Created: 8/1/1975

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Scientific and Technical Intelligence Report

Soviet Research, Development and Applications of Composite Materials and Structures


Soviet Research, Development and Applications of Composite Materials and Structures

VrtiU'd OffUrr


The evaluation of Soviet nmU-riuK ami slriKitin* provides lm|kirluiit Intelligence regarding tlie capabilities, vuliiorahililx. iiihI jmssihle mission of Soviet weaponiirly imlleaHons of new wea|ions and valiniltlc Information (in ItaD ami inninifueluriiig teehliUptP* also are obtained. Kor rsamplc. tin- Soviets Milistmillally rrdiirrd tlit* weight nl riH'lrl motor cnsc* In theB lu devohmiiH-litiii 1CHMmipnnil with llmw of Mssir. by llllmdut'iug fllH-eghi" reinforcednp<nilr* to replace thes metal si met lire, (hereby improving its prospects (or Inilli mobile mill silo-Inimchrd versions. The use of composites accounted forirds of llic SS-XHi's Improvement in range ami throw weight. (loiniMtslle Icelmolngy also has been um-iI In oilier wriipnms the SS- IS, SS-Ml.ill command mill control capsules.

Thr US and USSR an* almiM in thr overall trehnologv of composite structures nud materials with) programs of hold emphasizing filamentary anil sandwich designs. The Soviets liavr had many ailinlnislmtlve anil prod net tor: problems In appl> log compmlU's even to priority items. Attention received from the highest levels of the Soviet Government and Improving quality and fabrication procedures have helped Ibis situation.

soviet research, development and applications of composite materials and structures

Fntfrri OJflcrr


Augiil IV/i



Success In the development of eomiKKilr mulerlals und structure* lux mudfr II possible for drslgncr* lo pn'M-nl. desirable nutleriak prnpr-ttlc* lo ullaln minimumell ui maximum rigidity und resistance lo Ilicrmalll arrf ureal interest to designer* of milllory systems. Today huth 'he Soviet Union and llie Uniled State* are fabricating armor and component* for uircmft and missile* fmm compc*it<-materials. In both countries therevrr Irvcreasinr utilization of composite matrriuls in major components of military und civilian rurduarr.

This study was carried mil loSoviet cupuhilitic* in research,anufacture and application, of ttrijcturm of various composite materials. In situ composite* and dispersion hardened allovs are nol trwitrd In litis sludy.


Two studies ure available which ci implement litisdlvcm**'* the confiRiiralkm and capability of tin-fi'sIi42I" mill llic oilier covers the Soviet stnitogjc missile- nriHlMrll.nisi

This repotl was prrparr.1llir- Office of Scientific Intdlieemewithin CIA. "*



(jmiposile* un- combination*m rhrwlfllyniii iicnleillitiilu pnrhi- not achieved by an* oflone Almmlplasties, ceramics, glasses, uiitltisitl iniltifnriion* In producestructure During the past two ilrcatlrs tlit* availability uml diversityticlu.-il romposilrindustrialized nation* Imvr- liicn-iiMtl vrry rapidly, largely Ihtiiiim' of the needs of aerospace niul defense Industries. New sllffrr. highoiiiuduhrs fillers have brctl developed, new manufacturing methods have rVnlvftl. and liglil'T weight, strongeret lire* liavr availableide range ofipo*itr matrrials are attractive to designer* of various military .mil space systems (treatise of tseiglttinprovitl fatigue cliarnclerislics. and Improved pufor matterul elrsaledliesr muterialsailored to uirt-tand (hernial environments. In rocket motoromposite* haw advantages over metals by avoiding hum-llimiigh, hot spots, andf pressure.

The lliree principal lypts of coni|iosite strnclnre* are- filament-reinforced, sandwich, and mullilayered (figureuch type ol composite possesses certuln inherent advantages over the other types and over conventional materials; for example, fl) the major advantage of the filamentary type lie* In the directional strength chnmctcrisllcs which may In- tailored toesired sires*ignificant advantage of the sandwich type Is thai it pi-rmits the designer lo work the outer facing* of Ihe sandwich at highevel* ami iheiehy reduceoncent mlullilayered type* provide heat or mrm*lon rcsi*tuiiec in addition to requires! strength properties Composite tirueturc* trviially pennll the designerork the component materials more efficiently and to produce minimum wrlglil. maximum strength systems. Ijiw ensl i*ignlflcanl ailvantage. hut the high cost of some modern composites has delerred designers from their use. It I* likely that improved design and incrrutcd demand will lower these costs so that today's prohibitively cx|<rns|ve composite will become competitive tomorrow. The use ofoffer the opportunity to conserve relatively scarce materials

Kor ihe past two decade* theoretical models haveeloped for preilicting stmigtb* of composite material *lrurtuicv and lor iheecade cnmpiwlles haved in missile citings,eentryiw! itml rotary wing aircraft,urbines, ami armored vehicles.








and Development


Filamenl Reinforced Structure*

Sandwich Structures

Multilayrred Stmcliires



Mi.mV Cannier* and Motor

Offensive Missile CanHler*

fi.mi Had. Molar Casing

ABM Composite Canister*

Oilier Applications


Ant (radiation Liners and Armnr

Comninnd and Control Capsule*

Status ami Forecast



Selected Key Soviet Facilities Involved In Composite

Structures and 21

PA O? W.


Type* of Composite

Key Facilities Aiwiated with Swirl (

Composite* Allow Sovicls to Deduce Missile Molorensr

VVeiRht hy Alimit


1.of Soviet ARM


ank with Coni|)ositc Antiradiatton

onception of Type MIX Cannier on a






Materials In Soviet 5

Selected Soviet Application* for Composite 9

Comparison of Key Characteristics of Sovietnd

olid Propellant II



evaluate Soviet progress in developing strati tires ninth' of composite material* and in usingn military applications.


overall quality of Soviet technology in eompositr nutetiati amipproaches lliat in the L'Spliciitiou* of such technology an-slightlyvaried in the I'SSII lliaii In'S (ml include component* ol nmsilcv aircraft, tanks, ami mdars. The Sn.iets have had mans administrative und ImnMr* in applying composite* to priority iteim snehthefl developmental HUM. particularly in qualil* assurance and fabricationiteet intervention in tbrsr matters by Brezhnev, Kmygin. Ustinov and. pmltably. Marshal Grechko has been noted. Such bleb level intervention and improving quality ussiiruncc and fabrication techniques hiivc helped to solve these problems.

The most important application of Soviet composites is the widespread use of filK-rgla" reinforced plastic structure* in major components of strategic missile systems. Significant weight reduction using composites ha* been noted In ibehich iscxpectrd lo replace thelie mirtnr eases of tbe three stages of there marie of composites and with their liners weighlea than iheir metal counterpart* on thehis weight reduclliHi pmlnbly ha* accounted for two-thirds of the Intpnived ihmw weight of theR over thedditionally, theomposite cunlster which nppeur* suitable for transport, sloragc. and lauiieb ofmobileimilar but larger composite eunlsler Is being pmdiicrxl for the SS-IN ICBM The Soviet* may be developing their largest solid pmprllant rocket motor. Although there is no dlnvt rvideniv of So* iet irse of composite* In Ihe motor casing, live Soviet* have the capability to build Ilie cadugilaim-iil-wound composite, lire largeotorfor i'- hnologti .il development winch couldieeome parirap-oobooster orirs* ICBM.

One ""xi TPKB20fiA.omplex composite droit.irr of fiberglass ami plastic* similar to tbeanisterDA isewanister for tin unspecified anliballlvtlc missile (AIIMl.* built from four wound shell* with foam sandwiched in ami filled with fcrroltoron. This provide* neutron hardening and better mechanical and thermal properties. Tliere i*ermelic system for maintaining proper ens-inm mental condition* for the missile which should improve its shelf life. The kmovn Sns-jet ABM* ;ire launched fromxceptWmImI missile which is associated with rail ami lattice lyise launchrn. Although much is known alxml Sovirl ABM canister structural design, practicallylmut material* usedcxcept for tlie Calosh canister* which appear to lie metallic.

The Soviet* and CxcchodnYuk* have developed two miniMnilc iiiitlrudiiilion liner* lo prolrel IrnnfM in

vehicles from nuclear radiation. Another multilayer composite urmor which uppourt tounder development, also muy contain bonded polyethylene slabs between two slcel plates which should provide nnfintion pmtcctlon ns well os liettor resistance to hightltnnk rounds.

invcnttonul Soviet rodomcs are mostly multilayer corhposito structures with some fiberglass reinforce* merits. The Sufonovo Plastics Plant has been making radnmes? for military communications. Ira king unci space applications as well asew experimental thick composite mdomes of theype. Shock rcslstunt mulllte/nitrlde coriposltes arc being evaluated and proltubly are suil aMe as windows und mdomes In missiles opemting up lo about Much 7.

A composite structure consisting of ten wound fiberglass cylinders und two metal sections Is used us the- launch control capsule in command and control silos, designated by Ihe US us Type. at Strategic Rocket Force missile complexes.

The) prognuns of the US and USSR are' roughly equal lit quality and magnitude. 'Hie USSR, however, places more emphasis than does the US: on theoretical anulyses. Soviet designers use these analyses successfully for military and civil applications but the translation of their designs into structures has caused the USSR continuing difficulties. The Soviets are exerting great effort in rectifying inadequate fabrication and poor nondestructive evaluation ptocedures. Six conventional institutes do most of the relatively unclassified Soviethereas it more heterogeneous group of facilities is involved in work on classified weapon systems.

Soviet designers of filamenl reinforced composite structures appear to have inadequate information for handling very rapidly applied loads and thermal environments. In other areas, for example structural effects of various openings including cut-outs or penetrations, US designers have much less Information than their Soviet enunlerparts. Although Soviet glass-cpoxy loriqxwilcs are less rigid and weaker in tension than comparable US materials, overall Soviet capabilities In gluts-resin wound conip.isftes approximate those of the US.

Soviet winding machines for filaments and tapes are based on US designs. They alsouge verticil winding system from West Ormuuy which could base produced inuiiy of the large fiberglass wound components for Soviet developmental ICBMs und other military systems. The same West German company is sulci to be manufacturing an even larger machine for the Soviet* lo filament wind filter reinforced plastic structures capable of withstanding compressive loads. Though these structures are reportedly for Soviet submarine hulls, it is unlikely that they will use them in pressure bulls for full size submarines.

Western work on nickel alloys reinforced with tungsten filters bus been exploited by the USSR. Samples with very high lensile strengths at reentry temperature" have been produced Soviet interest in high modulus boron filaments bus fluctuated but probably will remain low became of the attractive properties and lower cost potential of aramuls and graphites. Grapbite/rcsin composites lire being developed for large ntckct eases but, as in the West, then* are problems in fiber/matrix bunding. The Soviets nho are working on carlxm/carbons for reentry vehlele leading edges and wingnique Soviet ceramic/ceramichot tbused on miillile filaments in oxides or nitrides isof being used atp to HKXI* C

Some (tf the more pioininenl Soviet investigators have Iteen "halving sundwieh plates and shellsollow litre which can be used lo circulate liquid coolanttcct missiles and reentry vehicles. Hollow core systems are easier to produce than the houeyeonib-type with which the Soxiels are eoiiliuuiugave manufacturing tntubles.hey haveo exploit US technology through honeycomb samples obtained from L'S aircrall downed lit Vietnam Complex sandwiches are used xsi-lely In the USSR's new developmental slMlegie missile systems where they provide light weight, rigidity, and thermal insulating properties.

Soviet analytical studios of multilayer composites under sialic loads are quite modest but investigations of dynamic loads are much mom important. One significant Soviet project relates directly to blast effeels on ship Itotlnm plating.

The Soviet Unions development and production program for large eorrifiosilr eom|Kuieiils of strategic missiles has beenith ilelavs and technical

mhleui' ami therefore ll is thllniill in piil tin- program Into proper per*pecli*r. Rot improved Soviet nondestructiverchniiprrs should lirlp solve many of llir problems nwx-iutrd wild llsr prnitm lion mid nsrolcomposite*.

Bv ItBtfl Soviet iist of composites, partk-ul.irfv filamentary nlnforvedn primary livid earning ipplii ui inn. diuuhlsignificant, ami sandwich typo construction*. naWf degree

0|xr,iling limits fur pnlviiicr Itawd coinpo<ilrs arr expected lo lie iilmnthile inelal/iiietal

composite* limy of-nitr up In MOO* C and

ceramic/ceramic* iippn inchnuiifacliirr of mi'lnl/inctiili shimld lie relatively simple and prototype contimnrnls mav lie avnilalile liy ihe end of this decade, as well filamentary centeramics for missile mdomrs, Mill) Rcnefittorx. Inrliine parts, and urn lew.


There are three principal Ivjtc* ofstructures: filamenl-reiiiforced. sandwich, and mullHiiyrredlie lu'viintujie* of usingire:

Tnltmrd pnipertlr* in shiiihh dint-mom utillibtbiit id best iwtirrlin ol* each mi>lroiil High -in-fitlliulffnen to >rltj;hl mum

llfehlhrnwl pt.kl.-ct

vibmtton und fullf il* "swtncr

The Soviets have studied and extensively used all ihree types of coiii|)osltc slrirctnres anil are nwure of the udvunti'gc* offered liy the tisc of such structures.

Since tliehe Soviets have lieen placing heavy emphasis on development ofo predict hehuvior of composite structureside variety of load andonditions of interest In designers of ardware. These excellente manalysesarried out In great detail and used withtieeess furwide variety of military undtructures. The Soviets, however, have encountered continuing dif'iciillie* in translating their successful designs into structures, such as tin honrsmmh siimlwich. Isccituse of Inudcipiate fulirienlions|iltc these problems tinAD program in composite sirimlurrs is approximately equal in lliiil of the US In both ipialily and magnitudeM) (It-.)

The Soviet Union's analytical capabilities in composites an' with or perhaps slightly exceed those In the I'S. Roth countries urr emphasizing HAD on filamentary and sandwich const met ion. nilh rainor efforts on miiltilayrrcdlthough tlie Soviet Union doe* mil appear todeveloping some of ihe innovative comp*nite designs bring pursued In the US. such as those furighter's wing Imxes, ihrre probably Is some parallel clussified work underway in the

The materials bring investigated or used by the Soviets in their composite strncliire* closely appmxlimilcf interest in themphasis on relnforcenicnl materials vurie* from country to country but the Soviet* arereat amount of effort into ceramic filaments, especiallyerivedineral mimed mullile, and are showing grent Interest hi high modulus organicike US Krvlar. Thenlriguiiig difference between Soviet and US lechiilipies is the Soviet use of addllixes or filters in plastic*.a* the addition of boron comprhind* to epos*oreover, live Soviets claim that utitlitioii of silicates and transition meld oxides to orgauo silicon-liasid materials make* them suitable for long-time service in tlie TOO*empernttire range. The US has experienced problem* in using such rnntcri'il*im)

hows ihe key Soviet facilitieslh. raw materialsnd some of the more importantoni|mi*ilrrilllirs .ne rather tsiih'lv dispersed arross (be Western half of the USSR, mid thus, may contribute lo debits in Soviet production schedules, but such riisperslnn appears to have little effect on the quality of Soviet weaponenisIKvil


Tabic 1

a Soviet Com po* it ex OUm. Bwchi. Cnph.u


Maartaail. CMmbhi

Six institutes in the Soviet Union can? out most of the relatively unclassified research and development in structural characteristics of composites. They .it the Institute of Polymer Mechanics in Rico, (he Institute of Mechanics in Kiev, the Institute of Problems of Strength in Kiev, the Research Institute of Machine Design in Moscow, the Institute of Rncrgetics in Moscow, end the Institute of Hydrodynamics in

Filament Reinforced Structures

6 the Soviets have had an extensive program to determine the structural characteristic* of filament reinforced composites, particularly those of interest to designer* of aerospace und missileins exhaustive effort ts providing the Soviet designer with completely v. orut solutions for most structural prohte-ns There nre. however, serious gaps, wbrre |be Soviet-signer appears unable to haodlc problem* involving very rapidly applied loads and very rapidly changing thermal environments. In otheruch a* structural effects ofruing*including cut-outs orhe Soviet designer ha* much more information availaMc thjn his counterpart in the)


Comparison* of strength characteristic* of fdamrnl reinforced test samples produced in Soviet laboratories

j with those made In the US urecause of uncertainties associated with Soviet testo the case of Soviet lest* of glass/epoxy specimen* from theirircraft, they hrve reported tensile breaking strengths lev* than half those of USlass/epoxyonlcmporar* Soviet glass/epoxy composites also have structural rigidities less than those ofype epoxies made In the US. However. Soviet capabililie* in glass/resin wound composites nppnixlmute those of


Research investigators in the Soviet Union and the United States have devoted considerable effort to the development of melal/mctatelal matris reinforced by fine metallic filaments. West German work Initiated interest in the reinforcement of nickel alloys with tungstennd this idea has liccn exploited in the Soviet Union at the Institute of Materials Science in Kiev and at the Institute of Solid Stale Physic* in Moscow. The Soviets havelaboratory- test sumples of this composite with very high tensile strengths, even at elevated temperatures encountered by rerntry

Oilier metal/metal combinations which have lieen investigated Include titanium matrices reinforced by tungsten wire, copper reinforced with tungsten (for electricalluminum reinforced with steel wire, andstrengthened with mnlylKleuum fibers. Soviet interest in UK of Itomn filamentseinfurceinent has fluctuated but at present theytronger Inteiett in the use of graphite filter* in an unknown resin. Hut they areroblem of bonding the filters in Ihe resin, particularly in large rocket cjscs The Soviet* alsopcrimrntinz with cirlton/eurlton* (orRV leading edge* and wingtips. High modulus -rganic filters, such a* duPont's urumtd Kevlar. have atreat deal of Sovietf: in the last year or

tf? fU0

R33 Plant precessmq missiles

Planl pioceisinq tanks (shielding) i Missile lest range

Figwr*sy Focilifio- Associated wilh Coviet Composite*

A unique shuck-resistant filamentary composile ha* recently been developed by (he Soviets. It not only is capable of being used at temperatures uput also Is chemically inert. The composite consistsatrix of aluminum nitride or tlie oxidesluminum, zirconium, chromium, or einforced with filamentary' ceramic single crystals of aluminum and silicon oxides, termed mullitc.xidation resistance of the all-oxides compositeacilitate fabrication, prolmbly by hot pressing. There Is no known counterpart of this work in thelthough NASA has investigated mullitc filamentsigidized. fibrous forms for potential use asnsulation of space shuttle or orbiter

Designs for Soviet filament and tapeachines were Inspired by study of USlthough the Soviets have not publishedignificant winding innovations, Ihey claim to have delved further into winding theory than their US counterparts. In addition to Soviet-built winding machines, whose capabilities are little known, the Soviets haveuge vertical winding system from the ]i " " " ermany. This system is capanic ot manufacturing wound cylinders somewhat larger than can be series wound in Ihe US. The capacity of the West Ormun systemt) in diameter.t) in length,9 In) inI15XII7MM8)

Tlie entire HX>-mcmbcr * 11 *" reported to be

committer! until the end otroject loachine "to make hulls for Soviethe machine reportedly is for "reciprocal" filament winding of fiber reinforced

plasties. The meaning of the term "reciprocal" is not known at this lime. But the machine is supposed to lie

; capable of winding structure, for resisting compressive


J Although winding technologyrsed foronstruction of smalluch a* thosen ocean research, it is unlikely that presents capable of providing satisfactory nressiire hullsubmarines


Indicatediher reinlorced plastic pressurenotble to resist low cycle fatiguenderwater explnsinns. In addition, it would be impractical to repairull und to remove large items, such as turbines,ubmarine. Several European countries have used primitive methods io ;make parts of submarine hulls from filament reinforced epoxy. but these attempts were nol

is capable of producing

machines for winding pressure vessels and pipes withprobably largernit with a

; diameter ofeters, but (he Company declined because of anticipated problems with hydraulic equipment. The Soviet* could produce other submarineuch as the outer hull of double-hulled submarines and sonar domes using winding technology. Additionally, small items such as torpedoes and underwater buoys could be made by

Sandwich Structures

Soviet investigators have been concerned with structural behavior of sandwich plates und shellsore thai wouldooling liquid to In* circulated between the facings. These studiesiccn carried out at tbe Institute of Hydrodynamics in Novosibirsk, the Institute of Mechanics in Kiev, and the Moscosv Aviation Institute.andwich structural configuration would Ik- of value in missiles and reentryecause of extreme thermal environments encountered andupplement lo 'he insulating effects of any external ablative layer surrounding the load-carrying structure. In addition,ystem i*ofe to fabricate in comparison withamp of therominent Soviet investigators have carried out these studies, which is an indication of the importance oi this problem to the

Soviet contribution* to the open literature onf sandwich structures subject lo dynamic and shock loadings have Iscen of little significancehis probably is because tlie Soviet work is classified The Soviets nre continuing to experience difficulty in Ihe manufacture of sandwich structure* involving honeycomb material. They have madi efforts to exploit the expertise of US investigator* a* well a* successfully examining components of US

a fa-raft downed in Vietnam lot the pwpme of copying

atail.ihlr trchnologv (Til-T'H

Mu.tilaycrcd Si rue lure*


Sovietoloaded multikiycred platrs and *hrll* have liecncryelMIS. Tlii*causc nf tlie weightng advantagr* offered by filamentary und sandwich ismstrne-lUinMSl-Sfi)

In llw area nf dynamically loaded multllayered structures tbe Soviet* have prnduvetl more significant results during the past lew years. One exampleoviet Invest)gallon directed to the analysis nf blast effects on ship bottom plating. Another example appearedery recent reportell-established Rumanian investigator who In cooperation wilh Soviet scientists determined ihe flutter cliarocterisllc* of multllayered conhells In supersonic flight. The ptiblication Indicated direct applicability of the work to rocket and reentry systems. Tlie Soviets hove also continued their analysis of thermal effects on multllayered systems, but no new techniques have been

buring theears the Soviets have not published uny experimental studies on multilnyrrrd structures. Soviet Investigator* have reported the use of rolling (both hot and cold) and welding techniques lo produce mullilnyrredheir literature ha* indicated that in rolling procedure* someproblem* were encountered, such as achievement of uniform deformation Other techniques pres-iousls Invcsllgutcd by iheucfi u* pressing and explosive liomling have not been mentioned during the past few yean. However. I'tof. N. F. Kuzukov'x diffusion bonding laboratory at the Moscow Technical Institute of tbe Meat und Dairy Industry is lieiug expanded. Kaizaknv I* the Soviet* top expert in lliffusinu handing and has produced large ntul-hlayered componeii ts with more thanayers of mrtuls. ceramics,ielalnd other compounds His pmd'rti* and proccs*r* are widely trsed bx Soviet dedgundustrialigher mIhwiIv ami Indiislriul plants. Since multllayeredave limited weight suvtngt is considered unlikrly that there is anyhissiflrd Sosiel effort in litest-l



This section.

evaluates some kc.pplications of Soviet composite structuresarge amount of the available Information concern* hit rodnn of fiberglass reinforced plastic composite* into major components of new developmental strategic mi**ilcN. *uch as thefi. and the development, fabrication, .md testing of mi**ilellliough the exacl functions of the canister* are still iinrleur. (he canister* appear ii*snciated with transport, storage, and launch of holh rnolnV and strategic missile* Some of these canister type units alsoociatcd with antiltatlislic mi*sile* (ARMs) and command ami controlther Sosiel military application* for composite* include radnmes und tout ml* in aircraft, ship hull* and major strudure* inclass minc*nrc|)crs. and anliradialiun liners5 lank*

Missile Canisters ond Motor Cases

Om:vsixT.oviet Interest in using composite material structures (or strategic missile application* can lie traced back lone of the main project* of the Institute of Polymer Mechanic* in Riga. AS latvian SSR. duringu* the developmentachine for destructive testing of fiberglass cylinder*.


Table 2

Sclcrled Soviet Applications for Composite Slructurcs













Radoma aFinrnpHIrr Rlacl--Itolor Btml-n. kalkinuddvr Lradtax

ern try Vfhlriw CanUlM.n|l" Canhlrr

CanUlM. Motor (Vina*,Ship Hull. Majorndradlallon Liner


otmeter part Consist* of eight cxlindricnlachlais/epnxy filamcnt-wound composite inner iind ouler iImHI with nn umlctcrTnined sandwich filling Included arc built-in ducts and channels, and an electrically conducting metallized fabric.. The metallized fabric probablyunction related to maintenanceontrolled environment for thenlsdle hut also may have implications regarding protection from lightning and even EMP (electromagnetic pulse)HI8G)

DMPDC I* Ihe customer for thes canister and performs or supervises extensive testing of ihe canister, such as resistance lo burning, and various hvdraulic and hermetic tests. |

frapficanonIn other Soviet composite missile canistersdeveloped


The Soviets were fabricating the I'

canisters From "glassey were

ly laving-up and winding stniclurestape, strip, and cinihotatingresulting wound structure* wereshells; however,

cellular foam blocks and boronandwich-type composite. Until0 boron was incorporated in these composites as fine powder of refractory Ixtron nitride, called Prixlucthich raised the heat resistance of the missile launch canister.iecaitseecree issued by Brezhnev and Kosygin,


egan lo use ferrolioron (Producto replacehe Soviets found that not only wasich cheaper than the nitride, but it alsoetter quality product by offering: adequate corrosion and thermal resistance, reduced weight, and improved

At lease five types of glass fabric havewith the.inch canister.was used for missile end fittings und nozzle attachments. Steel und aluminum also were used bv tbe Soviet* for these samehe use of titanium should have provided an optimum mist ore of light-weight and strength, plus corrosion and thermal)

Tiir:mi Biyskomparison of some of the Important characteristics of thendoth are three-stage solid-propcllant rockets, relatively close in overall size, but theoes notanister.

"Itlie composite rocket case* of

the Hist two stages ol therc considerably lighter in weight than those estimated for thehe payload of thencluding it* postdwost vehicle,0 nm NRE while lltal of thet the same range0wo-thirds of this improvement Is due to the use of composite cases and the remaining third is (be result of better

The (irst stage composite motor casings for thendrobably are itlcnticul. Tbe second stage* have different designator*:

for theey'appear from [to lie cioscly related and should have similar


Althoughit is knosvn nlsout the material* used for the6 casings, our primary source of intelligence on those of IheSAVACE) is ground photography taken on Max5 inEmm these pliotographs It was possible to olnerve mctal-lx pr welds In allgr* of thend conclude that tbe casingsmetallic Based on this conchrsion and an estimate of Sovietcapabilitiest i* believed that thetage probably was lubricated from steel Some analysis believe that the second and third stage cases were aluminum alloy. |

[ Hul some ol the many design etianges mayother types lo he used. According

* " e contain

titanium, amio contain titanium. Although mithing is known ol (he chemical and [ihysical form of the titanium. It could be usedinder or to reinforce the fabrics. Statements hy Soviet composileowever, indicate titanium

There are indication* that the USSR may lie developing it* largest solid propellant rocket motor. Although there is no direct evidence as lo which materials will be used in ihe motor casing, there are advantage* which favor tbe So*let me of composite materials fur the Biysk motor casing over* such

Tabic 3

Comparison nf Key Character! Hi if* of Sovietndolid Propcllanl

el. aluminum, and titanium. The advantages nre: weight savings, lower costs, and avoidance of mctul cases* problems of burn-through, hot-spots, and loss ofurthermore, as noted eurlier In this rrport, the Soviets have the capability tn makeoot diameter motor casings using composite materialsertical filament winding machine imported from West GermanyH-


rmau winning unitothers copied from It by the Sovietslieen ready for use In the early development phasesmotor


till' rocki'l

motor probably at

ihe motor isiii'vi'inpnH'i it. While tin-estimated thrust suggests it willpace application,hrust sloes not preclude its use in an ICflM This would be the largest known Soviet solid propelt;iiit rocket motor casing.arge rocket motor may be partystem or tcchnologi-

development winch could event wily become part of ii new ICBM ortrap-on space)

ABM Cosiposrrr.large amount of intelligence is available on materials, design and fabricationomposite stmcture which is probably an ABM canister. J[

, , . Ihe lerm'IFK has

been definitely lied to0 and to thecanister,is bdirved to denote a

canister or conluiner used for launching as well as for shipping orissile.eighs li metric tons, isittle lighter and smaller" thannd is similar in materials and design us (lie device orlie hermetic-system is hcllcvcU

lo protect the missile until it is launched. Theofrectors and tsso or three plugs.the canisler/system two toings areInformation indicates that missiles also enjoy

thermostatically controlled environments, Imsed either on olreululion of hcatesl air in internal duels and channels or on electrical resistorsomposite longitudinal stringer structure.omposite canister offers nuclear hardening, light weight, possible reusability, mid longer shelf life (figure

Soviet ABM*

usually are fired from their canisters. I

some vat uablc

onra on uaimn missiie ana ennmer stmcturrs have come from photographs taken48 Moscow puradci celebniting llic Anniversary of the October

Structurally.onsists of0 mm long, filament-reinforced sliells which are wound withoandwich containing about thirty plastic fojm hlocks per shell. These contain ferroboron (ProduChich gives the composites resistance to heut. improved mechanical properties, andonus. Additionally, Soviet "TZP" (thermul-rrsislantype SSP-l, may have licen npplied to the Insidr of nt trustontainer. 1is unlikely that they are

aut. Moreover. |

I idicates thai the conical missile pnibahly could Iw flight teslrd afterilti lat lice-work structure,anister. If 'his conical missile proves successful, then it would Ite logical for the Soviets to launch it fromiloobile canister made of

Other Applications

mostly of the multilayer variety with some filierglass reinforcement, are widely used in the USSR for conventional mdomes and radio-transparent covers. SPP has been producing such itemsainly for millturyomeorganizillions use these products for supjiort of the Soviets' overall space efforts as well as for convent iouul radnr and communications)

canister alsoolyester liennetlc



application for OHnprnitn WW in PmjrH VKTKK (whHll. Pmjfc. VKTKBU-pirvr vtnf radnmra 'fourwo.3 andS cover.)


llUlfinilllllP MK1IRIH Ol PICnmrvri. rri|tiirrd thai tlir ihicknrvi of Ihr tlNtn' fnriiiii Ik- bWRWd fromm lo Ml mm und Ihr want on Inn of tlir wivon Iw rriuforccd.he ihiiprd piitrs mid wmltulmlar cumimiirnt* wrrr toni.iilrow typi- ofloth. prulialiKTS which wu*ndit

Shockfilamrnlarvr.iiitirmriitinnrd ill) portion ofrl nrtrloarpli'o* nf tlie lii.lilnlr fnff Ihe <J MatrriaK ullrtl

Imtiintrair.ial Mnwrl AS. I'krSSIl. In Kiev. This work,oot ill nine. Include* fiilirlciilloii mid Irvlim; otImm-cI oh utiillilr whhkm in nlmniiuiiunm mimU

n-iner* serre Bviiiiumr-nr Snvlel liloi* countries when llirvppeared inrticle2 prndueed Inpmlmlily Ism)

SITu* Imi-ii producing hint linen since IWW Itiil iippeur* lit lirew desirable source liy Soviet tunk plants nml llic Ministry of Chemical Industry. In fuel, inn official o( the Ministry of the Clicniioil Industry staled tliut Itccuuse of poorll testolile* (rr*ln-lm|Kcgniilcd fabricere Itctng token from SPP and nllocntrd lo the Plastic* Plant linenl Kalinin andlant In Kcmrmvo. lite Kurbollt Plasties

The Soviet* un* working on multlluyrr met anietal/mrlal slntclure* for lunk* amiOne such composite consists of two luyer*scpumtcd Ity lumltmlcd polyHliyletieImrun fillerlayered or

spaced armor design would nave unproved perform-ante again*IIKAT (high explosive antitank) and IIKP (high explosive plastic) projectiles, us well a* the cup-diilily to alisorh neutntus. The metal/metal composites consist of various combination* of steels including the Mgh-*lrcngth. low alloy KVK series, and techntcully pun Iron, tlrsicnaletl I'/li-iM Careful control of layr thicknessecial complex lirat treatments provide the .Sovlrls with uriitor having high strength, toughness .milaminatedimit* type material. |mw*thly asn lite core is Iteitig Investigated. Since basalt Is widely nvulluhle and pmhaltly low In ctiftt, II could hoof great value in ceruiulc und olher compiwlto* for nuineious military uml civiliani|)

( ilmmasii(aiviikh. (Compositeun* purls ol tlie

stullullmisIlw I

similar ill design and matemn*-

w Inch Is re laommand and control silos (designated Ity the I'S as MIX) at SHI' missilefttlrlycanisters

ii riiiL <iiiii|-imiI iin11hi .ltd.

Jlli Ikiii uml lifiililMui'v- mlitilliHw

iii mum

Imill al -SIT. Tin* ilcnis nn* nunposrd of two metal sections prnhalily made at I'lanl iJ2ningrad and of leu wound filiergluxx shells made al SPP. Together ihe Item* form prrfalirlciitcd cajisules which an- IriMallrtl in command and controlheX silos should provide excellent protection to SltK per-ounel and/nr lauueh and coin mion* etpiipmeut from Itlasl. vllmilion. und posslhly radiation. Al Oera/hnyu and Pen'oniaysk ihe Soviets ate replacing the type MID silos, which containissiles, vitli'Type IHC silos, The Sovlrl* have Itrguii installingCUM or Chelomey "N" missiles In the type IHC slim. There Is oneX command and control silo for each group of lenIHCype MIX command anil control silo also is used with each group of tenHill silos (associated with theT) ami withilos dissociatedei2 XIR7)


[composite capsule probablyin it Typ' IIIX silo at Sitef theTest Ami at Ihe Sonil,iuiutliisk Kiictciir[or

nuclear effect* testing, f

l He tunction ii| die covers isut pnuiulily i* structural ami liuiy heXI|KXI(i'))


lufoniialioii on applications of compositetructures lo Sovlel Strategic systems

-rrrrnrnirirtnn pennim in mr MTolifiVO Plaslics Plant, to major component* ofpnthuhlc Alts! cunisln. ami loli mihI SS-INliercfurc. itJ.['ii nil lo evaluate composite materialsa*ale to tlie I'SMI'* overallhe Sovietsalt significant problems with the development ami production of composite* loioui|toneuts nud part* There have lieeu couliiiuiiig coiuposlle-ri'lated troubles, suchn. which is ltecausr olnondestructiven addilion. then* have licrunvolving splitting of misvile motor coses,and unevenmi mail* smaller|tail* liavhw- tli-fcel*nert hug


Theissilr program ;dwi ha* lteen plagued In handling accidents and pnthlems with main-Iciiiuiee of lame pn'ssrs Man*ave occurred heeaiim' of tlelays in nilitiinjstriillie guidance.

technical documentation, and delivery ofsupplies, as well as competing top-priority

iThcre has been high level Soviet Interest In resolving many of the problems encountered In their missile program. I

It is probable that0 period will see ever Increasing use nf composite materials for load-carrying components of aircraft and missile systems. This Increased use also will include radomes. fins, cases, canisters, reentry vehicles, control surfaces,around doors and access panels, and helicopter rotor blades. The composite structures to be employed will be filamentary reinforced as well as sandwich construction in that order of importance.

It is anticipated that Soviet polymer based composites will be capable of resisting loads under operating temperatures up to* C. by the endt is also probable that Soviet development of metal/metal composite structures will advance sufficiently to make their employment imsvilde ul temperatures of approximately. It is not anticipated that the Soviets will encounter so many manufacturing problems with ihe metal/metal composites as ihcyeen experiencing with fiberglass reinforced plastics and honeycomb sandwich structures. Therefore, prototypeof metal/metal composites may welleality by the end of the current decade. The huge effort in Improving Soviet and bloc nondestructive evaluation should lie invaluable here. There Is also un excellent possibility, toward the end of the present decade, of Soviet employment of ceramic matrices reinforced by filam.ary mullitc and basalt crystals In armor, and llio use of such ceramic composites In missile radomes. Ml ID generators, and turbine engine blades, where temperaturesre encountered.


Top Secret

Original document.

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