Scientific and Technical Intelligence Report
Evaluationoviet Low-Pressure Manned Space Flight Research and Development Facility
EVALUATIONOVIET LOW-PRESSURE MANNED SPACE FLIGHT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FACILITY
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY DIRECTORATE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OfflCE OF SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE
AIrjdirtf to manned lunar or crrlaln spucr impioussicntive Iruirrint* and testfnd equipment umlrr conditions linr Inline the canceled rminmturnt. Until quite rrccnllv. evidence for llir rslslcnce of such training ond testing in the USSK hascking. This paper Identifies andies rrccnl inldliprncc Inform.ilum relating In Soviet act|iiisitionesciireh ond testing fncilily for such purposes. This report was prepared hy the Office of Scientific Intelligence and coordinated within CIA. The cut-tiff date (or inTnrnwHnn is
Evalualionw-Pressurc Manned Space Flight Research and Development Facility
The Sovicu Imvc awardedn)o( contract vamcd atillion to the Auslrmrt engincciiniE and rnamtfncturiiig
Jtoesearch hypoharic (Inw-prcsMice) cluml-cf facility Thetier facility will enable the SrwicK tn conduct tr-eurch on manimulated space or lunar environment, as well as to test full-pressure suits uwd formvrtiiailnr activity. The facility is planned Inenilional by7 nnd will ruahlc the Soviet* lo conduct rrvarvh .hi nunow-nrrwnrr environment tuch a* space or the lunar Mirface
Control* ami Instrumental
Monitoring litstruments antl Controls
Layout of Physiological lloseiirch Building Showing
Local tun of Ilyoobarlc
Schematic Drawing of MypuNiiic
Cutaway Drawing of Vertical
EVALUATIONOMET LOW-PRESSURE MANNED SPACE FLIGHT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FACILITY
To uWrll* unitoviet manned hypohahe lest facility and id utc.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Soviet* un?esearch nndfacility tn sirnuluic conditions found in onlcr space and nil tlie limur surfucr. They have contracted with mi Austrian firmiwl ofillion lor constructionanned liypnhnric chamlirr. associated equipment,uilding to home the facility. Thr primary purpose of ihis facility, known asutya.o nmdiiet physiological trsilnfi on human suh|rctsimulated spucc environment. Ounplrtlnn of the fadllly Is scheduled furest program Is expected to Iwfiin curlytlar simulatorreadmill used in eomliiiiulionock und tackle urmngrinciil to slmulalr rrdiicrd gravitational forre will penvldr Ihc in*crssnry ri.ru ns ofosmonaut during both oditlnl nnd simulated lunar surface esta vehicular activity.
The tr-ling will lir enndueted by medical nrrunwl andI will require al least two phy.slcians. tmt physinlogls.s. and un elect miili* riigiiiref phis numerous support personnel to operate the fueillty. ll appears thai the IcnI faHllty will Im* operatedermanent Irakis nnd ihat ihe Soviets are ansinus to have Itoperational soon.
The hypnharir clmmltrr almost rcrlniiily will he used lo test mace suits, InvMtlgiilr human phy*iolor> y. and measure energy rxpcndllorr* under bothand lunar cundlllnm. Theric facilityood indicator of Soviet Intentions for manned lunar niiwlom nnd the Soviet cnntmctiiig effort implies some urgency. Missionowever, will depend ml well on Snvlrt progress in other phases of activity, such as development of Imostrr. and spacecraft.
Inlwas CiriltHClrtl bv
f IkeJftoisr* fiM*iZ-
_j who discussed
known n> PlHfrli Knlyu. lo lir outsliorlrd(lie 1'SMl build, procure, assemble, test, and cellvrr niiMmltnrlrra. system for the chamberan oxygen an;.ply systrui (or space suitihe main rhtomlirf nnd th* observer station* 'naminos for an earlyl
faffrdfd Inirm is hi lint fmm the USSR in llcermlirr IflTflith muiplrlmmi nf Ihr cliauilirr "
inchamber wai Io lie
designed primarily fnr physiological testing; ll was In no providedryogenicolar simulator, ami the capability to pump down loorr; It was to Ik- used lo test spucc lulls us well as lo iuvcstlgulc human physiology .ind energy expenditure* under hy-mlianc conditions.1
NegotiationsJ^'crc carried on forwhen suddenly the Soviels uwnnlrd4 to the Austrian engineering
t'lmniher, fal.ncatrd oy
-Jisor completionmarch III"'* The system then will lie instiilledew building, probably ut the Institute of Medico* Biological Problems No.utside ofest program is expected to begin curlyhe scheduling for delivery and Installation of the chamber Icsl facility Is consistent with the hypothesis that the Sovirls urc unxinus lo move aheadanned lunar landing and are vnrking toward achieving lhat
Projectighly sophisticated chamber, will cost the USSRillion, which will include tlie construction of the chamber, associated equipment,uilding to house the facility.ount does not include the cost for uny operating personnel or rxpendnhlcs required to sustain operation. The project is planned for continuous opcrutlon and will require personnel of various disciplines, such us physicians, physiologists, psychologists, physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and support personnel.'
Project Katya is nf high priority and will provide the USSRapability for performing detailed phys'ologk-al testing of human subjects, wearing full pleasure suits. In the environmental conditions found on the luruir surface or In outer space. Simultaneously, In un adjacent chamber, which Is connectedan-hick, the shirt-sleeve environmentpace vehicle can he provided to pennlt test subjects to simulate transition to androject Katya Is not designed to lest large equipment suchapsule or orbital compartment. By comparison,. National Aeronautics and Space Administration has hypobnric chambers that are capable of testing man and machine under the extreme condltinns found In spuce or on the lunar surface. Although Project Katya Is not designed to Include man/machine testing, ll Is believed that except for this capability the Soviets will
Icivc gained parity wiih similar US facilities once Project Katya becomes
The hypobnric chamber will lie housedeparate physiological rescureh buildinghe main chamlx'r hall willloor men of approximately4 meters. The remainder of the building will lie divided into rooms for control, electronics, medical, and staff functionsoom to house the .machinery, including cryogenic "id vueuum equipment and other related equipment necessary tn operate the.facility. The hypobnricItself is divided Into threeorizontalertical chandler,un-lockhe man-lockonnecting area between the horizontal and vertical chambers which can lie pressurized und unprevsurized by the use uf interconnecting prcssvre sealing doors without disturbing (he artificial nlinosphcre of cither of the chambers. "Die horizontal chamber will functionrew quarters area and willhower, toilet facility, and sleeping quarters. It also willerviceV cameni lo monitor the crew, undc!lnii windows In the wulls of the chambers. The vertical chamber willreadmillolar simulator which can be used for simulated lunar surfaceook, located in the center top of the vertical chamber and directly nlxtvc the treadmill, could lie used to simulateorce of gravity found on the lunar surface. The entire chamber will be air conditioned for environmental control. The man-lock can be used for transfer of men and equipment to and from the main ehamWrs without disrupting the artificial environment created during prolonged testing. Additionally, the man-lock can provide the necessary menns of practicing transfer to andpacecraft or more specifically transfer to and from the lunar surfaceunar landing vehicle. :V
The horizontal and vertical chambers can be used to test the extremes of protective clothing from "shirt sleeves"ressurized compartment toactivity (EVA) suitsacuum wllh simulated lunar-surface solur radiation.
Test equipment Incorporates! directly wiihin the vertical chamber unit Includes the treadmill, the solar
f -aweoix Layout ol Phy-iologieoJBuilding SKoxnng Locot-on of Mypobone Chombe.
ALL DIMENSIONS IN
,inil ii hi cult' eigomrter (figurr !l) The Inaduull i* liialrd iii Mir floor nf the vfilk-.il chandlerin hunt ol thr solar simulator 'Hie primary pur-Nrse m( lias drsigu is looMiiniuiut
OO .1 iff.icc whileii |lw effect
ulrn Hynf.ilini; ihrhr lopn- vi-rtu-.il chamber dirrcuy over lhc treadmill, ii Mod uml tackle type arrnngrmrnt cniiltlsed lo simulate thravilali'inal effect found on thr lunar
Any sull (In- Soviets intend to use fur hmnr KVA would require considerable testing utilizing ihrrnous weakness in llie design of Sovietl-ii i- sailsthat tbry lack the joint flrxihillly of US Vf-ace soils It is very difficult If not Impossible foi Ihc wrarrr of ihr Soviet suit to articulate arm and Irg jiiims. been use lhc arms und leg* of the Soviet .suits resemble slovr piprs und remain virtually rigid iiimI uitlx-tidlug. The Soviets do not seem to have mastered ibe lechnlqur of combining Joint flexibility with the required impermeability. The Soviels huve tried incnl ji.ist to purchusc tbe US Apollo suit. If Ihey arc successful, ihey quite possibly intend ultimately to lest thece Milts as well at those manufactured in the USSR In tbe hypobnric chamber. The inadmill would lie employrdarge part of this
The treadmill would also be used forcxercise hy the cosmonauts during extended periods of testing.spuce flight the treadmillen effective fur exercise and for promotion l'circulation during prolonged periods of weightlessness.
A bicycle ergometer will be used for exercise andrst unit to measure respiratory functions. It cane used tn measure the work necessary lo o'llculate the leg and aim joinbressure suit andmeasurether physiological stresses involved.
The solar simulator will be eonlmlled hy an operator outside of the chamber who will have an indicnlor punel complete with nil safely fealurcs The solar simulation device consists nf the following Units and syslrms:
liI-ii lAim* *tril ftandbyn nnr hnwlr--.
i"mmplrfrat ihr -wii-llnn fawn at
l.ll lllrillin H'Vll* I'll tlw> IniiM'Ii.l iiiMill.
tinti 'Oilier has| miserl Li Iowa IH Thr iulrgmlor syrtrm nssiirrs uniformity of thein thr trst plane ana. The shutter system will automatically reduce curreni lu the radiation source within one hull* of use lo1 prrcenl af ihe nominal value. All element, of the solar simulation systrm grnrmlingooled liy high-or htw-presMirr water rrcirctilalor systems or by cooletl nir. Ozone and nitric oxides along with other "harmful ni.it'M.iU will be removeduction device within double walls enclosing thr whole volume of thr iliumbei in svhich hnrmlul gases are grnrraled. Thr radiation intensity Is to lie controlled automallcully by electronic devices. The desired simulated radialion intensity can beotenlinmeler. the prnhe of which Is loc; Ird in the test plane uica The lest planes directly In from of the
Tn provide further simulation of the spacr enviimmmt. theof the walk io the vertical chomlier mustliis will be accomplishedosed ctrculnt-ng system o' liquid nitrogen.1
The horizontal chamber willire extinguishing system which will eject water through special Jrls designed toine spruy, re.ulting In large surface area coverage capable nf rnpid ulisorplion of heat releasedire. Ventilation ol the chamlier will he accomplished by utilizing an air conditioning "dry cleaning" plant. The function of the dry droning plant Is lo control andprrnturesnd relative humidity belwrenrrcenl andhe systrm Is planned lornly. The air will be directed into ihe chamber ihiough pressure-proof connecting pipes. The communication system will Include an Intercomlack and while closed circuit TV systrm. and lane recorders. Datt from medicil experiments carried out inside the ehamlier will he tntmm-tlrd directly from the trsr personnel In ihr outside by cultlr and fed directly Into un online processing computer. *
COM"HOLS AND INSTRUMENTATION Vacuutn System
Tin* artificial atmosphere of (In: chamber imlK will he controlledacuum systrm. ll will consist of three pump stations tltal am Im- used separately nr in combination. Tin- vacuumnmplrlr entity, including iiicnx-iriiig equipmentccial pumping stand for lift-off simulation up tol will provide tlie capability In test operationpace Miit during simulated spacecraft press onI ion fj-durr.1
A prim.irs oxygen .syslrm and emergency oxygen pnivisioiis are incorporated in ilie liypolianc chamber design and will lM-erpnhlrrif providing nxvgen (none. Isvo. or lliree persons. The instruments and controls for the oxygen supply system will be assembled iu three control runs-ilev one each for tin: vertical chamber, ihe hori/onlal chamber, and lhcxygen wMI be provided lollietest subjects inside the chamber Irmu portable oxygen vessels contained in modules Klrxiblrill lie used to connect the text subjerts In distribution panels arranged in lhc vcrtifiil and horizontal chamber, and the man-lock.
Tlu- hori/onlal chamlter will have three distribution panels on one side of the chumhrr and another set of three panels on thr op|Nisilr side fur nllrniiiteectiof |rs( Mibjrcls. The nan-lock ssill contain three distribution nrirls"
One oxygen supply module will lie required for each lest subject. Euch module will containiort for pressure, ternpeniturc. flow, and humidityHie pressure instnimrnlnilon will show ihr oxygen supply, emergency supply, pressure in theit. and the differential pressure lx-tween lhc suit and chamber. All of the instrumentationquipped with nlnrm systems.11
Simultaneous operations of three oxygen modules will br rrquirrd to support three test subjects.ourth oxygen module will he requiredtandby emergency supply sourer. The emergencyyxlcni will be designed louilfuncllo'iing oxygen module and will normully Ik> controllrd manually, but in some cases automatic activation of the emergency onygen supply will be initiatedetr.ing device indication ton loss sp,uv suit prrssure Safety of (hr test sulijrcts will Im- of primelaiKT. Kvery oxygen supply module will In-equippedegulaloi lo pn'vcit moreorr pressure ulxise ihr uchuil ehumlxT pressure in the space >uit, an alarm system In detect leakage from ihr spair suit,ortable oxygen system In facilitate safe transfer nf Icsi persons lo another clruiiiparlinrril "
Thr entire oxygen system will Im- an open-liMip system where the returned gas from the chamber is tn Ih- dumped and is not to Im- reused. Koch test) jM-rcml purr oxygen at all limes while cnnrieeled lo Ihe syslrm. The dunilion of each oxygen supply module is mil knn* i. 'nit il ish oxygen vesselld br replaced wilhoul disturbing Ilie conlinuily of Ihe system thereby uiairiliiiiiiiig KKI |ierx-riil oxygen siq.ply for an indeliriitr pcri-xl nf time.'1
Monitoring Instruments and Controls
T'ictp willoMlrol room lorsilrd uImiiiIcable Irngtb (mm ihr chamber. Moriitoriug iivslrumenls and control* will Im- grouped in coutml
The doctor iriviKtigutor) panel, contains elaborate lust'iimenlallon lo measure und monitor basic physiological parameters such asheart mte.JimhI pn-sum. oxyhemoglobin, respiratory mlt and volume, partial prrssure of oxygen and carbon dioxide in Inluilnl unrl exhatrd uir. ImmIv lemprraliirr. skin trrri-tcriiturcs, uml galvnnic skin response. In addition, the doctnr investigator will have tiumeniiis Icclmicul parameters displayed to monitor subirctspace suit anil will have control of the treadmill und bicycle ergomrtrr. The doctor investigator appears to br Ihe individual in charge of the experiments"
A doctor operator (DO) panel Is similar In the Dl panel but will have three TV monitors, oner the horizontal clmmlier. verjicul chitmlier. and man lock, but will not have individual controls for the treadmill or bicycle rrgomeler. ll will have, however, nn extra .stop button for the treadmill. Il appears that ihrre urn |msltlnns for three medical pcnnunrl nl this panelomplete comprehensivecapability. It appears lhal the operator of Mils control panel has the capability tnV cameni
Indicator showing (hi name o( test person.
channel oscilloscope with memory end channel
display lor ccntinuoui display of heartO-gital display 'Of continuous display ul respiration
piay lorpUy ol body
6 ai display lor continuous OuplBy ol pressure In the soJte unit.
Keyboard for supplying information Into the com-
ushbuttons ter ordering quick changing parameters into Iha computer.
Selector panel lor Input into recorders.
Program selector lor elect roca'd-or-ram and electro
Control panel for treadm.li
Control pane* lorrgemeter.
Firmsc-tlor Inveitigolor Pont I
for ,niy one or all of lite r'lrce TV monitorshr vertical chamber could he shown on nil ihree monitors at once) or In- canamera lo monitor thr horizontal chamU'r, vertical chamber, and man-lock and project vuvii one simultaneouslycpa rale TV niiuiilor1
The engMirer operator) desk is designed for one individual who will he in charge of the entire technical work for all trsts including the preparation and Inuctioning of thr hy|tohuric chambers and testtothnd ihraris cnutuin com un mica tic hi systems to maintain voice contact with Ik' lest stilijrcts and lite KOhr KOdWk will lw equippedV surveillance system [or the rutin- trsl uiim. Control and measuring instrument*,tors, and cominaiid drvicr* air built inio the KO desk to enable ibr engineer operator to receive oniiiterruptrd data net-rsvm for the ti-clinlc-al control o! the lests. The KO will havr available digital judication; ligbl swilcli image of tbe actual condition of ibr doors in ihe horimntalrtica'ii ml man-lock. audio layout sr|re*ioii switch: 'IA' camera,ps to iiiihc.ile electric (Mover supply; signal |Miiel lor llie various auiiliary systems;ight indicator fur the operating condition of ul) nusiliaiv systems.*
Indicator srvwtng location. ot test person
Oscilloscopo with memory .showing elactrbcardio-
Digital display cf heart.
Digital display ol respiration
Digital display tr! body
Digital display ol pressure in the space suit In(or oxygen (low to the space
ator tor cooling liquid flow to the space suit.s-
Horizontal cliamber pressure Indicator.
Man-lock pressure indicator. Vertical chamber pressure indicator. Indicators showing rate of ascent or decent ol chambers.
emergency stop pushbutton for treadmill Communications panel. Time display.
Indicator showing which chamber doors are open and closed. Three TV monitors, one tor each chamber. TV camera selector.
Indicator (or partial pressure of oxygen in horizontal chamber.
Indicator (or partial pressure ol carbon dioxide in horizontal chamber.
octor Operator Panel
PPOrt'nS this pv, ore identifiedist pubh shedi separately. Copies of the list are available to authorizedond mfty bo obtained from the originating office throughlcX