ew Generation Soviet City
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Note: This paper was produced by the Cfice of Ceo-rapluc and Cartographic Research. C'nmmrmit nr mutiinnc may lw
EW GENERATION SOVIET CITY
Urban population in the Soviet Union increased more than five-fold0mi aboutercent of this growth was contributed by new cities Tol'yatti. withnnovative design, exemplifies the new generationvicl urban centers founded since World War II. Tins city on the middle Volga has been our of thr fastest growing in the Soviet Union, expandingUOO9olyatti's easy access by rail and river ard its abundant supplies of cheap enemySoviet planners In establish there the nation's largest automobileact mine planturgeoning |K'trnchcnilcul industry.
The automobile plant is Tolyatti's largest economic activity, employing moreorkers. Constructed with Italian and other Western assistance, it produces theoviet version of the Italian Fiat. Its annual outputntikboutercent of tlie total Soviet po&srnpri car production.
A lanje petrochemical complex, the city's other major industry,overning factor in the recent selection of Tolyatti as the site of four fertilizer plants. Scheduled lo be built byach slated toetric liHW of umnmuia fertilizerday.
Kvcn the older part of Tolyatti (called Stavropol' until it wa. renamed1 for the Italian Communist leader) is of relatively recent vintage, having been established inonstruction of thr new portion of Tolyatti, designedesidential area. iM'gants current population
The new cityilometers west of the older city between the hugeZhiguli auto pi.ml and the Volgailometers to the south.illion square metre, of living space have already Iteen constructed, and new housing is Itemg added al an annual ratequare meters Kifcty tlmusand living units have Iteen (fuislrm-led for lhe auto plant workers alone.
Thr.Mitli.itil ihr OPMrchiltfir.ited Imildiiics of dilhrinl Iriigtti. height
uurwiig fromndmi fin itrat iiMi haw lirm grouped lu prmliHT a
Mm. kii'sittneil li> .il fi Til some proletlioii frmii hitteriods and an aterage wilder IrMip.fntiirr ofC.
In Tolyatti, as in other cities, llir I'SSK is exerting intensive efforts Inollution-freeJOO-viibie-mcterper-day hlolngkalIrralnienl plarl. which complements an older facility, handle* wastes from the new city and the auto plant. Plans call for complete recycling of waste water at tlie nolocomplex and expensive process.. Knviroiimeiital Protection Agency personnel found that air pollution control devices at this plant are efficient and employ udvanccd technology, hut air pollution problems have evidently rot hern entirely solved (figure 2)
nteiidexl to minimize the need fur private automobiles aiMl thereby reduce pollution, arc the liasic form of transportation in Tol'yatti.igh speed bwn carry workers to the auto plant ininutes or. urban experts indicate that few large plants in the wiirkl can Ixust of almost all workers living in (Irccnl housing only minules from work and also dose to major recreational facilities suchtadium, parkland, beaches, and boating. There are currentlyutos in tin-city,mar forparadox in the Soviet Union's auto
n.wim In llir I'SSH *ilI rot23In llir I'nMi'il Mill"
Tolyatti is llirhclm. someilonutcr* In llie northeast This city is in mi earlier stage of development hut alreadyX Ml residentss ihc site of ss lint will he the world's largest trod, plant, now under ronslriiclioiialf-hour commuting dislamv of the workers' residential districts.
Soviet authorities consider Tolyatti and XalxTe/hnyye Chelny model cities. I'.S. II rl Kill expert*,continue to he critical or the poor quality of housing construction, generally Mow Western standards there and throughout the I'SSH. Tolyatti Ultd Nal>crczhnyyc Chelny are drah. uniform, colorless, poorly laodscajK-d. and lack the variety apparent in comparabletiropran cities. Soviet urhan officials lament that the country,eliagured bousing program is hampered hymmtfuctioii. inadequate funds, and shoriagr of skilled lalior.
Since7 Revolution, wellities have Imyii founded in the ISSR. and tins trend is cx|>cctcd to continueate ofoer year. But even this rate combined with continued expansion of olderll not satisfy the USSR's critical housing shortage. New cities, already expensive in tliearts of the Kuntpciin I'SSH. cost far more to build in Silieria mid the Soviet Far Kast. where many will be needed to sup|xtrt tin* planned expansion of resource exploitation in those areas. Notwithstanding the expense and shortcomings of new cities such u> Tol'vatli. their construction will probably continue as Soviet leaders seek to upgrade the urban standard of living.Original document.