THE NEW MEANING OF TREASON BY REBECCA WEST-THE FIRST HALF OF THE BOOK

Created: 6/25/1973

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THE NEW MKANIWG OFRoboccaby The Viking Press, Now York,

The first half of this book deals with the life and career of the British traitor, Williamord Hawnd with several other minor characters who were tried for treason after World War II because of their collaboration with tho Nazis. The rest of tho bookeries of accounts, in varying degrees of detail, of the Soviet agents whose careers have becccie known to the public through trial, flight, or testimony, in Britain and .the United States, since the end of World War II. In chronologic order these are: Alan NUNN MAY and the others involved in the Canadian atomic energy espionage ring; Klaus Einil FUCHS and the Americans involved with himl Harry GOLD, Ruth and David GREENGLASS, and theruno PONTECORVO, Donald MACLEAN, Guy BURGESS, William MARSHALL, Colonel Rudolph ABEL, Anthony HAYNARD, Brian FREDERICK, Gordon LONSDALE, Harry HOUGHTON, Winifred GEE, the KROGERS (aliases of the Morrisoorge BLAKE, and John Christopher VASSAL. The PROFUHO-Stephen WARp-Christine KEELER affair is also discussed.

6 Dr. Alan NUNNecturer in Physios at the University of London,as tried on charges of having given the Soviets secret information about atomic projects on which he had been working for the British Government. The spy ring in Canada, for which NUNN FAY worked, included many other British and Canadians and concerned itself with matters other than scientific ones but most of the-persons in the group were scientists. After NUNNrial andue and cry was set up by certain scientists who feltember of their profession could do no wrong. NUNN MAY, they claimed, had given out purely scientific information "in the spirit of true science."

revised and expandedHE_MEANING OF TREASON, The Viking Press, New York,, pagcs/TndexT '

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0 Klaus FUCHS, head of the theoretical division of the atomic energy establishment at Harwell inas arrested and brought to trial for giving atomicto the Soviets. This caseore pointhe Unxtod States and Great Britain, because FUCHS had been^ the British even though, at the beginning of the war, he had told the Aliens Tribunal that heommunist. Working at Los Alamos before returning to England, henowledge of the atomic program such as only the lop American scientists possessed, and this fact mode his betrayal doubly bitter.

In tho months followingtrial, seven other persons were arrested who were connected with this particular American spy ring. One of these was Harry GOLD, who, under

rom.ihe PdlLyovernment Witneaa. Under instructions from YAKOVEKV, his Soviet contact

?,KGf?ch Vith Julius andROSENBERG, and ithrother, David GREENGLASS. Under arrest GREENGLASS

41tGhis wifccution.

The KOSESBhRGs were sent to the electric chair FUCHS himself fared tetter. He wasrison sentence. When he was released9 he went to East Germany and worked

Shortly after the conviction of FUCHSelations! ^itCd States and Great. Britainurther jolthysicist named Bruno PONTECDRVO {an Italian by birth,ritish citizen by naturalization) left the atomic energy establishment at Harwell under mysterious circumstances. After his flight it was discovered that he hadommunist for many years and that he had developed

lllTh Yet he had been screened five times by British security: three times after the

and twice after the conviction ofraised highlynent in

the United States and caused both countries to view their security organizations with distrust.

Another case of flight that was planned and "executeds to ?ause tho greatest possible amount of talk and thus to sow mistrust and apprehension in the West,

h^IAZ 9 Tar later' 5 hen

couns*llor in the British Foreign office anda second secretary in the junior branch, sailed.J" the ship, Palaiee, from Southampton to St.way to Rennes and vanished. The flight

aper-chase rather than an escape. Everything about at .raised public interest and surprise. The two men apparently

.

Intended to leave one glaring clue after another and to ensure tho maximum amount of talk. Inasmuch as the British foreign Officeiscroot silenco on thet was left to .the newspapers to try to discover the facts. Then, to compound the mystery, MaeLEAN's wife, Melinda, disappeared two years later. The author believes that most of the information the men supplied to the Soviets was of very little substantive Their flight, and that of MaeLEAN's wife, which served to discredit .the West in lis own eyes, was the realrendered to the Soviet Union fcy BURGESS and MacLEAN.

In the summerilliam MARSHAL1Ja radiotelcgraphisthe British Foreign Office, was arrested ,ind tried for handing over official documentsoviet diplomat. His short career as an agent, was so full of flagrant breaches of security that the author finds it impossible to believe that the Soviets wereerious effort to control him. She suspects that he was sacrificed to divert attention from iho activitiesore valuable agent, Colcnel Rudolph ABEL, so that the British and American authorities would think they had plugged the leak that had boon troubling thorn.

Colonel Rudolph ABEL of tho Soviet State Security Service was arrested in New York tte had operated there for nine years, and probably would never have been caught if had not been sent as an aide and courier, HAYHANEN, an alcoholicsychopath who turned him in. ABEL was convicted and sentenced, but was. released2 in oxchange for Francis Gary POWERS, theilot.

two minor espionage agents came into thewas Brian FREDERICK, an electronics engineerBritish Government. He had agreed to supply ColonelCzech Military Attache" with classified drawings forrelationship was under the surveillance of asecurity agency almost from the very beginning. lime he was permitted to bring out documents that hadby his superiors. Then he was arrested andfourteen years'

The other small-time agent was Anthonyissatisfied British airman. HeOVYEV,who, according to the *

O.atefhe Foreign Officehite paper entitled, REPORTISAPPEARANCE OK TWO FORMER

FOREIGN OFF ICJALS*b MacLEAN AND GUY BURGESS)". filcT

Majesty's Stationery Office,agessee

author, was an intelligence officer at the Soviet Embassy, in connectionossible course of study at the State institute in Moscow. MAYNARD, when Interviewed about these meetings by British security authorities became annoyed, fled to East Germany, and there broadcast propaganda against tho West. He then went to.Moscow and was enrolled In the School of Engineering Construction. Falling out with his Soviet handlers, he was sent homo where he was sentenced to three years in jail.

In1 five mombors of tho so-called Portland spy ring wore brought to trial in London. Gordonoviet whose real name was MOLODY, was their contact man. Born LONSDALE had lived with relatives in Berkeley, Californiaoy. He had then returned to tho USSR where he Attended an espionage school. He entered Canada illegallyoviet grain ship and stayod there long enough toanadian passport under the name ofn England, posingort of entrepreneur, LONSDALE established an espionage network with the active collaboration of Morris andOHEN, who previously had been associates of both the ROSENBERGS and Colonel ABEL in. LONSDALE was sentenced to twenty-five years' imprisonment, the COHENs to fifteen. The latter sentence was also imposed on two other agonts, ll-uiy HOUGHTON and .Winifred GEE. ONSDALE was exchanged for Grevilleritish businessman who hiid been sentencedoscow court to eight years' for espionage, allegedlyolleague of Oleg PKNKOVSKIY.

George BLAKE was born Ceorgeonutchman who claimed British citizenship. oy he lived in Cairo with an aunt. Ho returned to Rotterdam lo finish his education. When tho Low Countries were invaded0 he was interned, escaped, andesistance group, known as Orde Dicnst. In this organisation he becane involved in Operation North Pole. Thus he became connected with British secret services,with the Special Operations Executive (SOE) (where BURGESS also had worked). hile BIAKE was ordered by an SOE officer to make his way to England. There he established his British citizenship, changed his name to BIAKE, and wasemporary commission in the Royal Navyeserve officer.

4 he was sent tooadqnarters and then went to Hamburg in chargenit oftelligence. Back in England he ended up in the Foreign Office and was sent to Downing College to study Russian history and language. B he was appointed Vice-Consul in Seoul,over for his real job as anepresentative. Ho was arrested0 and

^ wound oprisoner-of-war camp near Pyongyang, where he "suffered ill-treatment and brainwashing. At last he went

to his captors and offered to work for the Communists without

pay. From then on heoviet agent.

i

his return to England, he was sent to West Berlin,

; againepresentative of MI-6. There he got in touch with

one Horst EITHER, who waseam of agents. EventuallyEITHER was arrested and, when broughtudge,hat he hailouble agent at the instigationritish official, whoouble agent himself. He described this personutchman who had sonic connection with the Royal Navy. Later, Colonel ALSTER, head of the Polish secret police,defected to the west and *told the authorities that he knew of agents who were working for the Soviets in Berlin. One of the names he gave was that of BLAKE. During hisLAKE claimed that, while in the prisoner-of-war camp in Korea, he had become persuaded that Communism wasthe right road. The author believes, however, that the Communist Party had longand inareer, perhaps from the very beginning of it. Be thai as it may, he was sentenced to forty-two years' imprisonment*

William Christopher YASSALL arrived in Moscow in Ksrcho servelerk in-the office of the British NavalSS ALL had had-an affairertainunior intc-rpreter and administrative officer al tho Embassy. By autumn he was regularly taking documents frorr. the Naval attache*'s office and passing them to his now friend, who photographed them before they' were returned to the files. He returned to England in6 and worked for British Naval intelligence for two years. He then workedhe private office of the Civil Lord of the Admiralty, and, inas posited to the Fleet section of Military Branch II, where ho stayed until his arrest inuring these years he photographed classified material and vas well paid by his Soviet employers. He was tried and sentenced to eighteen years' imprisonment.

The famous case involving Stephen WARD and Christine KELLER was only on the fringes of espionage. It is uncertain exactly what WARD'S aims were in connection with his professed interest in Communism, but they led to the downfall, ofPROFUMO, the British Minister of War, and to WARD's own death by suicide while in jail during his trial. WARD had kept what amountedouse of prostitution for wealthy patrons. The affair as it unfolded in the press was extremely sordid, but the author believes that probably no espionage as such was involved.

BLAKE escaped from prisonfter the publication of this

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