges of working programs and draft research reports, and through theof personal contacts among researchers. The association is subdivided into problem sections thai correspond roughly to the fields of research covered by the scientific problem councils a! the nabooal level (discussed below).

C. Scientific Problem Councils

Overall coordination between the research on national problems coo-ducted in the Department of Economic Sciences and that conducted Inunits is effected primarily by individual research organizations andrather than through parent units. This coordination Is facilitated byad hoc conferences convened to discuss specific research topics.0 the Department has exerted controlarge, Interlocking network of semi-permanent "scientific problem" councils, most of which are directed by the Department of Economic Sciences and which have authority only to advise and recommend.

These problem councils, which coordinate research on the most important national problems as specified by Gosplan and the Academy of Sciences, are composed of economists with common interests employedide variety of research organizations within the system of the Academy of Sciences, in government, and in the economics faculties of the VUZy. The councils, which remain active only as long as the problems on which they are to work remain on the priority list, plan research programs in their fields in accordance with tho directives of the regime, apportion research work among their members, anil review the results of the research.

Most of ihe councils are directed by "head" rnwarch organizations to which they arc assigned on the basis of special competence, und are chaired by individual economists who are outstanding in the field of rosoarch covered

by the council. The principal councils thai arc believed to be still active are listed in the following tabulation, together with their head organizations and their chairmen;

Council on Scientific PruKipleaof Economic Sci- (Unknown)

Price

Council em the Eoooomkof Economic Scl- . Khaehaturov

nveoess of Baric Funds,and New Equip.

Council on Economicof Economic Sci- LM. Catevskiy

and Material

Coursed on Economicof Economic Set- . Hnrnvanbsev

of (he Two Systems and

developed Countries

Council on Optimal Planningof Economic Sci- . Fedorenko

Administration of the

Council on the Economics.of Economic Scl- . Plotnikov

ning, and Organiintion of

duttrill

Council em Chemicalization ofof Economic Set . Fedccenfco

National

Council em the Developmentof Economic Sci- (Unknown)

the Laws of Socialism and

Transition to Communism

Council on the Problemsnccolc Sci- . Rumyaetsev

cifie Social

Council on theof Economic Set- . Rv^bushkin

Problems of the

Council on the Problems ofof Economic Sci- CM. Sorokio

World Socialist

Council on Problems ofof Economic Sci- AX Berg

KETCH OF SOME RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN SOVIET ECONOMIC THOUGHT

During the Stalinist era, economic research was devoted to theof closely circuiroeribcd questions and to the development of Marxist doctrinetrictly orthodox fashion. Since the death of Stalin, investigation and public discussion of economic issues have rangedrogressively broader field. The ideological constraints of Marxism have not been cast off. but they have been reduced and circumvented in part by many Soviet economic rhinlcers. Very often these thinkers appear to approach problems quitealthough they express themselves in Marxist terminology and pay at least nominal obeisance to Marxist dogmas. Such tactics have moved Soviet economic thought far along the path toward conventional economic theory. Nevertheless, the remaining elements of Marxism in Soviet economic thought stillood deal more than nominal or vestigial.

The roots of the modernization of Soviet economic thought can be traced to contributions made during the Stalin era. Kantorovich and two of his late. Ncmchinov. Novozhilov. These men pioneered research in the field of econometrics at approximately tlw same time that the science was developing in the West. Kantorovich developedthe concept

of linear programming and applied his discovery to problems of resource allocation within the woodworking industry.rominenteconomist and statistician, did much to keep mathemutical economic science alive during the Stalin years. Novozhilov stumbled upon the principle of opexirtunity cost while seeking logical rules to guide capital allocation. Inherent in the work of these men are concepts of marginal analysis and of scarcity ofabor resources on the supply side, both of which are anathema to orthodox marxists. With res port to the demand side the eroding of Marxist constraints has proved much more difficult. During the Stalin era economist! hadrefrained from discussing the determination of the optimal product mix to be turned outowever, three late.. Lur'ye.. Vaynshteyn, had succeexlcd inartial reconciliation of Western demand theory with Marxist terminology concepts. Following this achievement discussion problems using conventional economic theory and concepts became much more evident

The majority of the mathematically inclined followers of these innovators constitute the mathematical school* that has gained prornlncmce and nourished despite constant criticism from traditionalists. The mathematical school is re-sporuiblehe gradual acceptance by planners of icaraty-dictatedhe rediscovery of Western demand theory, longby Soviet proponents of the commandhe reintroduction of the interest rate into the calculation of "investmenthe notion of optinudity in planning.1

Much of tho contemporary matbematical-eeonomic work emanates from the Central Mathematical-Economic Institute of the Academy of Sciences (TsEMI AN SSSR) in Moscow and the Institute of Economics andof Industrial Production of the Siberian Branch of the Academy of SciencesPP SO AN) in Novosibirsk. Current research focuses on forecasting economic development and long-term planning of the national economy oo the basis of mathemiticaJ.. Katsenel-toboygen, YeYu.. Pugachev.. Volkonskly haveplanning "global" models enveloping the national economy. Agao bogy. Baraxrov, VS. Dadayan, VJ. Danikna. Berri,elkin are among those who have proposed models for specific sectors of the economy. Not surprisingly, these men are majorto the expanding Soviet effort in constructing ud using input-output) tables for planning purposes.

atural concomitant to the formulation of abstract models with logical rules for resource allocation, the mathematical school encompasses those wlm frequently and publiclyrice system designed to promote optimal use of resources by reflecting scarcity Information.. Fedorenko, the Director of TsEMI, long has been the principal speaker for this so-called "optirriality" school of. Yefimov. EZ. Mayrriinas,

'The authecaatValeatncied here to refer to thatpoop of matbe-ajbrmSy oneetiil ecoooosUts who cipeeai disaatafacnoo with Miman doema end reel to rrneet lean their rsrofeasaoss sreairahir Weaaeni economic thought5 they have aired rsuy new ideal wifhoot the usual reUWarpretatsoo of cerieial doesnahere arc many Soviets today who rubaenhe to the use of outhernatica as tools in eronnnuci without forsaking Marxian orthodoxy.

"The mthemabcal school uisislitride OpOrajbtr iTiterWn. The ennaervative view of multipleoclatutt econotny is the basis of active debate helwrcn the two schools of thought.

S.S.. Val*tukh, and Yu.A. Oleynik-Ovod are also in this group. Others include LA. Vaag and PC. Bunich in the field of, Khcynman in forccajting, ILA. Beiousov in raricing,. Kwuov in pUnning.

Although the mathematical school provides for and in effect advocates the abandonment of the Stalinist command system of eennomic organization, its membership does not includo all the Soviet economists who favor reform in the general senseignificant movement away from central command techniques. Non-mathematical economists who have pressed for fairly radical reforms involving the use of markets and market prices.. Leont'yov, YeL.. Trapeartikov, GS. Lisichkln,. Human. The economist most widely Identified in the West with "reforms" isberman. who is neither mathematically oriented nor radical in his approach- Libcrrnanoderate whose relatively modest proposals were reflected to some extent in the reforms that have been carried outt the time, more thinkers supported libcrrnan'$ proposals for modest reform, evidently because they thought they would be poliQeally acceptable to the regime and would not arouse strong vocal opposition among orthodox economists It seems, however, that the real intellectual setting for the reform was provided by the modem economists of major stature, such as Nemchinov, Novozhitov. and Kantorovich for whom Libcrrnan served as acceptable

The division of economists Into liberal and traditional (orthocVox) groups is. of course, an imperfect and arbitrary exercise. Individuals may be more liberal on some issues than on others, and tltcy may change their positions over time. Thereoderate group of economists thatumber of important individuals whose views, although heterogeneous, can be characterized as cautiously reformist. Included in that group are FS. Veseikov, D.. Atlas, and others. NA. Tsagolov and Sh.Ya. Turetskiy arc also moderates despite their criticism of the mathematical school. In most Important inspects, the reforms that actually are being carried out are more in line with the views of this middle group than those of either the more libera) or the more conservative group. Given the moderate nature of the reforms that have been enacted, it is not surprising that economic writers who arewith the administrative apparatus frequently can be classified as moderates-Most prominent of this group are. Bumyantsev. Khacharurov.

Conservative economists, having successfully checked the rapid advances of the mathematical and reform school, are still incapable ofoherent "economic theory ofhe orthodox economists at timeo have expended rnore effort in hurling invectives at the nberabt than on contributions to their science. Most vocal havea, Boyarsltiy,athematical.olitical.eputy director of Cosplan who invoked Stalin's nameecent bitter attack on Fedorenko. and Ya.A. Kionrod. another opponent of Fedorenko. The dean of SovietS.G. So-umilin has also been critical of most liberal proposals. Other conservatives noted for their defense of orthodoxy... Kats. KM.. Baybakov, VXnd Yu-B. Sukharevskiy.

onservative economists, who during the Khrushchev era were unable toustained attack against liberal influence oropose viable alternatives to the solution of complex economic problems formulated

by the liberals, have been able lo reverse the previous trend toward greater freedom in economic ihought. The liberalsurther sot back8 following the events in Czechoslovakia when conservative groups successfully exploited the political climate to stifle economic liberals and to brake thereform. In contrast to the Stalin era. however, liberal economists still perform research unmolested. Those who currently publish restrict their writings to approved topics, such as applied research in forecasting, planning, or computers.

In the last decade, several factors have caused Soviet economists, both liberal and orthtsdox alike, to take increasing interest in computersool to be used in managing the economy. First, these economists have became more cognizant of the constraints imposed on centralized economic planning and management by the existing system for gathering economic information. Second, the work of the mathematical school in programming and input-output analysis has publicized the potential of mathematical methods and models in economics. Third, great technological advances have been made in the development of electronic computers and, despite production difficulties, medium power computers are slowly becoming available. AA. DorodniOyn, CJ. Marchuk,. Chishkov each direct an important computer center integral to economic work,... Yevenko. and many other mathematical economists have made significant cootnbuQoos to computer applications in economics.

IV. ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGED IN ECONOMIC RESEARCH AND THEIR CHIEF PERSONNEL

A. Academy of Sciences, USSR The charter of the Academy of Sciences calls for the Implementation and improvement of scientific research In all branches of science, including economics. Through its membership rolls the Academy unites cajbTOanding Soviet scientists working generally at various research institutes and educational institutions. Including those which arcart of the Academy's system. There is an academy of sciences in every union republic but tho RSFSR, which has several republican departments, the most important of which is the Siberian department in Novosibirsk (see Section IV,ach of these supports an institute of economics that conducts research on regional aspects of many of the same problems studied by the Institute of Eccwxnks of the Academy of Sciences.

Typical of the organization and activities of the regional institutes is that of tho Institute of Economics of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in Kiev directed. Bagriy. The main branch employseople who are organized into IS divisions. Although the primary interest of the institute and its Lvov and KharTrov branches and the Institute of Industrial Economics (in Donetsk) is assisting industry, they also participate in other areas of research. With paid coo tracts for their services, the Ukrainian Institute of Economics and its branches are connected with9 the institute publishedonographs, six scientific collections of articles.rochures,rticles in magazines and newspapers. About two-thirds of the output is devoted to theoretical problems of the political

economy of socialism, economic efficiency of social pioduclion, economic relorm and technical progress.

eportment of Economic Sciences

The Department of Economic Sciences, formed in2 from the economic research organizations under the former Department of Economics, Philosophy, and Legal Sciences, directs most of the economic researchunder the Academy of Sciences. The principal organizations engaged in economic research under the Department are discussed below.

o. Institute of Economics

The Institute of Economics, founded0 and incorported into the Academy of Sciencesroader charterarger number of the best known economists than any of the other economic research institutes. The institute, which is located in Moscow, comprises eight sections: Economic Efficiency of Capital Investment and New Technology. Economic Accounting and Economic Problems of Management. Formation of Prices, Economics of Agriculture, General Problems of Political Economy, Department Of the Economy, History of Soviet Economics and Soviet Economic Thought, and Economic Information.

The director of the. Gatovskiy, described the directions of research at the institute as "proportional development" of various sectors of the Soviet economy, efficiency of technological progress and capital theory, and techniques of long-term forecasting. The institute is primarily responsible for research related to the reform of the economic system, studying new systems of management and incentives, and developing more thoroughgoing systems of khozmchet. Studies of the "transition- from socialism to communism, of non-Marxist economic theory, and of the development of socialist and cotrimunist theory also continue to occupy the institute-Much of the econometric research done in the Institute, including that making use of mathematical programming and input-output analysis. Is done in the sections on Economic Efficiency of Capital Investment and New Technology and Economic InJormation. The institute publishes the monthly journal. Voprosy ehonomOci, which is devoted to presentation of the results of theoretical research and to reporting the results of empirical work.

Some of the more important economists active in the work of the institute

are:

Catrmkiy.of the InsOtuw of Economies; Corresponding

Member of the Academy of Sciences; Doctor ofSciences; Processor; bead of section of Economic Accounting and Economic Problems of Management; Chairman of the Council for Economic Accounting and Material Incentives of Production; member of editorial board of Ver-rony ekonomiki; speoallsr In economic theory and Incentives.

Alampiyev, Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor; formerly with

Cosplan; specialist in economic geography.

Allaxbverdyaii.director of the Institute; Doctor of Economic

Sciences; specialist in public finance; also associated with the Moscow Financial Institute.

cd.

Feygin, Ya.C. ..

Cladkov, LA

.

Kheynmnn, SA.

. .

.

. .

Kronrcd,urskiy,vasha, Ya.V. aptev,

Ltbormao.aneWch, YcL.

.

of Economic Sciences; Nauchnvv lolrudnlk; specialist Idpioiireas.

Doctor of Economic Sciences; SrarsAiii nauchnn to-trudnlk. specialist lo public finance and coat theory.

Co-respondinit Member ol the Academy of Sciences. Ukrainian SSH. Doctor of Economic Sciences;head of wctjoo on Location of Industry;in the rWosnajshieel distribution of Induitrul acernties.

Dottot ofocai. head of lett-on on History of Soviet Eeonceraca and Sovietbeaafht;coooeek hkrtory

Doctor of Eeccirxnkc Seteneea. PrcaVvaor; SpecBlJt in agricultural labor

Doctor of ICccciornlc Sciences; mambee of editorial board of EkartomAaKispecialist mfinance Academician. Doctor of Economic Sciences; Prcecssor; head of tub-er-ctlon on the Efficiency of Capital In* vestment; former director of the Inititute of Complea Transportation Prohtemi: chairman of the Council on the Economic Efficiency of Basic Fundi, Capitaland New Technology; chief editor of Vopnjtg ekonomiki; tpeclallit in tram porta tton amiesuaent.

Doctor of Economic Sckocei; rVaucAnyv soenidnst;of the editorial board of* if-iiiiAientioci'pecialistustrial erjtamiarior and labor productivlry.

Corresponding Member of (ha Academy ofnian SSR. Doctor of EconoradC Scsencea.Sfmrahauawe*-art aatrWrttt; apeeiafal In eco rncac history and mduitnal cagantiancanabor aeorkcanlca and the itrucPire of the labor force

Doctor of Economic Sctrr-ora. former deputy director of the Institute; ipecielist In pricing and utaooal income accounting.

Doctor of Economic Sclencea; head of department cei the Economic Efficiency ol Capital Investment, Basic Funds, and New Technology; deputy head of the Council on the Economic Efficiency of Basic Funds, Capital Investment, and New Equipment; specialist in capital investment.

Doctor of Economiceadector, specialist fa Man-ill economic theory.

Doctor of Economic Sciences; apedaual In planning and economic reform.

Deem* of Economic Sct-nsen. specialist In capitaland planning.

Processor, formerly director of the irssntute; Academician Of the AD-Unaon Aaykulf-nel Academypecialist In the scicatattHcs of agiK-aitatn. Candidate of Eccmewrslc Scaroccs. .prcsahs?blie

Doctormomic Sciet-ces. Professor, bead of mb-

secfon on Laborpecialist in labor economics

and living standards. Specialist in wages and incenllves in industry. Deputy director of (he institute, Doctor of Economic

Sciences, Prnfessoi, tpecialli) in technological progreis

and economic history.

.

.

Popov. CM

.

Busanov, Te.S. .

. .

eselkov. FS. .

.

. ..

.

specialist In price* and

Doctor of Economic Sciences;

' Ti v:j

. DoctiH of Economic Sciences. Prolessor; head ofon the Regularity of Baiei and. Proportions of the Economy; tpvcialitt in economic devetupnicnt. planning, and nationalotreipooding Member of the Acaderar of Sciences: Dartot of Economic Sciences. Profctsor; member of (he editorial board ofior-om&JifitBva. formerly chairman of the Department of Political Economy of Moscow State University, specialist In history ofthought and Marillt economic theory. Cormr^thluui Member of the Academy of Sciences. Doc-ex of Economic Sciencei. chairman of Council on the Fewmcs. Planning, andf Industrial Enterprises; former director of (he institute, member o( editorial hoard of Voproni enanoouli; specialistance. Scientific secretary for foreign contacts. Academician: Vice President of the Academy of Sciences; former acadesaK secretary of the Departrueot ofAcademy of Sciences; Professor; Chairman of Council on the Problems of Applied Social Researah, Academy ofember of editorial board of flfOdnsyanrihdunGiednwr otnoihciuya; specials! lo organHabon and management. Doctor of tcf-ion-Jc Scteoces.y nrlucAitvvforsnerly in Scientist Ren arch institute of Labor; specialist in laboroctor of Economic Sciences. Professor. Slarthiy naorAnyty

rorrudnil, specialist in labor economics. Dean of Sovietcademician, former vice* chatmsao of Caspian; former vice-chatnnan of the Council foe Ihe Study of Productive Resources, spe-ciahtt rn Merest ecostonalc theory, history, and statistlc*-Doctor of Economic Sciences. Professor; SterrAay neuchnw

pecialist in demography. Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor; SleoMv flduchnw

lofrui/nil; specialist In agriculturaltrmhtu neucAnwhief, section of Economic Accounting and Eccoomlc Proc-Uni of AdmmuBsfvai;aterial incentive*.

Doctor of Economic Sciences. Prceessor; Clalut ie electric power.

Doctor of Economic Sciences; specialist in Westerntheory and mathematical economic*.

Sa industrial accounting.

Doctor of Ecaasaranercaessor. deputy dirrctor of the institute, formerly chairman of department of Economic* of Foreign Countries. Moscow Statespecialist in the economic*ommunist countries and growth of less developed countries.

Institute of Economics of World Socialist Systems (IEMSS AN SSSR)

The Institute of Economics of World Socialist Systems, establishedonducts research on socialist economies.ogomolov directs this Moscow-based institute which maintains close affiliation with academic departments throughout the USSR. Its main task is to study the development of Ihe economies

in the Communist commonwealth. The institute also Surveys the relationship of Communist countries with themselves and with the rest of the world, and gives support to the Council for Mutual Economic Assistancet publishes many of its findings not only in Russian, but also in selected East European languages.

Some of the economists active at the institute are:

Bogomolov, Director of the Institute; Doctor of Economic Sciences;

former consultant on trade with CEMADeputy director of the institute; Doctor of Economic

t|t* an efflct>acy cfaeeretary of the msbtuta

H>abushkln.Deputy director of the instltuta; Correspond mi Member

of the Academy ofoctor of Economicrofesor, specialist In national income.

Shliayev.chaef {Xtmdk* tupport to CEMA.

Soroiir.Ccirmptmdnu; Member of the Academy of Scirmce-t;

Doctor of Economic Sciences, specialist in economic history of socialist countries.

c. Institute of World Economies ond Internationa! RelationsAN SSSR) The Institute of World Economics and International Relations located in Moscow, which emerged in its present forms concerned withand political research on non-Communist countries.. Inoicmtsev currently directs its staffersons. Tlvo institute's primary mission is to detect changes in the economic and political situation of the world and to assess the significance of these changes in relation to the interests of the USSB.

7 the institute's work was reoriented to deal with specific problems in individual Western countires. Typical research topics deal with international trade. Third World Marxism/Leninism, arms control, and economic planning In Third World countries. The group working on arms control provides support to the Soviet delegation to the Strategic Aims Lomitatioos Talks

The institute publishes its work in monographs and in its monthly fouraal, StirovayaezJidunarodnyye oUvxsheruua (MEMO).

Some economists who are active In recent research of the institute are:

Inorcmtsev. aodidalr member of the Central Committee of the Com-

rI Party; Director of the Institute; Corresponding Member of the Academy ofoctor of Hte-Oml Sciences, meant ar ofoard of MEMO, specialait tnapitalist cceintries.

Aboltjn,dliector of the institute; Doctor of Economic

rofessor; ipeciallit in rson-Corrununut econ-

Bechln,of Economic Sciences; formerly chiefec-

Uon In the Institute of Economics. Academy of Sciences; iprcialtt! in the ecortornir* of (ceeign reentries

Kats.of Lcnrromic Scaertcea; StW-Aay nauAayy aotnuf-

mk; fecmetly in Scientific Research Imtitute of Labor, specialist in international mm par lions of labor

Eeatha.secretary of the ar-Mate

Kudrov,of Economic Sciences, rpecialitt In national income

mcount comparison* among countries and in theof the United Stales.

Miieykoiskiy.Memberhe Academy of Sciences:

Doctor of Economic Sciences; Professor, bead of sub-section for the Study of Economicapitalist Coatatrtm.

Mnofolet,of Econcwnic Sciences. specialist rh American

ement.

NlkiUo,Doctor of Economicfoifiiv naucknpj loitud-

nil. specialist in the economics of non.Communist countries

of Ecoramicformerly at the Moscow

Slate University; member of editorial board of SSAA* I'li-iti'ttiifu. fiolittka. bfeofociini, specialist In economic competition between Use United States and the USSH.

Shapiro,Head of sector for the Future Economic Deveioptisent of

Cacatalism

Sobaluivkih.Special let in comparative meararcs of afrkwltura! activity

among countries.

octor ol Economic Sciersoes; associate editor of MEMO;

StorsAlw nouchnyv BXrWnd.oreign aid

and economicYu-P. Specialai in miBagaatliil

VrtDBjadov, VA Coirespindinc Member of the Academy of Science*.

Doctor of Economiceadector,in labor productivity,

Institute of the United Stole* of Americo The Institute of the United States of America was creatednder the Academy of Sciences,.ember of the editorial board of MEMO, was appointed diroctor. The work of the Institute is centered on the US domestic political milieu and foreign policies, but other topics Including economics, the legal structure, industrial management, business-govornment relations, educational trends, and sociological activity are also covered. The institute staff consists ofrofessionals, some only pert time consultants. In addition tolicy-oriented research, the institute publishes numerous books on specialized American subjects as wellonthly journal, SShA: elnlkij, politika, ideologiya. The staff of the institute endeavors to keepabout American life by subscribing to roost major US periodicals and by maintaining personal contacts both with American visitors to the Soviet Urroo and by travel abroad.

Arbatov. GA ..

Bobrakov.romeka, VJ. ..

Krcmensuk, VA.

.

Sheuhnev.

Some economists active in the institutes research are:

Director of the Institute. Correspond ins; Member of the Academy of Sciences; Doctor of Phueaophica] Sciences, member edrtoruJ board of SSAAoianLe,formerly assoctatrd with IMEMO. Doctor of Econonuc Sciences, headection; specialist

In capitalism and the US economy-Candidate of Economic Sciences, headrcHon;in US mdustriablabon and the technolojjy gap between the Unseed State) end the USSR Candidate of Economic Scsencea. Sleohii/ nouehnyy

Candidate of Economic Sciences; headection. Doctor of Economic Sciences; headection; specialist

in Industrial organisation and labor. Deputy director of the irastAure. Doctor of Economic

SeSences;oreicn trade Candidate of Economic Sciences, headection,in foloign tiade and pohllet.

e. Central Mathematical-Economies Institute (TsEMI AN SSSR)3 the Central Mathematical kconoones Institute of the Academy of Sciences was formed from the following: the Laboratory [or Economic-Mathe-matlcal Methods, the Department of Economic Mathematics of the Computer Center's Laboratory for Programming, the Mathematical Croup of the Institute of Economics* Department on the Economic Efficiency of Capital Investment, the Department of Transportation Cybernetics of the Institute for Complex Transportation Problems, and the Laboratory for Mathematical Methods ol the Council for tho Study of Productive Ilesources.

The main branch of the institute, employingcoesomlsts and mathematicians, is in Moscow with smaller branches in Leningrad and Tallin. The main task of TsEMI is to study optimization in planning and management tad recommend the application of its research findings to specific branches and enterprises of industry- and agriculture. In the course of their theoretical and applied research, members of the institute have pioneered the Soviet use of computers in economics and have developed extensive contacts with planning and economic organs at all levels. Long-standing protects to develop procedures for the application of mathematical methods and computers to plsuining. pricing, and controls are continuing Actual applications of TsEMI research, such as the desvloprnentodel to forecast demand for direct airline passenger service, are regularly reported in Soviet foumals.

The organization of TiEMI consists of four academic departments and one operating department in Moscow- with the Leningrad and Estonian branches treated as two additional academic departments. The five Moscow-basedare the Department of Economic Planning and Forecasting. Department of Theoretical Problerns of the Optimal Functioning of the Socialist Economy, the Department of Systems of Control, the Dep.itmc.it of Mathematics and Computer Technology, and the Department of Material and Technical Services. It also publishes the JournalaUmoticheikbje mgtody sixear. The TsEMI branch in Leningrad specializes in optimal pricing systems, game theory, optimal modal* of the firm, and queueing theory.

Some economists activo In the institute's research are:

F^oreiiii.or Til-MI: Academician; Secretary Ol* theof Economic Sciences. Academy ofof EcoasMe Sciences; Kaierfro ofof the Economy of the USSR; Economicsof Moscow University, chief editoranamtka-melody, specialist inand the chemical Industry.

. . Candidate of Ecoeamic n input-

output analyst* and lesponal input-output rrsodets.

Biirueh,Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences,

Doctor of Economic Scsencea; Professor, member of editorial board of Vnjrroiv ekonom&l; specialist inplanning of Uujzratchtl Inc*tSca* of frrsanee. and use of fined capital

DideriUts, EE.Leningrad branch of TsEMI. specialist In theory ofprice formation, and capital investment.

Colanlkiy. Candidate of Economic Scleorei; SnuiAiy riouchnuy iof-

formerlyf the Labor story of Ecosomic-MstheRuUealcademy of Sciences, spccdlirt Ineeaicaruc* and model build-In*-

Ifl

.

Scientific secretary of the inrtirute, haadepartment.

specialist in mathematical Hoiomln Doctor of Eeorocnk Sdma; beadaboratory t% the institute; lormr.rly with the Inst.tute of Economies; specialist in mathematical economics and theory of op.lanning.

.

Candidate of Economicpeclaliat fn regional de*(looment and in the geographical dotrtbutkon of productive art'vibn Formrrly scientific aecretary of the laboratory for Eco-nmnic-Maiheinatic-.il Methods, Academy of Sciences; deputy chief editor ofatnnaltchnltve melody; rpecialist In capital inveitment and muth-eatiataral economic!.

minn. LTe. octor of Economic Sciatica: we* active an directing

work of Laboratory for Erwncmle-Mameme Ileal Methodi under the Council for tho Study ofRasoutces. USSR, member of ihM couneili ipe-ciallit In mathematical ecoocenici. input-output analytU, ami labor utlluatlon.

Medio. A Deputy director of the institute, ernl-

fMcr department concerned with management iheory; mrmber of editorial board ofaternal!-rAfiifV* mtlodv; ipecialiit In cybernetics and Infortlia-bon tyiteatM.

Oiryni Ovod.. Depot, director of the UsrStute; CaadieUar of Technicalpeciaha* an developing computer techniques to *olve problema of planning, management, and other economic tasks.

Petrakov.Candidate of Economiceadaboratory

In thenotnd economic rnaruuaemrsL

Pugacbev, VP.Member of the Academy of Science*;

CartcUdatc of Technical Sciences. Doraenr, haadaboratory in theathematician who work*

'jr.al planni:ig.

Shataltn,director of the institute. Doctor of Eecooralc

Sctrncas. specaatM tB inpct-eaitput analyse and plaa-runa: merhedcaoer

Smirnov, Doctor of Economic Sctenoo; headaboratory In tho

Iiutitute, ipecialiit in capital investment and Input-output analysis.

f EccwruC Science, member of editorial board

offody; ipectalut in optamal planning, management, and price forma-Boo.

iberian Department of the Academy of Sciences (SO AN SSSft)

The Academy of Science* was the first institute to implement the policy of geographical dispersal of research institutions and personnel byiberian Department in Novosibirskinceomplex of scientific research institutesniversity has evolved into the akodemapro-dok (hteraQy "academicocated aboutiles south of Novosibirsk. The Siberian Department, AN SSSR. consists of0 scientist* from most disciplines, withf them situated at the akademtorodok. GooRiapliical dispt'ttal evidently was promptrd by the following considerations: (a) th* industrial and agricultural development plans for Siberia and the Soviet Far Kast riecessitated greater and improved scientific and technical support, fb) faster application to the economy of seietatific and technical advancesloser working iclalionship between both theoretical and applied

research institutions and productroo organizations, and (c) Dominance ofscientist in the existing icience centers threatened the development and advancement of the creativity of young scientists. The Siberian Department is responsible for research on major long-range problems in basic and applied science and for providing scientific and technical support to State organizations In Siberia and tho Soviet For East.

a. Institute of Economics and Organization of Industrial ProductionPP SO AN)

A.C. Aganbcgyan became Director of the Institute of Economics and the Organization of Industrial Production in7 and immediately brought about the merger of the Laboratory for Ecoooinic- Mathematical Methods. SO AN. with this institute. Since the merger, emphasis in the institute has shifted from primarily labor-oriented sociological research to development of the use of matlsematical methods in economics The institute does numerous studies for Siberian industryee basis.

Institute researchers specialize in applying mathematical methods in planning and sociological research to the mora theoretical problems of the jlevelopment of the eastern regions of the Soviet Union. In addition, some of the more prominent economists have been instrumental inutually related system of national economic irtodeb. The institute, which employsersons, also functionsoordinator of the research of morecientific research institutes, including central and branch laboratories, economic laboratories, and units in Industrial enterprises. The Institute of Economics and Organization of Production publishes two professionalIzcestiya Sibirskogo otdtl-tnlua akademM nauk SSSfl. sertya obihchtstvtnnykh nauk,tganizattiya promythlertnogo proizvodxtoa. The formeroodily series on the social sciences. Including economic topics, while the latter provides, among other things, coverage of eastern regional problems, technicalstudies, and integration of management techniques into the sphere of economics.

Some of the institutes more prominent economists are:

Director of the Institute, Correspondinil Member of

the Academy of Sciences, editor-in -chief ofrompMnmotQ proizvodjKa. member of editorial board ofetemari-cAfjiiini nwrodiy. head of the Economicsof Novosibirsk University, specialist In ose of rrutnean^OcaJeccetornt: rnodeb. optimal planning, and labor economic*.

Alekseyev.of editorial board of MEMO: ipecialttt In lnter-

narsonal comparison* ofuchnn roensdma. tpecuJJrt in labor eco-

n water bansportation In Siberia.

pecialist in labor economics with interns, in regional

Menshiko..Dcsctor of Economic Sciences; Ptatevor: member of the

editorial board of MEMO, former deputy director of 1MEMO; specialist in the US economy.

ciences; specialist in consumer

Oflov,Deputy director of ihe institute; Doctor of Economic Sol-

raoct; ipeculul Invekipmen( of industry and

tl

Fatr-iahev.of Economic Sciences; section chief, specialist in

labor economics.

. Doctor of Eiooooise Science!; Professor; special Mt In

erWerorbe management

Valtutti,of Economic Sciences; heart of department of

Economic Model Buildpecialiit In use of malhe-inatlcal-economicptimal planning,rust economic theory

Zaslasihasi.Mil the Academy of Scarsacca;

Doctor of Enmonalc Setanices, department chief,In agricultural

b. Other Institution! Related to the Institute of Economics and Organization of Industrial Production

Several organizations have close ties with the institute; The Institute of Mathematics. SO AN (Academician and Doctor of Mathematical. Sobolev is the Director) and ib Mathematical-Economics Division work closely with the Institute of Economics and Organization of Industrial Production. Academician and Doctor of Mathematical. Kantorovich is Deputy Director of the Institute of Mathematics, SO ANpecialist inanalysis, computer techniques, and economic-mathematical planning. Kantorovich was Director of the former Laboratory for Economicalathcmatical Methods. SO AN.athematician interested inapplications In economies, also works at the Institute of Mathematics.

B. Executive Departments of the Governmentospkin. USSR

a. The Nature of Research Conducted Under Gosplan, USSR Cosplan (State PlanningSSR, was established1 and subsequently has beenumber of times, most recently inurrently headed byBaybakov. Cosplan primarily is an operationalplanning organization, but the economic research that is conducted under its auspices probably is among the most influential and important performed in the USSR. This research is aimed at perfecting economic plans, improving methods of planning, and finding ways to tighten control over the execution of plans. Because of the comprehensiveness of Soviet economic planning, this research touches practically all aspects of tho economy.

To perform this economic research, Cosplan hasarge group of the best trained and most able eexmomists in the country For the most part, these economists were obtained in conjunction with transfers of research (unctions from the Sovnarkhoz, USSR, which was abolished, and from the Academy of Sciences. In addition, many outstanding individual economists have been brought inart-time consulting basis from the research institutions of the Academy of Sciences and from the VUZy One of the principal features of this group of economists is its heavy weighting with specialists in econometrics and statistics. In addition to those engaged primarily in research in the economic research institutes and La bora tones underumber of outstanding economists are engaged in administrative duties in Cosplan itself. Cosplanthe monthly Journal, PUwoooye khvzt/oystvo.

. ..

DrogichmBkty.

Capon en

CuHTOV, AS

Islanding economists active In the work of CJospUn are: Cheitnao of Caspianowica of rr.irUnWuJeputy chairman of Caspian; Candidate of Economicead of division of Finance* andCoiti; member of editorial board ofaAotveuatoo; specialist in realnd it* uftuia-boo, and the Hat* budget. Doctor of Economicead of division on New Methods of Planning; specialist In optimisation of planning. location of industry,efficiency, and industrial management.

Head of thefor the National Economic

Balance Sheet; specialist in production statistic*.

Member of edltcriil board of Ptonooov* Hhozyoyteo;

special 1st In industrial adminlstiatioii andn agricultural planning.

Caedidaa* of Economic Science*; Dorse*, head of

sub-diviHon on Price Formation of State Priceof Cosplan, head of section In the Economics Faculty, Moscow University; specialist la price lor-loation.

SpecialsBmtneal.

.. andidatr of Economicpecialist Jo ma the-maticnl economic* and input-output. Candidate of Economiceputy head of sob-division tor the Nitiomi Ecoticcr.ie Plan. specialist in plan balances and coraossnptsoas.

octor of Eioncmlchief, National Economic Planning Department.

cademlciaa: also affiliated with the Council fat the

Study of ftoductive. Cancbdat* of Economic Scsencea; Dstt**M. head ofartmeot for Introducing Computer Technique* into Planning; member nf editorial board ofn&iemtuhtiliyt nttcdv, Specialist In the application of mathematical methods in planning. ..octor of Economic Soencei. Professor, also affiliated with Motoow University; specialist In economicand phtn. Deputy Chairman of Coiplan, member of editorial board of Efumc-nika i n srardrsteawtscal ecorurnk* and technolocl-cal progrra*.

ead ol department of Labor Productivity and Labor Resources, member of editorial board of Pfanocoy* specialist tn labor ecooooik*.

Doctor of Economicscearni. member of de-paitmtit of Introducing Computer Techniques Into Plsnnins. also associated with Moscow Institute ol National Economy, specialist in consumption.

Candidate of Economicember of

oo Prices of Cceplan. special is: in prKlng. Specialist In using computers in plan formation.

union republic has its own Gosplan which is responsible for the more localized economic planning tasks within the republic The most influential republic Cosplan in terms of the quality as well as the scope of its work is that of the RSFSR. The Central Scientific Economic Research Institute (TsNIEI)

of Cosplan RSFSR has emphasized such areas of research as distribution of industry among the republic's ecocKtrruc regions, use of capital in industry, and the overall productive efficiency in. Taranov is the institute's director. Yc.V. Kaslmovslciy, Doctor of Economic Sciences, is head of the institute's Department of Labor Productivitypecialist in labor. Protsenkopecialist in input output analysis at the institute.

b. Scientific Research Economic Institute of Gosplan (NIEI Gosplan)"

The Scientific Research Economic Institute of Cosplan. under. Ycfimov, is the most active and influential of the Cosplanengaged in economic research. Established5 and later placed under the USSR Sovnarkhoz, It was transferred to Cosplanhe objectives of the institute are to generalize the cxnciicnce of planning and to suggest methods of resolving planning problems. The two basic areas of its research are management of tho economy in the near term and long-range economic planning.

The institute, which employscientific associates, ten doctors,andidates of economic sciences, pioneered in the field of input-output analysis {interbranch balance analysis according to Russian terminology) in the USSR. Members of the institute have received government prizes for their recent work in Input-output and rriacroccooomic models, the research has dealt with determining optimal relations among plant locations, transportation faculties, and the supply distribution network. The requirements of the economic reform have stimulated research in the areas of planning the level of output, profits and profitability, and full labor expenditures, among others Current research includes methodological work for future input-output tables, for planning the scientific base for the development of the national economy, and for increasing the standard of living for the Soviet consumer. The Institute continues toinput-output analysts and mathematical methods.

A few of the economists active in the institute sue,

Yeiimov.of the ln*tjnite; Academician; Doctor ofScsencea; Profeasof; member of editorialPlanoroiM fcAiJiymyjTco and Ekonomttn Irnafottf. specialist in planningconomic forecasting, andanalysis

Anchiikin,Candidate of Economic Sciences; member of the editorial

board of Seriya ikonomich&ilcava. specialist in eco-ncanic development.

Befaoaov.oi Economic Scaceaces; sector chief, spectalbt tss

Peking

Braglnskty.of Economic Scsencea; Profeasor. specialist in

labor productivity In agnculture and industry.

Doroshln.In pricing and the allocation of labor.

loffe.of Economic Scsencea; specialist in compare-

Ove economic rysfrmt.

Kata,Director of section for Planning and National Economic

Balance Sheet, chairman of Scientific Methodology Commission of NIEI Caspian, specialist in planning methodology

lurichanao,director of ate tresoVflMe; Candidate of Economic

Sciences, tpecstdlat an long-lerm loreeuOng andof economic development

institutes whose titles end with the words CospUr* SSSR are fully subordinate to aisd an integral pan of the Cosplan organkation. Institutes designated pri Condone SSSR are associated with Cosplan but are not actually part of Cosplan. For completeftirssian titles of theee Appendix A.

Drmyibev. i' ..

. Kodovdjy. Ya.Ya-

Lagurin. NS

Uir*ir>d, Vu.

of Economicpcclalut in agricultural economic*.

Candidate of Economic Scieocei; ipociaiiil in dynamic models.

Candidate of EconomicprcuJut in compart-seats of economic ntm|too^nl cornCUe

Candadate of Ecoeneaic Scseatcea; tpecudbt i

lion. labor, and plint.ng. Memberoint Coipian.TsEMI-Moico* State Unlvor-

ilty Project on computeflied planning.

Candidate of Economic Sciences. rfmtaJut in planning the allocatso. of Ubor.

. Candida le of Economic Sciences; head of wb-seeaon on the Standard of Living; specials In wage* and ooo-rumplioo.

Candidate of EconomicpedaJnt in mathe. matical economics with an interest In economic plan-

er Scientific Methods Commission for the Bolonce of the Notional Economy (or Scientific Methodology Commission)

The Scientific Method* Commission for the Balance of the National Economy was created7 under the Academic Council for Scientific Research ofrornics Institute of Cosplan. USSR. Its purpose is to improve merhodokigical work on the maintenance of "economic balance orhe oomirui-sion is responsible for preventing duplication by crordinating the research ofiniHtutions on balancing problems. lit main activities include theand recommendation to Cosplan, USSR, and tho republic gosplans of changes in planning methods that are aimed at facilitating the maintenance of ecrjoornicctive in the commission. fc'ats.. Dorovslikh.. Mayer.

d. Council for ihe Study of Productive Resources (SOPS)

The Council for the Study of Productive Resources was organized by the liistirnte of Economics of the Academy of So ences0 and transferred to Cosplants chief concern is questions of the optimal geograpmcalof coonomic activity, with particular reference to the underdeveloped areas of Siberia, the Far North, and the Far East.

Some of the Council's more outstanding economists are:

Kebatov. NChairman of the Council Ceertsccndmg Member of the

Academy of Sciences. Doctor of Economicrofessor; member of editorial board ofaumeiichedttM mttody; ipecialiit in geographicalof induitnal activities andof Siberia wtth special interest In the chemical Industry.

Battvm,leeretary of the council- apecaafaal lo resrsarea

Ivanchenko.in geographical distribution and utilisation ol

labor.

andidate of Economic ScsenOBS; specialist In regional

development.

chairmanthe ccamesL Doctor of Economtc

Sesasacea; Picflaaui; aproilat in the petroleum

Mel.

Meats, Ufa,e.

. .

Acaderiiieian; Dortfir of Technical Sciences; alto affiliated vHlh Cosplan; Coiitman of Commimon (or the Study of Productive Knaourccs and Natural Be.uurcea.ofpecialist In planning (he use of natural resourcei

Doctor of economic Scienoea; aim sHJ-lrd witf, TaEMI; apeftaJnt aa mathematical economics, haprt^tput analysis, and labor utalraattan. Doctor of Economicrofrrsor; specialist u> technological progress and in geographical distrlbu-tion of induslry, especially the metallurgical and fuel Industries.

Doctor of Economic Sciences; Professor,he aramber industry.

Institute of Complex Transportation Problem* of Gosplan

The Iraritute of Complex Transportation Problems, under Cosplan, USSR,ngages in research on the problems of the development of the national transportation system. It it concerned with research on the coordinated develop-ment of the tjansportatson system, on the coordination of transportation rates and on optimal use of trans porta Don fatalities. Mathematical programming and regional input-output analysis sometimes are used in Its research. Thehat concentrated on the development of its contribution to the five-year plan, "Basic Directions of tho Development ofctive in tho institute. Dmitriyev. the. Livjhits, and Ya.V. Shukstal'.

f. Scientific Research Institute for the Organization of Marrcgement and Norms

The Scientific Research Institute for the Organization of Management and Norms was established0 when the Scientific Research Economic Instjtuto was transferred to Cosplan. The institute endeavors to raise the level ofefficiency by analyzing planning problems, the distribution and use of material resources in the national economy, and the application of scientific principles to organizing industrial management. In recent years the institute has been the Soviet leader in apphcarioos of computers to management problems and has initiated the use of such management tools as "critical path analysis" and the automated system of planning calculations. Current research involves improving the methods of planning, setting norms for material resources and equipment, and organizing industrial management. Oznobin is director of the institute. Vorntnikov is his deputy-.

ontrol Stotisticol Administrotion {TsSU)

a. The Nature of Research Conducted in the Central Statistical Administration

The main tasks of the Central Statistical Adrrunistration are the collection, processing, and dissemination of statistical information. TsSU. however, has been reluctant in implementing new developments in information systems anddespite its responsibility for directing the proposed national computer network Much of TsSUs work is focused on economic balances, major questions of allocation, the evaluation of new accounting and management procedures, and the compilation and improvrrment of various indexes. TsSU also has veto power over the collection and publication of data by other organizations.

As with Cosplan. each republic has its own statistical administrationfor local and regional matters. Man/ ol the economists in the Central Statistical Administration engage in both research and adrrunistraiive work. Among their duties is editing of the monthly' economic and statistical Journal, Vtttnik rtatistik, published by TsSU.

Some of the more prominent economists and statisticians in TsSU are:

f TsSUoaitxn of ministerialor-

rrtasoisdanaj Men bar of (be Academy of Sciences. Pro-

fesaot. specialist In ifstlson.

Belyaltov, Head uf sector on Statlallcs of Capital Contraction.

Eydel'man,ol Economic Sciences, deputy head ol sector

on the National Economic Balance Sheet; specialist

BiS Ya.al natotscal Undooob; ipeoaln* in economic

et

, Deputy director of tho ad rr? in is int Inn of Agricultural

pecialiit in agricultural economics; formerlyin the ferrous metal industry.

bavcherikct. Te-Head of rector on Agricultural Statistic*

Ubol. pj.Deputy head of lector of Labor and Wage Statsabcs.

iov,head of seetot on the Population Census.

Matyukha. tYa.Candidate of Economic Sciences, head of factor on

Family Budgetpecialist in corucmptson.

eputy bead of TlSU; spcoaliu b> itacsncs.

ParUgui.of the sector on Trade Suutica; specialist in

housingeputy director of TaSU; head of the Census Admln-

UtiaOoo; specialist In statistics andLA. Head of sector on Industrial 5ta&*lacs; tpecialail In

industrialrrector of TiSU; head of tector for Computer

Operations; tpeciallst in use of computer* In economic

management.

Stdyarov.- Candidate of Economicead of sector on Price

Statanct and Price Femmataon;srirang.

Stnimum.Doctor of Economic Sciences, also affiliated

with Institute olcademy of ScMnoet; formeily deputy director of TiSU, member ofof TlSU. specialist in connimption. Marxist ecooomic theory, and Sonet economic history.

Tiyriin, LM. of sector on StatJaDcs of Capitalist Coontrtee. ape-

cialltt in compariIK i' indeie* ol Industrial production.

ead ol tector of Labor and Wage Srailiaca

V'looniadov, KXDeputy chief of the department of the NationalBalance; formerly at CcapUn. specialist fcabnUms; irraWty.

Volodarakiy.deputy drrector of TsSU; Doctor of Ecooomicmember of editorial board of fiaooooB*ipecialiit In industrial fUtittlCS-

Yeihov. AXdirector of TsSU; specialist in industrial sataitJc*

and demography.

b. Scientific Research Institute for Planning Computer Centers and Systems of Economic Information (Nil TsSU) The Scientific Research Institute for Planning Computer Centers and Systems of Economic Information of TsSU was3 to introducemethods and computers in statistical accounting. The institute has devoted itself basically lo problems of improving statistical methodology and to developing

and introducing mathematical methods in the collecting, storing, and processing of statistics.esult, it has contributed to the work on input-output analysis and to tho introduction of computer technology Into economic informationThe institute has almostepartments covering all sectors of the economy. Some prominent members of the institute include:

oOyassauy.of the nsststcte. Doctor of Economic Skttnce*;

specialist in demography and mathematicalVdirector of the inslUutr. specialist in raatUUc*.

rUkhntanov.director of the institute.

Stskov.of Economicormerly at Mow*

Ecceoinic SutkOc* InatrtutC;n Indnsenal

SmuJevich. BYs

Doctor of MaJical Sctences; Candidate of Economic fences; former Starmip nrnicAniny scWntk with

Volkov. A.

. Formerly withIrutmjte of Automation and Tele-mechanics;emography.

tate Committee on Prices: Scientific Reseorch Institute on Price Formation (Nil Tsen)

The Nil Tsen. located in Moscow, was established ins an agency of the State Committee onirected by Doctor of Economic Sciences Yu. Yakovets. tho institute Is charged with research on the principles and methods of structuring planned prices- The institute is constantly analyzing the results of wholesale price reform and devising basic improvements of the entire price system.

The problem of using prices as an economic stimulus to technical progress is an important focus of current work. Institute specialists are also engaged in developing methods for forecasting price changes to be incorporated as indexes into annual and long-range plans.

While the past work has centered on wholesale prices, Yakovets recently stated that in thereater research effort will be devoted to retail prices and rates for services performed for the population- He also has proposedin price statistics by providing more up-to-date reporting.

nstitute of Problems of Management

The Institute of Automation andarge and important Soviet institutionhanged its name early0 to the Institute of Problems Of Management At that time, responsibility was shifted from research in purely technical areas to the development of mathematical models for decision-nuking in the scoc-ecoooonic sphere. Recent prefects include research in cluster analysis, econometric modeling, computer simulation, inventory theory, and mathematical programming. All such areas are involvedast manadement information system currently under theoretical development.

Official subordination is assumed jointly under the Academy of Sciences and the Ministry of Instrument Making, Automation, and Control

The Coenraittee on ftsces was art9 under Gospian. USSR, and was headed

byormei deputy minuter of finance. The Committee, with the aid of lit luboidnute republic level commit toes, wai ret po ruble fur carrying out the Ififln-OY reform ol wholesale price* in MduOTy9 ft became an autonomous body reporting directly to (he Council of Ministers

whom the institute is an official consultant The institute is also an adviser to the State Committee for Science and Technology on problems of computerfor management purposes and. especially, standardization of computer application techniques.

. Trapcznifcov heads the institute staff ofincludingraduate students. He is also First Deputy Chairman of the State Committee for Science and Technology.

tote Committee for Construction Affairs (Gosstroy); Scientific Research Institute of Construction Economics (NIIES)

The Scientific Research Institute of Construction Economics was created6 under the Academy of Construction and Architecture, USSR. It wasto the jurisdiction of the State Committee for Construction AffairsSSR, when the adminisrradon of construction was reorganizedt is the principal research organization dealing with applied and tbeoreticai problems in the economics of construction, but much of its most important work is performed in collaboration with other institutes and organizations. The Scientific Research Institute of Construction Economics issues technically oriented manuals and instructions on construction norms and estimates, the employment of building materials, and methodologies for calcuUting the relative efficiency of investment in the construction and building materials industries. The institute participates in input-output work as it affects the construction sector of the Soviet economy and also participates in CEMA meetings that deal with construction in an intra-bloc context.

Candidate of Technical. Corbushln is the Director of the Sdentific Research Institute of Construction Economics. The institute Is organized conventionally into departments, sectors, and laboratories. It alsoentral norm researchcientific council that sponsors conferences on problems in construction economics, and kafedra of higher learning that offer postgraduate work leading to the degree of candidate.

Of the economists who hold positions In the institute, the following are most prominent:

Corbiiihin.of the institute; specialist in the economic* of

ccostracsMD.

a.of Economic Sdencei; former member of the

Initttute of Economics of the Academy* of Construction and Architecture, member of the Scientific Council for Cybernetics, Academy of Science).

Chudnovskiy,of Economic Sciences; head of theof the Materlal-TecJmkal Base ofin building materinit.

Kiyewkiy,of Economic Sesenoss; headector:in the planning of construction.

Rekitar,of Economic Seseoees: specialist in theof building material! and designs.

Rolsbteyn,of Economic Sciences- chief of theof Plannina.

Vaynshteyii,eputy director of the institute; Candidate of Economicember of the Scientific Council on Economic Effectiveness. Academy of Sciences; specialist In tceb-noJcgkal progress in construction.

inistry of Trade: Alt-Union Scientific Research' Institute for the

Study of Consumer Demand and Marketing Conditions (VNIIKS) The All-Union Scientific Research Institute for the Study of Consumer Demand and Marketing Conditions was organized5 under the Ministry of. Khrekin is the institutes director and its deputy director.he institute, which also has branches in the republics, has its owncenter to process data from consumer surveys and othertiomists, commodity specialists, and programmers will implement the institutesand statistical approach to market study.

The Institute's research includes the study of demand for specific products, tho evaluation of general conditions in the consumer goods market, and the forecasting of comurner demand. The institute also participates in planningdistribution and coordinates market research performed by various

tate Committee on Labor and Wages: Scientific Research Institute of Labor (Nil Truda)

The Scientific Research Institute of Labor and its parent organization, the State Committee on Labor and Wages, were created5oncomitant to increased attention being given to labor and wage problems. The research of the institute is focused on fields related to the allocation of labor services, including labor nornu and wage rates, economic Incentives, wage administration, and industrial organization. The institute places considerable emphasis on the application of mathematical methods to economic research and employs numerous specialists in input-output analysis and linear programming The institutes reports frequently appear in the monthly journal SotrtalistKheskVj triad, published by the State Committee on Labor and Wages.

A few of the outstanding economists associated with the work of the institute

are:

ipusbn, V- 1 of the Institute; Doctor of Economic Science*;

Professor; haad of Kafrdra of Political Economy of Moacow University, amber of editorial beard'specialist In laboi economics, particularly wage mailers

. In measurement of real wages and consumption .

Moaberaki).Specialist in wages an noo-ComrmmUT ecowmles.

of Technical Sciences; former head ol the tnsti-

lute; specialist In labor economics

Pravdin.of Eccmomlc Sciences- head of department

of Labor and Wages, ipeciahst in wages.. andidate of Economic Sciences; specialist In labor normi and wages.

I ilf laboratory for Mathematical and StmrusJcal

Methods ol ihe Instrtuta; ipecialiit In income analysis, wage differentials, and mathematical economic*.

Shlthbln,Head of section onoductivity and Utilization

ol Labor Resources

Shkurko. Head of section oneadection ui State

Committee On Labor and Wages; specialiil In wage admtnUtratSeo.

inistry of Foreign Trode: Scientific Insrituto of Market Research (NIKI)

Tho Scientific Institute of Market Research of the Ministry of Foreign Trade, USSR, was establishedts chiefi ties are studying economicin the non-Commiiiiist world and situations in principal world markets, developing long-term forecasts of conditions in the international markets for principal types of Soviet exports, and studying Soviet trading methods. Theprovides research for the Ministry of Foreign Trade as an aid to theof foreign trade policy.

The institute, which employseople, has si* seesSons: Economics of Foreign States, Commodity Markets. Prices, Foreign Commercial Information, Statistics, and Study of Foreign Firms. Tho institute regularly publishes Byulleten' inoitrannotj kommetchttkou informatslieries of papers devoted to more complete studies of particular questions. The Ministry of Foreign Trade's journal. Yneshnyaija torzovUfa. also provides an outlet for the institute's. Orlov is director of the institute.

The Ministry of Foreign Trade also has an Academy of Foreign Trade in Moscow that is almost exclusively devoted to educational activities apd, inan Institute of Foreign Trade in Leningrad thatimited amount of research work. Practically all of the research under the Ministry of Foreign Trade is narrowly specialized commercial research; theoretical research ineconomics Is done primarily In other research organizations.

inistry of Finance* Scientific Research Institute of Finance (NIFI) The Scientific Research Institute of Finance of the Ministry of Finance. USSR, was established6 to provide research support for the parent ministry Since then the institute has acquired duties which include basic research In finance and thr coUection and analysis of statistical material on state budgets, taxes, credit, money flows, and wages in Communist and major non-Communist countries. In addition to its majorgeneralizations of experience in adminJtenng the financialinstitute publishes periodic surveys of financial and currency conditions in foreign countries Many of its reports are published in Finansy SSSR, the monthly journal of the Ministry of Finance. The work of the institute is divided among the following four sections: Budgetary Finance; Finance of Branches of the Economy of the USSR; Credit and Monetary Circulation in the USSR; and Finance, Money, and Credit in Foreign Countries.

More currently the institute has conducted naearch on the role of finances in economic operations under the newly reformed system of organization and management- In addition, it has continued its work on capital investment Inand khozraschet in agriculture.

A few ofnomists associated with the work of the Scientific Research Institute of Finance are:

Kosyachcnko.irector of tho Institute; Professor, specialist In profit lnde-.es. and Soviet financial history.

Lavrov,Specialistublic finance, accounting, and

Lushm.of Eceeasreac Sciencea. head of sector for

Apprantseat of Mathesriastseal Methods in Financial Planning.

Rynmin.director of the institute; member ol editorial

board of I'iniiiiv SSSR; specialist in industrial

Candidate ol Economic Sciences; head^ m

Agricultural Finances; specialist to finance, credit.

and coil accounting indirector of tho .nwitutc; Doctor of Economic

Seiencci; specialist in of Economic Scwncea- Sunhlv neucrint-o

he economics of eduoatir

ti'>ii.

inistry of Agriculture

The Ministry of Agriculture. USSR, headed. Matskcvich. hascontrol over the primary organs specializing in agricultural coortomlos research. Most of the important research work within the structure of the Ministry is believed to be carried out by two orgjmrattom the All-Union ScientificInstitute of Agricultural Economicsnd the Department or Economics and Organization of Agriculture of the AU-Unlon Academy of Agricultural Sciences named. Leninhe lormerwas establishedhe latter*

In recent years, the work programs of both VMIESKh and VASKhNlLappear to be focused on common research tasks, which taken together with other evidence, suggest close coordination of functions and possiblyof some facilities ami staffs (for example, libraries and administrativehe research effort of both groups is directed to the formulation of planning for the overall development of agriculture. In addition, the studios of both organizations tend to focus on similar topics: land use. labor productivity and incentives, regional distribution of crops and livestock, agricultural prices and finance, and standardized cost accounting for collective and state farms.

A few of the economists active in the work of the two research groups are:

a. All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Economics (VNIIESKh)

Alekiandiov, Nr. Director of the institute' Correspond!nit Member o(

VASKhNlL: rocmhet of the editorial beard ofsefsiorfo aAossssntatoa

.ooomlc Sesenoes; head ofgricultural pricing.

Kotov, CO.of Ecooooik Sciences; spccialiit In agricultural

labor.

eenrty objector of the mtUrate Doctor of Eccamenac

Sconces; specialist in the application of computers to agricultural management

Lepkes.of Agricultural Sciences; specialist Inperformance In agriculture amonght fatastog raeshods.

Mityiisblon. TCandidate of Economic Sciences, head of lection on

Finarice* and Record Keeping in Agriculturalspecialist in agricultural accounting.

nmakov. C eputy director of the Institute. Candidate of Asmcultural

Screoees. spec sal ist in sgrv-jlecral accounting

andidate of Agneultuml Science*;la invest-

ment, supply, and organization in agriculture.

"VASKhNlL tj not to be confused anth the Agrkultural Academy named for KA. Tlaairyarev. BachJimm. both effer advanced training and research, but only VASKhNlL memhetl are rnniW to the ran* of seadcmlCMri

b. Deportment of Economics and Organization of Agriculture of the All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences named. Lenin (VASKhNIL)

L.M. Corresponding Mem her of VASKhNIL; Pro lessor.

Kofc

Academy of Agriculture. Ukrainianof VASKhNIL; DoctormUchead of the department of OTiunaationAgricultural Enterprises at the MoscowAcademy namedgricultural organisation and

.

..

AeaasHrric trcseUrv of the department, mraber ofboard of Etooomateo.in agricultural management andCorreepoodmc Member of. Corresponding Member of VASKhNIL. Doctor ofSciences; former director ofroad range of agricultural economic mat-

ember of VASKhNIL; Doctor of Eco-

nomic Sciences.

Senteyev, Member of VASKhNIL; apaclalist In

cost and productivity in

TMomirov,Member of VASKhNIL; Doctor ofSciencea; director of tho Siberianthe Scsentlflc Research Institute ofspecialist in mechanirattan.

Tikhooov.Member of VASKhNIL. Doctor ofScirsxes. director of AU-Unionlartitute of Aasicvdtural LaborWajjearaacanlW aain agriculture.

loaopnaVor.Member of VASKhNIL. Doctor ofSciences; director of the AS.UnionScientific-Technical Informal tori ondirector of VNIIESKh.

Udachln, SA.Academician of VASKhNIL; head of department of

the Moscow Institute ol Land Survey Engineers,of editorial board of AaminmuVa uFii-.g; khot-ua^rtoav specialist in the problems of land utilization.

octor of Economicorreipondmg Member

of VASKhNIL; FroO*..

tate Committee for Science ond Technology (SCST)

The USSR State Committee for Science and Technology was created in5 on the basis of the former State Committee for Coordination of Scientific Research Work, USSR. Where the old committee had been responsible only for coordinating research and development in all phase* of Soviet science, the SCST is now the official director of such activity. In relation to economics, the SCST is the Soviet Union's executive agent in uncovering useful innovations and discoveries in applied economic fields, seeing that they are further developed in the appropriate ministry or academy research irtstitute. and following up to make sure that the process as evolved is applied most efficiently in the Soviet economy. In addition, together with the Ministry of Finance, the Academy of Sciences, and Cosplan. the Committee draws up the budget for all research and development.

The SCST ti headed. Kirillin, Academician and former. Trar>ezniitov. Academician and head of the Institute of Problems of Management, Is Kirtllin's first deputy minister.ecently elected

responding Member of the Academy, Is one of several deputy ministers. Under the aegis of Cvishiani the SCST has apparently assumed command of rnost research and development with regard to rnariageriwDi otgamization and techniques Thisroh is earned out either in SCST subordinaten institute* specifically deiignaled by them. The Institute of Economic Administration (see section C.as set up0 and is the first Soviet institute dealing exclusively with research on problems of economic management.

C. Universities ond Educetionol Institutes

Higher education for ccoooniists is providod bypecialized engineering, economic, economic, financial, and trade institutes. One hundred and eighty economics faculties exist in universities and technical and agricultural institutes. In addition to maintaining fairly heavy teaching loads, members of the eco-nonuc faculties of these institutions engage in some research. Those institutions that peiform research of relatively high quality and employ the morepersonnel are discussed below.

I. Moscow State University (MGU) named for AA.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, the largest and most prominent institution of higher education in the USSR, has an Economics Faculty that is divided intohairs, or kafeilra: Political Economy, History of the National Economy and Economic Thought. Economics of Foreign Countries, Economics of Planning In Industry, Economics of Planning In Agriculture. Statistics and Accounting, Analysis of Economic Activity ofrprises. Mathematical Methods in Eeofvomic Analysis (Economicconomics of labor. Planning of the National Economy, and Population.

The members of each of those departments conduct research primarilyheoretical character on problems within their fields of socialization. The universityoothly journal. Vest nil; Moskocskogo imtortiteta,pecial economics series, Sertye ekorunuko.noothry.

Some of the members of the Economics Faculty are as follows;

Solodkov, PreaVasor; editor.In-chief Veffni* Mortocrfc*,

. mOa

BwlLof Ecoeorttc Scimces. Professor, head of Kaftdra

Of Ptannmi of the National rkonomy. member of edS-tonal board of Veafnd Motiovtkofa vnerwrsttafa, srmva rfono-uia; apecialtil In nsaconomic plannlnc, and the US economy.

Boyarsiiy.Prafatc* ofies; bead of Ka/euVo of

Statsallcs andxrector. Scientific Beseareh Institute of rhe Central Sutastical Adm misers tie*,tn isvatfaearaiticaland demoBraphy

Cheproiov.editorial board ofapi-

Uliim.

Cherlrovetj.of political economy.

Chemyafc,CandsdaU of Economicrmetfy at the Cen-

tral MstJicmaticalsn'tute.hi computers. UJormatjon systems, and Input-outpvit

Dadayan,of Economic Sciences; deputy head ol Kajedta

of Mathematical Methods In Economic Analysis; also at the Central Mathematical Economics Institute; spe-esalril in optimalrices, and economic

edorenko. NP. Cusarov,.

Kspuuffi, Ya.I..

. ..

..

Maymlnss. EX. ..

..

Pletnev,

..

Tstur,

Tsagolov. NA.

.aleotey. DJ. ..

.

.

of Economicpecialist In the US ecoo-omy.

Head of Kafrdr* of Ecocaamac Cybernetics, ana Central Mathematlcal-Econornica Institute

Head ol lectio in the Economic* Faculty, aho affiliated with Cosplan.

See Scwolifie Rear arch Iraaaeotr of Labor

Acardrrnkan. Profewr of MaUsrssaalsci:athematics and information theory 'not analthough be baa contributed to Soviet eeencenic

Doctcn of Economic Sclencei. specialist in relatlenihip of land to other facton of production under socialism.

Doctor of Economicotrenf; specialist Inand itatBtlcs.

See Council for tlte Study of Productive Resources.

Doctor of Economic Sciences; head of Kafedra ofand Planning of Industry; specialist in the machine building industry.

Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, Kqjedra of Political Economy; specialist in enterprise operations and collective farm organization.

Doctor of Economic Sciences,

Doctor of Historical Sciences; Professor.

Doctor of Economic Sciences, laboratory chiefon management problems. See Council for the Study of Productive Resources. See Institute of Economics of World Socialist Systems.

Doctor of Economic Sciences; Professor; member ofboard of Vest nit MoatotinVogo untoe'iiteM, wriya tkonemtka; spectallst in Msrnst economic theory and aJioudnAet.

Doctor of Economic Sciences; Professor; head of Kafedra of Bookkeeping and Analysis of Economic Activity of Enterprises, member of editorial board of VtitflA Mos-kovskoto imrMrsiretst, serioa ekenomika, specialist In industrial accounting.

Doctor of Economic Sciences. Professor. Kafedra ofEconomy of Economics Faculty; member ofboard of Vestnik Moskowlogo unhxrtXeta,konomika; specialist in Marxist economic theory and the history of economic thought,

Dorernf.

Doctor of Ecooomic Sciences; Professor; icienUftcCenter for Study of Population Problems.

Candidate of Economic Sciences; JCa/adVd of Political Economy; member of editorial board of lettni* Mor-kovskogo umorrjifero, seriue ekonomlka; specialist In price formation, demography, and labor.

Candidate of Economic Sciences, Dotunt, Kafedra of Political Econcmy; specialist in agritrultuial economics.

Doctor of Technical Sciences; Professor; specialist in computers and linear programming.

Doctor of Economicrofessor. Kafedra ofof Planning In Agriculture, specialist Inorganization.

State University (LGU) named. Zhdanov

The universityemi-monthly journaluarterly economic series. Veitnlk Lewnxradikogo unir-ernfera. serayd ekooomiia.rate. Some of the members of the economics faculty are:

Blyaknman, Doctor ol Itranosnlcpeeds lisl in in-

duitrial labor evorainuc* and economics ofof the unvrn.iy'i Laboratory fee Economic

Investigations.

Romanchenko, CP. .octor ol Economic Scienter. specialist in agncullmal economics.

Tikhomrrov,Head of Kaftdra of Economlct.

TITpunov,of Kaftdra of the Economic* of Contemporary

Camtakna.

Institute of National Economy (MINKh) named for

The institute grew outrsmmetcial training institute organized6hen, as now, its formal function was to trainpersonnel for industry and government. At present, the institute0 students In all faculties, andtudents annually, largely employed in the top levels of the central economic organizations (Cosplan, Cossnab, andhe institutes su faculties are economics of trade, economics of commodities, economics of technology, accounting, economics and planning of state supply, and planning and administration of industrialew of the institute's economists arc:

Barman, KM.of the mstUuit. Doctor of Economic Science);

brad of Kafedra of Finance and Credit; speciallit in

financef Economicpecialut In amortjration,

coat calculation, andof EconomicWtaaor; wecialnt In

plaarning. energy-ndoctor of Economic Sciences; Profiooi. also affiliated

with the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for the

Study of Consumer Demand and Marketing Conditions;

specialist laoctor of EcccocMc Sciences. Prrfiaaot. head of Kaftdra

of the Economics of Industry; specialist in productive

efficiency in industry.octor of Economic Sciences; head of Kafedra of tho

Economics and Organ Ira lion of Industrial Enterprise*;

specialist in organising and planning industrul pro-

dnetltse,

Khanelss.of Economic Sciences, aho affiliated with the

Scientific Research Institute of the Centrallair ation; special 1st In consumptionEof Economic Sciences. Professor, specialist In In-

dustrial arganiatioo and materlal-Wchiucal supply.

Marry.Doctor of Ecobkcbsc Sciences.ndta

number theory and if statics.

Ozlra.ol Economic .Sciences; dean. Facultymi lion of Industrialat Harvard Business School, specialist in

octor ofScsraces; aho associated with Cot-

plan, specials! in consumption

Doctor vf Economic Sciences, specialist in long-term

planntug of investment.

TureUkly. Doctor of Economic Sciences; Profead ol Kafedra

of Special Economic Problems; specialist in costs of production, pricing, economic balances, and coniump-tloo-

Financial Institute

Tho Moscow Financial Institute, foundedrains specialists inand finance for work in industrial enterprises and in governmental financial organs. The institute consists of five faculties: finance, credit, accounting, inter, national finance, and computers and mechanical data processing.

Among the economists on the faculty of the institute are:. . . Rector of the imaftuta.

Auakhverdyen,Doctor of Economic Sciences Professor; deputy chairman

of Council for Cost Accounling and Material Incentives; also affiliated with the Institute of Economics.of Sciences, specialist in public finance and financial planning

Adas. MS Doctor of Economic Sciences; Professor, specialist in

pubis- finance, bankmg. and ManM ecooc-UcMm. 7 Doctor of Economic Sciences. Professor, specialist in

money flow* and

. . Doctor of Economic Sciences, StarAiy nauennvv sorrud-

pecialist in finance and Doctor of Economic Sciences: Professor, head of Kafedra

of Surrstics; specialist In mathematical model building.

statistical theory, and consumptionof Ecooomk Sciences. Professor.

Finance-Economics Institute named. Voxntsenskiy

The Leningrad Finance-Economics Institute, foundedffers courses in finance and credit, industrial organization and management, statistics, and accounting. Its main task is to train finance and accounting personnel forenterprises and governmental organizations

A few of the ecooomists on the faculty of the instituteProfessor of Finance.

Kan tor,of Ecooomic Sciences, specialist In pilot formation

and industrial finance andof the matituie.

Roeshtayn.Doctor of Ecooomic Sciences:aad of Kafedra

of SuwricB; apeeiahat tn industrial lUUBtscs.

Economic Statistics Institute (MESI)

The Moscow Economic Statistics Institute, createdn statistics and mechanized data processing for work in various state organizations. Research at the institute concentrates on the application oftechniques to rather narrowly defined economic problems in such areas as quality control, the analysis of wage scales, and the study of housing needs The institute offers courses in industrial and transportation statistics, demographic studies, and automatic data processing.

Among the economists doing research at the Institute arc:

Baklanov, Professor; head of Kafedra of Industrial Statirtics; spe-

etahlt fea iraoustrial ilstueics-

Ere remind!. Head ei Kafedra of Economic Statistics

Korokrv. HA Director of the institute; Doctor of EecasooWc Scwncet;

rprclelbt in data peecewng and computer lartguages. Ovne.ikq,. . . Mead of Kafedra of St.ili.tica! Theory.

Enginecring-Eccflomics Institute named for S. Ordzhonikidze

The most recent research efforts of the Moscow Engineering-Economics Institute, createdave been concentrated on improving control ofproduction and introducing computer technology into management. The instituteaboratory for the Economics and Organization of Production. Courses offered at the institute cover the organization and management of the machine building, chemical, power, automotive transport, and air transportThe institutes director.. Kozlova,octor ofsciencespecialist in economic managemenL

Engineering-Economics Institute named for Toryatti

The Leningrad Engineering-Economics Institute, foundedhough primarily an engineering school, offers some training in economics, especially in terms of the organization and management of various branches of the economy. The institute offers courses dealing with the machine building, automotive transport, and the chemical and power industries.

of Economic Administration

The Institute of Economic Administration, under the State Committee for Science and Technology, opened Inince thohe USSR has shown an increasing interest in management techniques used in market economies, with special emphasis on the American setting. The more liberal Soviet loaders appear to be persuaded that the adoption of Western Innovations in modern managerial methods can Improve efficiency. The major advocate for employing Western techniques. Cvishiani. who was active in dcternuning the role of the institute. It is concerned with upgrading the skills of management personnel, and Its students arc restricted to leaders in government and industry. The current course consists of three months of intensive instructionrief. refresher program planned after five years. At present no research is performed, only training from four kafedra: social-eoonomic sciences, economic-mathematical pfenning methods, administration and forecasting, and sociological andaspects of management

The rector of the new Institute is Vitally Shorin, Doctor of Technical Sciences,. Fedorov is head of Ii>struction. Lecturers are leading scientists and specialists, with as many aspeakers scheduled during the three-month program.

D. Input-Output Analysis In the Soviet Union

In the pastears, input-output analysis has attracted ever greater attention among Soviet economists and statisticians as an important tool of quantitative economics and as an aid in economic planning. To date they have constructed two complete ex post national tables0 and, several regional tables, and some ex ante (planning) tables. The published tables are in value terms, but tables in physical units apparendy have also been constructed. Recently it was announced2 input-output table would be constructed. The input-output tables have been used to construct both static models and dynamic models for planning. Use of the tables In planning is still experimental. However, claims have been made that the five-year plans have been influenced by input-output models.

Much of the centralized input-output work in the Soviet Union takes place In the Scientific Research Institutes of Cosplan and the Central Statistical Ad-mmiitration. Soviet input-output specialists, however, are widely distributed, with contributors corning from TsEMI, Moscow State University, the Siberianof the Academy of Sciences, and other economic and mathematical research oigsuiiiarions.

The following list (not meant to be comprehensive) identifies input-output specialists with their particular specialty:

Soviet Specialists in Input-Output Analysis, with Their Affiliationseneral Specialists (Theory, Application, Dynamic Models)

Aginbesjyan,PP

VP. Belkin. IE AN SSSR

l.i- Berrl Motcow State University

Yul. Chemynk, Tit MI

V.S. Dadayan, Moscow State University

MB. EydeTman. Nil TsSU

dler, unknown

A.C. Cranborg,PP

F I. Klouvog. NIE1 Cosplan

A Kornin. Cosplan

Yu.R. Ulhklort, NIE1 Corplan

B.N. Mlklialevskly, TiEMI

inobln, Ml Planning and Norms

SS. Shatalin. TiEMI

hvyikov. unknown

DM Smekhov, Moscow Institute of the

National. Yaflmov.oipTan

Input-Output Models

aranov,ekbdxe..osplan

in Inpot-Output

RA. Betoosev. NIEI Cosplan II Dtaraahin. NIEI Cosplan

Minb.. Modln. TiEMI AD. Smimov. TsEMI

DYa

Capitol in Input-Output

O D. ProCsenko. Cosplan RSFSR C. Simakova, unknown

Yu.V. Sukhotln. IE AN SSSR

Other Economists

In this section are listed other important research economists who have not been clearly identifiedarticular research organization or whoseIs not described elsewhere In Section IV.

Alelwandrov,director of the Institute of Atomic Energy;

Doctor of PhyisceJ-Matfaematical Sciences; specialist In the economics of nuclear power enipneering in the USSR.

Arkhipov, Candidate of Economic Sciences; Council of Ministers,

USSR; specialist In agricultural finances.

Ashimbeyev,Institute of Economics. Academy of Sciences. Kaukh

SSR: specialist In the Kazakh economy.

Baahin, Directorepartment of the Central Sc-nO/ie Re-

letrch Institute of Technical Economic Reaearch and Scsentafic hsformatrtn.lannmg

Besyuk.of Eeranomac Sciericea.In agrscornmal

orgtousoocheof mathematicalgrif-Jtuial econorauca

of Ecooomic Sciences, mranbet of Stalefor VecataanalTechnkcalspecialisttraining and utlhtaUoo of industrial workers.

Tfi

Berg.specn cybernetics.

Ben,Doc toe of Economic Sciences, Professor; Chair ofSciences of the Academy of SocialCeaCral Ccanmittee. fottnrr director ofInstitute for Admmiitralion andlanning, management, and consumption.

Kaverman.of Economic Scicncai. specialist Inecooomica.

Kaplan, LL . of laboratory on Prcoierrn of rhe Eeonomc* of

Pubue Education at Moscow Pedagogical Institute; iperuliil in labor economic*.

Konnfk. Candidate of Economicpecialist in finance.

henas ll iy, LL .krainian Scientific Research IniUtvile of Trade, spe-

Ctalist an cor^intptioD. Kudryavtaev, AS . . octoroocmicmfriaor. All-UnionTradeZ, specialist in lohor

. of State and Law, Academy ofpe-

ciahat in rhe legal righto of eeaerpriae*

. Corre*twodrnc; Mcmhee. Academy ofspecialist

in economic organisation and Martiu economic theory.

Libermun, Ye.C. Doctor of Economicrofetwor. chairman of the

department of Political Economy of Khar"kovtaiMg-Ecoeiomtc Institute, specialist in economic or-cantiauon. management methods, and incentlvri

Lisschkin,of Economic Sciences; Professor; sector head

Inatitnte for Concrete Social lleseaicb; formerly with

Lyar.oV AM Headafedra of Kazan'ooenc InsC-

tute. specialist in the planning ol financial balances for economy.

t Academy of Social Sciences of the Central

Cc-ninittee of the Ccanaoonist Party of the Soviet Union. Kaftdra ol EccoocUc Sctmes.nOlUiOOn of consumer goods and Marxist economic theory.

Malafeyev, Candidate of Economicasistory of

Soviot price formation; specialist in pricing.

Mivreoberg.chairman of State Committee on Price Formation.

Moromv.of Economic Science*, deputy dirvefcx of

the All-Union Institute for Sciennftc.Technical Informs-boo on Agriculture.

Nearoly,in ccJlectiv* farm financor

Okhapkln,In rtmuneratlon In collective farms.

Orlov, Ye-of Ecoacetiac Sciences, specialist so the dis-

tribntlon of cocsnmrr goons Perevedontsev,andidate of Economic Sciences, formerly at theof Economics and Organ!ration of Industrial Pro ducoon. Siberian Department. Academy of Sciences; currently at the Institnte of World Trade Ueaon Movements; specialist in population migration and canausei.

nstitute of World Trada Union Movements, specialist

la wages and labor.

Plyshevskiy.of Ecoooeaic Sciroces. ipecudst in naCooal

income accounting.

. Acadeiniclsn; Professor, headection of theInititute named for VA. Sleklov; awho specialise* in the application ofto basic economic problems.

Sarkisyan. andidate of Economic Sciences, specialist in (onnimptao

and Income.

Shvyrkov,pecialist in systems for classifying Soviet Imlui trial

f the Planning Economic! Administration of the

Ministry of Trade; specialist In planning and (be do-

velopment of ratal)In econometrics, wllh interest in the aggregate

unction of the USSR. Sokhatevskiy. Yu.B. . eputy chairman of Stale Committee on Labor and

Wagei.

iiifrt Department of Economics of the Academy of

Social Selene of the Central Committee of the CPSU; specialist in agricultural economic).

Terefchcv.CandadaM of economicead of Kafedra of

Mathematical Methodi in Planning of Kic IcsEOite of National tcooomy. apecmllal lo Mar oat economic theory.ecosacanics. and optimal planom;

Terent'yev.Chief of the ccoracaauca ivauo of the Department of

Eccaaraavittrad Planning. Ministry of Agr>-carfurc. ipecialiit tn agnculrural finance*.

Tilhonov, Doctor of Eecmoroic Sciences; Professor; head of the

Leningrad affihale of the Imtrtute of World Trade Union Mnvemrnts, membei of editorial board of MEMO; ipeciallil in labor economics and labor history.

orm ponding Member ol the Academy of Sciencea.

Doctor of Historic a) Sciencea; director of-the Inttltuta of World Trade Unionember of theboard of MEMO, specialist In labor economic! and labor history.

Vaag,Doctor of Economic Sciences; deputy department head

and Techno and Tech-Sciences; spe-

technological

SCST; specialist in price formation and industrialtitr at Ion.

Director of the Central Scientific logical Planning Institute for the

DOlogy Of Control. Doctor of

cialist in i

.

.

of the Academy of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR; Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences. Doctor of Economic Sciences; former director.of Economics, Academy of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR; specialist Id labor economics. Candidate of Economic Sciences; member of Stateon Material-Technical Supply; specialist inplanning and use of computer techniques in man-agement.

Necrology

Some of the more prominent economists who have died since the publication of the last edition of the Survey of Soviet Economists and Economic Research Organizations are;

Dyachenko.Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences;

Doctor ol Ecooomic Sciences; Professor; chairman of the Council on Scientific Principles for Pricebead of department on Formation of Prices of the Institute of Economics: former director of the Institute; member of editorial board of Voproiv ekonomtki;in public finance, banking, and price formation.

Klimenko, KI. . .of Economic Sciences; specialist in the machine

building industry and technological progress at the Institute of Economics.

Komu,In consumption theory.

Kovalev,ofomputer center.

.

.

.

. Sololov. MM.

Vaymhtevn. AX-

of Economic Sclanoot, Sunhly vlnidmi at theconomics Inititute.of editorial board oforemrNicnestiu* metody; Profetaor In Kafedra of Mathematical Analyst of the Economy of the USSR, of the Economici Faculty. Motcow Univanity,he theory of optimal pb ruling and economic cybarneno

CorrejpocdmjE Member of the Academy of Scenery directorrnglad branch of the Central Math-ema^alEconoanaci Institute. Doctor of Economicrotestor, membri of editorial board of Eio-aaKikaprcialrst ineiomrnn. optunaJ planning, and economic mamgenient.

Academician; Doctur of Economic Sciences; chairman of the Council onEconomic Regularity of theof Socialitm and lu Transition to Communiam; ipwialrst in Mniiit economic theory at the Council for the Study of Productive Heiource*.

Chief editor of WstniS SlaiirtWi, Central StatisticalSector Chief.

Dean of Faculty of Ecommk-i. Moscow State University; Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, head of Kfl-jtdra ci Economics of Planning In Agriculture: formerly Chief Editor of Vewas* MeafmeaamtM luucmrfcffl.gricultural eranoanaca. particularly (he jricme of acrrccitural products

Doctor of Lccaaoanac Scietvea. Professor.at the Central Matr^rnsttc^ Lcoocamcs Iain tote, member of the Presidium of the Council for theof Mathematics and Coinpulen in Economic Re-search and Planning; specialist in economic andstatistics and comparative measures ofactivity among rmintnei

Former Minister of Finance, USSR; Doctor of Economic Sciences; (peciallst in finance at the Institute of Eco-

blank page

Transliterated and Translated Titles of Institutes and Organizations

iXTmsmcrat,'ondesignations

(and the. abb.evutt.ons) for the several institutes referred to in translated form in trie text,

* of<* USSR (Akademly. Naulc. SSSR-AN SSSR)

ET,i, ^ANof tcooceuci (InrttutN SSSR-IE AN SSSR)

SMI" rfUn'rU,SMatam Ameriki-

T iSrucLT,^ ECOn0,DIC* ,Wt,lo,e (Tserm-alnyyaulko-matcmatteb^

'l,^e'l, ACade,,ly "AN SSSR-SO

9 <DdofProduction (latftut otdeleWya. ANPP

oaplan USSR (GotucUntvennyy planovoy kccaltac, SSSR}.

ZSSZl^^J?te(Tientrol-nyy na.cW

I3-

on Prices

bewbrMOvan'*' ^dantvormogo komitet.

ational Economy (Komissty.

'fl'ofSSR (Sovet po tocneoiyu promoditcl oyUj sit pri Cosplane,

lEUMkrOTiCWhtQ"

Ll^SfProblem, of Coiptan. USSRomplckmvkh transpnttnykh problem pri Cosplarw, SSSR).

am Compute, Center of CoipUn (Clavnyv vychulitel'nyy tm*ne-CVTs).

fand Norm, iNauchno. Novate!,by lnstlturosnUne).

&Tsentral-noyeScientific Research Inititute for PUnnlne Comoutcr Cmr-r,

otem ekonom.ehcskoy infornwuij. TsSU. SSSR-NII TsSU SSSR).

cientific fteaeareh Irari title at Comtructton Economies (Nauthno-iaalexlovatcl'skiy iintitul ckononukl

All Union Scientific Research IiKtitute for tho Snarly of Cvmunwr Demand and1 haling(Vanoywzrr naaeWatntodovaiaiihiy inatahit po Uucltanryu ratroaa usekmya na aavaiy naradnoapon'yucktury lartaaela VMIKS).

rfute of Labor (Nasichoo trsbdo.inaOrutNil Traaaai).

SA Scientific lasOnilr of Marketfwiy.

c-MH, Imtiujte of Faaanoe {NaaKtaw^aiMoAatrlUty finansrsvyy mttJu,

Baanitbmma hnanaov.28 Al-Umoo Scaesitsfac Research Iman.Ir of Agricultural rjcnnnrnirs (Varaoyumyy navchno-

iKlr-imalHUiy rrrtbtuinonriki H'akogo khorya>it>> B. Department of Economics and Organisation of Agrrtadture of the All-Union Academy

of Agricultural Sciences named. Lenin (Vaeaoyuinaye akademiya ael liokhoiya-

y.tvonnykh nauk linrnl VI.30 Moscow State(Mntknvskly otdenamnardena liudirvotro kraanogo

mameniunl.ersitet.

Lenliigrad Staleeningrad akiy ordena Lenlna Boaudaiitvonnyy unrveraliet.

Moacow Institute of National Economy IMoakovakly ordena trudovugn kiainogu mamcni Imtitut narodnogo khnryaystva.

Moteow Financial Institute IMmkovskiy finaniovyy

Lamingrad innance-Economics Inuitute (Lenlogiadikly fInamovo elmnomlchcakiy

oscow Economics Stacsties Institute tMoakovakiy ekoriomtkivitsluttcheildyMESI).

Engineering Economics Inrtitule (Moakonkly sriahossenioekimamichmkiYUnenl S

eningrad Eaffarrrlag Ecceorn-cs Intitule (Lanlogradtkly iniiwranio-ckonoimcrveiLy imtHut)

3S Irjctutc of ftobkrms cf Management (InWitut problem easravienll).

Cornmitbre for Science and Techoralogy (Ccrtiadaeitveruify komitetekhnuii.

Transliterated and Translated Titles of Journals

The following list of transliterated and translated journals is not intended to be an exhaustive compendium of economic journals. Journals are included only If they are mentioned in the text as the publicationarticular institute or if their editors are described.

I. ByoHeien* inoitrannoyn/ormenu (Biilktin of Foreign Commercial In-

2 ittfif IMoney and Credit).

aiffOlkhcikib" mttodu (Economics and Mathematical MeUvodi)

ipromyiAfVnflcwo pnHanxlaua (Economics and Organisation of Indus trie! Production).

Ecosscanac* of Agriculture).

FManay SSSft (Fiosnees of the USSR)

kedema rtsul. SSSR. ttrtya rkonrmMtmAaya (Newt of the Academy of Scic.-iers. USSR, Economic Series).

ibirAoga otdateniw nWrmli 'auk, SSSR, nauk

{News of the Siberian Department of the Academy of Sdeneet. USSR. Social Sciences Sertea).

lreniiiraiAotBaTodnvve(World Economics and loaranass-ttooal

aAoryopnFuo (Planned Economy)

SouUlUiicriexttu trud (Socialist labor)

It SSAA tkommAa. pcltuka. ideofogiso (USA; Economics. Politica, Ideology).

Va/OUi otsrfimui nauk, SSSft (Herald of the Academy of Sciences, USSR).

Vesfiu* Uwervbkwofriiat tkovm&n. tiiamotiy. rsraco (HataU of Leningrad Utrrcenrty. EcoaCwncs. Philosophy. Law Series).

sJooraogo sMmetsiUto, aretsr* rtonomAe (Herald of Moscow University, rkortorruc* Series).

Herald of Vh.^ihvji.'.Foreign Trade).

ckonomlH (Pwtlemi of Economic*).

blank page

Addresses of Research Institutes and Organizations

Niuk, SSSR Oidelenlye ckc^ortiich^Lilh nttill, AN

Insalut ckonormkl, AN SSSR

Irnf.(u( ekonomik. roirov.iy wtsialiittihrikoy

stslemy. AN SSSR InirJMt mlrovoyrrhdururod-

nykfa ornatheaiy, AN SSSR Iruotut po Soyaftrwnnyrn ShtatajD Amerlkl TarmtMtnyy esmccasukomairtr-tictaato las-

Unlnihyoscow I'litsaoacow UartH9 Novochervwuslikmikayaoscow

Ulitsa

ttkrbnyy,0 Korpoa1

VN SSSR IrabtUInanmrxi

mro prarrokr.-. ikoeo oid-Wmya,

AN SSSR

Vychaslitrfoyy tseoo. AN SSSR.wiiliBtyi

Conidarrtverinyy planovoy komitai, SSSR

:ii-:'r.>, naucbno-usaodtnalrlakl) rkooo-

michwkry iiwotur. prl Coiptine, RSFSR Nducfanc^UilodCA'lMrskiy rioonmlchrskly In-

Cosplana, SSSR Niuchno-iHltdavatel'tkiy Instill it pn Mano-

obraMvjniya (roiodirjtvMiDOfo kotullebi

tscn pn Ccoplanc, SSSR tTooiatlya nauchno-issledmamrskikh matrxlov

po halaosu aarodnoiro khoaj ivivj prl

oclwnomSovrt potoodiifrnykn ill prl

Cospl SSSR Intjiut cirkaoonykh apfa.ly.yuuVb.kr,

mashla

laurel kDTpkrfacykb tnosportoykhprlSSR

Cfavnyy vycSBlireTeyy iscatr pri Ceaapkana

Ninstrtutannatrvo* prl Casplanr

Twotral'ooyo sts^bcbcskoyr uprsvk-niye

NiuchixvmkVdov^tcl'a'uy insbmi po proyok-rirov*niyo syimidilrroykhlitem rkonombcWkoy informatMi, TaSU, SSSR

Nauchno-iuledovaielskiy institut okonomutl looitejjtva

Vwsoyumyy nauchnr^Uodoviitcrikiy IniMlut po inichonlyy iprosa oasrl-nlyary narodnosjooo"yuiiktujy

Naacb no-inlcdovarcT ilijy institut trudj

kon'yunknimyyihrur

Nonaamrikovosibirsk "

AUcWm^cbcab, sroeodok.

Akademlcbeskiy goroJok, XwoOxr*

Prwp.ltoscow SmoloniJy. Mcacow

Uioroaliovakly Pecvyy Pro.

3a. Moscow 1 Raima.oscow

Pecvyy Pro void 3a. Moacow

Uutaa VavSova.owow Ubbaoscow Ifbba tLfastsostfskaya<

Ulitsaoacow Ublaa

Clitsaoscow ULrtaac

Karotnyy Ryad.cacow Kfl Kolpachnyy Parrnilok. 7

Ulitsaoscow Ubiu IWovkuia.oscow

annas*

NaueWhlsiicdw'jieiikiy linansovyyKuybyshcva,oscow

os-

Vwtoyuinyy nasichno-insla'UiviiwrifciyPeraulok.oscow

Vanoyuinaya aladearuya "ISofiboy Pcmilok.

nykh nauk

MosJurviMy ffntudatstvennyynintkiveraiuxiraova

Lenmsiiudikiy eosudairtvcisnyy , Lenin-

A.A.

Moskovikiy ioribtat narodr-ofootcow

. FlrHiMin-a

Moakovikiy finansovvyKlbaTchirha.oacow

LcnanKradikiy ficdmnvo-Himomichcuiy i

Mini I

onorn ikoi. lie bestirBnfshoyoacow

Moakovikiy ifirhrormooscow

tut amvni S. Onlrlior.iL

oaoomivcvtnararrad

Mm

Vycbiditol'nyy tacntr.oscow

Akadamiya sd'skokhoi'yayslsi'nnykh K.A. TioHryafova

V.Ya.

lamplyev. PM.

...

Alu5UIH)v, CD. ..

.

Arklupov. AJ.

Astumbayev. TA. ..

.

. .

.F. ..

Batova. N

.aybakov, NX,

J

.. .

a

Bit. Btyakhman. LS. Bobcakov, Yn.I.ngooiolov..

Bor, MZ.

a.

t

. .

Bunlmovich. VA.

B

.

14

6 II

. 34

18

21

12

5

38

30

34

10

34

36

36

12

14

6

24

3

26

33

15

37

29

21

.

V.A

CWrnyak. YijJ.

.

D

.

Danitov-Daniryan. VJ.

.

Dmltifyev. VJ

.

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