Comments on Manufacturing Technology and Design Features of Selected Soviet Military Equipment
Wornlng Notico Sensitive Intelligence Sources and Methods Involved (WNINTEl)
NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION
Unauthorized Disclosure Subject to Criminal Sanctions
DISSEMINATION CONTROl ABBREVIATIONS
NO-CFNRelcaioUe to Foreign Nationals
NOCONTRACT- Noi Releosoble to Conlraeton or
and Extraction of Information
by Originator This Information hoi been Authorized for Rolooio
CENTRAL .INTELLIGENCE AGENCYf. Intelligence i 7 J
Comments on Technology and Design Feature's ofvl"ot Military Equipment"
: . After3 Middle East war,!the Intelligence Community undertook 'studies of several Soviet weapon isystems which had been captured in that war. Into detailed technical analyses of the weapons by imany elements of the intelligence community, anof the coats of producing the weapons in the US was sponsored by the Office of Strategic Research (OSR). An important by-product of that effortompilation of comments bv CI
3speccea the Soviet equipment. Tne comments are summarized in this paper.
The captured equipment included five major items of ground force equipment, two aircraft, and four surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems. Most had been manufactured but the dates of initialranged8 All of tho weapons which were examined are of types which are still widely used by the armed forces of the Soviet Union, other Warsaw Psct countries, and Soviet-supplied countries in tho Middle East.
Two of the ground forceBMP infantry combat vehicle and thentiaircraft
Comcnts and queries regarding this publication ere veli They may be directed to
Office of Strategic
representative.of relatively/complex land warfare systems which the Soviets have designed since the oarly sixties.* The other ground force systems and the two aircraft arc of earlier, less complex designs. The four SAM3 which were examinedeneral continuity in design characteristics over time.
Since the captured weapons constitutemall sample of the systems which the Soviets have designed and manufactured since the late fifties, the comments in thi3 paper do not necessarily apply to Sovietdesign and production practices in general. recurring themes, however, can be gleaned from the remarks:
Soviettheir USwere designed to perform only one or two primary functions.
-- The design and manufacturing techniques of
each weapon apparently have remained basically unchanged for the entire production period.
-- Standardization of components was evident
iven system and among related systems.
Except for the BMP, the design of the weapons showed little concern for environmental effects.
Valueproduction cost through hardwarewas not emphasized.
_ i -
i i i, i
* The evolution of Soviet designs for lanl arma ia discussed in Increased'Complexity in Soviet land Arms,
Following tho Middle East warovoral captured Items of Sovlot militaryro were brought to tho US forexploitation. Included were two aircraft, four surface-to-air missile syatoms, and five major items of ground forceost,had been manufacturedut the dates of initial production ranged8 Some are of types currently used by Soviet forces. Others are export versions, which differ slightly from their Soviet counterparts in that they cither lack certain components or have substitute components.
Studies of captured equipment were undertaken by theCommunity to improve estimates of Soviet weapons Tlie Office of Strategic Research (OSP) , intho opportunity for direct examinationeans toits estimates of procurement costs for those weapons. eparata study of the available Sovietundertaken by osn in conjunction with ^
Directorate ol Operations, and the Office of Weapons Intelligence, Directorate of Intelligence.
A by-product of the cost analysis effort compilation of coi-ments
inspected the equipment. This paper summarizes their observations about Soviet manufacturing technology and weapons design. Although the coataents arc not Intelligence assessments based on detailed analysis, they do provide important Insights into the nature of the Soviet weapon systems which were examined.
This paper does not'tailed cost analyses ofcost analyses are
still in progress and have been presented in other puhl icatIons.
Soviet Military Hardware Examined 8-
annexi reference guide to soviet military
hardware examined . 31
mig-2jm interceptor 31
b armored personnel carrier
Procedure and Scope
initiated by the f
f the Office of Strategic Research after Soviet military hardware captured in3 Middle East war had been brought to the US forexploitation. This provided an opportunity to have weapons specialists examine the equipment Tho specialists made cost estimates based on US manufacturing practices and commented on design and manufacturing philosophy and techniques. Many elements of the US intelligence and industrialassisted in the project.
Analysts from OSR, H_
the US military were directly involved in examination of the hardware. Cost exploitation teams were formed to examine and analyze each piece of hardware. The exploitation was conducted at military installations, each item being examined for one or two days. The teams prepared cost estimates and comments on the design features as well as the technology that the Soviets used in the manufacture of the items. Of particular interest were characteristics reflecting standardization, quality control, and design concept.
The estimates and comments then were consolidated into intelllaence handbooks for the use
^analysts. The information that follows waa extracted from those handbooks.
the exploitation of two
aircraft, four surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems, and five major items of ground force equipment. and descriptivo notes are provided in theost had been manufacturednd all are currently used by either Soviet, non-Soviet Warsaw Pact, or Sovict-aupplind Middle Eastern forces.
Pi it 1v
Soviet Military Hardware Examined
Initial Year of production/ manufac-_dcployncnt ture*
Spin Scan airborne intercept radar
Partial airframe only
everely damaged,missing, not operetional
BMP infantry combat vehicle
Sagger2 medium tank
Partial airframe only* no avionics or engine available
Intact but damaged
Initial Year, of production,^ manufao-doployment ture*
2 Some- damage to
Guideline missile (Mod 1)
oo mibdile Launcher
Intact but not
Blow target acquisition radar
3 Severely damaged,
Gainful missile seoker head
1 Seoker head intact-
remainder ofnot available
Grail miaello (Mod 0)
and gripstockand operational
The systems and components that were available for examination are listed in the table onndome systems were intact, but subsystems on others were damaged or missing.
Except for the BMP Infantry combat vehicle and thentiaircraft gun, the systems in general do not have new design features, and most lack tho more advanced features characteristic of Soviet land warfare systems designed since tho early sixties.* The examined, therefore, do not represent current Soviet design technology. Rather, they reflectthat went into the design of several currently deployed systems--and only indirectly revealthat will be incorporated in future systems.
Assessment of Design Features
The findings of thefJT
Jwho participated in Project^ 3arc summarized in this section (individual comments are compiled in the "Supporting Comments' section which follows). The features of Soviet weapons design and technology discussed below were identified by theas being common to most of the hardware Not all were found, however, in the BMP and thenewest of the Soviet weapons examined.
These comments should not be interpreted ason the effectiveness of these weapon systems. They pertain only to differences between US and Soviet weapon design and manufacturing technology.
Simplicity of Design
The feature most frequently mentioned by project participants was design simplicity. This attitude or
philosophy toward product design allows Sovietto use standardized components, general pur-pode machines and conventional assembly operations in the production of weapons. Even theassimple in actual hardware, although it isinnovative in the integration and optimization of components and complex in design concept. Only the BMP incorporated new components whose featuressignificant changes in weapons design. .
An important design criteria therefore seemed to be that the weapon could be produced with existing manufacturing methods. Existing manufacturingis moreonstraint on weapons design in the USSR than in the US.
A dominant feature of most of the hardwarewas the conservative design, except for the BMP combat vehicle and theun system. The designers tended to use proven technology or standard components, and there was little apparent effort to strive for maximum system performance. For example, thendirframes as well as theauncher were judged to be bigger and heavier than required for their missions, and bigger and heavier than the US counterparts. This practice minimizes potential hardware stress problems hut results in sacrifices to performance characteristics such as payload, range, and speed.
Limited Design Modification
The design reflected in nearly all the hardware examined has remained basically unchanged over long periods of time. Thend theAM systems perhaps are most illustrative of this. They were designed in the middle fifties and have been produced in several variants since the early sixties. The few design changes that, were incorporated affected only specific systems components and did not reflect aweapon system redesign. In the US, designare made more often and are generally applied to all applicable componentseapon system.
Standardization of Ccmponents and Subsystem Designs
Standardization of componentsivenand among rolated systems was evident. Theuidance and control vanotable example. All relays and oil-filled capacitors were of three basic types; and standardized magnetics, vacuum tubes, and diode rectifier networks were used. Pneumaticon theurface-to-air missile and their-to-air missile appeared to be similar. Other parts such as clamps, brackets, and connectors appeared to be of common design and supply.
It was also evident that existing subsystem designs were used in new versions of weapon systems. Forthemploys some subsystems used in earlier ground force antiaircraft artillery systems.
Little Attention to Cosmetics
High-quality or expensive manufacturing techniques generally were used only where absolutely necossary for system performance. By US standards finishes were rough and tolerances were loose on many Soviet weapons components and parts. This was especially true ofndirframes and engines and thendissiles.
Lagging Design Technology
Soviet design technology, for all systems except the BMP combat vehicle, was judged to lag that of thj US. This apparentlyrue technology gap in certain cases, while in others it probably resulted morereference for standardization and simplicity than from an inability to incorporate more advanced technology. The lag was particularly evident in electronics, and less obvious in mechanical systems. The evolutionary nature of design changeseluctance to introduce new production processes contribute to the technology lag.
Lagging Production Technology
The production techniques required to manufactureeapons also are outdated by US standards. For
instance, thondould have been produced without the use of any three-dimensional machining equipment. Also, with the exception of one or two parts, thengine could have been produced usingtechnology available in the early forties.
Labor-intensive Manufacturing Methods
The production techniques used to fabricatesystems reflects the fact that labor isto capital in the Soviet Union than in theproduction techniques were used onPerhaps the most obvious example was thethe hand-stitched fabric cable on the wiringplastic or heat-ehrinkab'le cable commonly usedUS. ;
Reliability of Equipment 'and Ease of Maintenance
A detailed analysis of equipment reliability and ease of maintenance requires exploitation of greater depth than was possible in this project. ew comments were made by US weapons manufacturers regarding the reliability and ease of maintenance of Soviet equipment in the field based on their analysis of design features. Their comments are of interest and are reported onut are not sufficient for even tentative conclusions.
Quotations from the US experts who examinee',equipment % are detailed 1/
below. References in parenthesis identify the pieces of equipment.
Simplicity of Design
"Adequate apaco was available for all the components of the system, making it easily producible. No unique manufacturing techniques were in evldenco. Conventional techniques were utilized throughout tha product. Consideration for cosmetic appeal appearod to bo minimal." issile)
"Machining, chera-milling, ond tapering for weightnot apparont as on Mo uce of titaniumof alloy steel ia made for purposes of weightand
"The machined components appear to bo made from forgings or castings, with machining limited to such applications assurface mating (none for weight reduction). Soviet design does not require three-dimensional or sculptured machining. Alloy steel and aluminum (no titanium) is used for forgings, andand magnesium are used for casting." nd SU-7)
ion of the relative complexity and quality of the vehicle as compared to its US equivalent,A1 [mediumndicates toesser level of complexity as well as quality. Specifically, the vehicleange finder, and haspowertrain, and fire control of simpler, less oxpensivo design. We have estimatedthis vehicleer pound basispercentostly vehicle.*
"The above generalizations can be applied to the systemholei however, elements of tho systemressure vessels, actuators,ell-devoloped specializedpossibly highly The modular makeup of the subject vehicle would permit the usearge numberith only the final assembly of tho sus-talners being accomplished ot an assembly facility. The point to be made here is that this vehicle permits more latitude along these lines than any other the writer is aware of." issile)
ommitment to simple and straightforward execution of design to permit an equally straightforward execution in issile)
"Theeekerunctional, well-designed infrared sooker." issile)
enerally unsophisticated approach to design inof vibration and shock environment. Although no evident failures appeared. Although unsophisticated in approach to the problem, the use of ebock mounts on tho oquipront main frame at all appearedurpiisa improvement to us. Studios by us of earlier vintago hardware had determined that all equipment waa hard-mounted to the aircraft frame." adar)
"Quality had been applied With more discretion/discernment than any other in the writer's experionce. Whore precision and care woro required to assure function, they were readily oppnront,
and where not required, little effort was jxpended. This wouldery nature and realistic approach to tho application and control of quality requirements. An elcmont that generallyigh levol of quality, at least visually, wore the weldB. Machined parto bost demonstrated tho ovorall philosophy. Many were very crude by contemporary standards} however, they too reflected procision whore roquired." issile)
"The chem-mllllng of skins [removal of metal by etching with an oblating chemical] shows rough surfaces, undercuts at edges, and sharp corners, none of which would pass US inspection. The Soviet integrally stiffened wing skinsing surface in which the outer skin and load-bearingcut out of one piece of metal] have ribs that are parallel to each other (do not follow percentre not high and thin, and are not tapered in thicknoss. Soviet riveting consists ofercent drivon-bucked rivetsivet that requires two operators forto. hammer tho rivet and another to hold tho template that fastenso blind fasteners [any oneumber of faaterners, such as screws, that only requirerator to install] are used. Extensive use of alloy steel fasteners is made rather than Monel, stainless, or titanium fasteners. There is little concern for the effects of dissimilar metal contact such as alloy steel to aluminum.* (MIGnd SU-7)
"Machining, chom-milling, and tapering for woight reduction are not apparent as onS. No use of titanium in placo of alloy stool is made for purposes of weightnd SU-7)
"The machined components appear to be made from forgings or castings, with machining limited to such applications as critical surface mating (nono for weight reduction). Soviet doaign does not require throo-dlmonsional or sculptured machining. Alloy steel and aluminum (no titanium) [are] used for forgings, and aluminum and magnesium are used for casting." nd SU-7)
"Woight, volume, and technological advancement soom to bo secondary to continued use of existing equipment.- ommunications)
A porcent lino la the rate at which the gap between tho ribs In an Integrally atlffonod aircraft wing widens or narrows from one edge of the wing to the other. To cut the metaling and leave rlbn that follow percent linos requires much moremauhlneru than does the cutting of metal to form parallel ribs.
"The overall appearance of the hardware indicated thatconsideration in manufacturing was function, withno consideration for cosmetic appeal. .
not appear to be significant design criteria.- issile)
"The Soviet design philosophy appearscceptance" of a
horter overall life in terms of environmental influences. Good finishes and close tolerances are not the general rule but are very good in the areas where they are really required. Corrosion protection such as exterior painting and plating are not equal to US standards.- U-7)
"It waa observed that the design agency had bean veryin [its] effort to achieve standardisation in component selection and application. As we mentioned
were of three basic types and, in addition, oil-f. tors were of three general typesimilar dsgree of standard-ization among magnetics, vacuum tubes, and diode rectifier in addition, all chassis, mechanical items, conne blocks, sheet metal, and hold-down hardware were standardized. Offsetting the advantages of standardization,served numerous Instances wherein the standardizationresulted ineight or volume penalty. Thiswas^espec ially true in certain of the chassis drawers whore at times no more thanoercent of the total volume was utilized. This was apparently tho direct result of utilizing sheet metal enclosures, front panels, chassis dimensions, etc.ommand and control van)
eritable fortress-heavy forgings ith all electronics encased in casting, and further shielded by steel paneli." auncher)
Limited Design Modification
-Extensive inspection of every solder joint was indicatedolor-coded varnish dot on each and every connection. No changes, re-works, or engineering Improvementsated by the uniformity of the assembly and the untouched inspection marks.- adar)
-There were no obvious signs of post-manufactured change incorporation. Ha term such changes ECPs (Engineering Change Proposal) and tend to continually update thequipment in the field through modification of circuitry. Such
modifications ace usually obvious, since wire types areare positioned in nonconforming places, and nowadded outside of original wire bundles. The lack ofin this hardware indicates that the equipmentIs high, that upgrading of performance Is done bycompletely new suits of equipment, that changesby rotating equipment back to the factory ofrather complete physical rework to incorporateor some combination of these considerations."
Standardization of Components and Subsystem Designs
"Height, volume, and technological advancement seen to be secondary to continued use of existing equipment.*1 ommunications)
"It was observed that the design agency had been voryIn (its] effort, to achieve standardization in componentand application. As we mentioned above, all relays were of three basic types and, in addition, oil-filled capacitors were of three general typesimilar degree of standardization among magnetics, vacuum tubes, and diode rectifier networks. In addition, all chassis, mechanical items, connector blocks, sheet metal, and hold-down hardware were standardized. Offsetting the advantages of standardisation, however, we observed numerous instancesthe standardization effort rosulted ineight or volume penalty. This was especially true in certain of ttvj chassis drawers where at times no more thanoercent of the total volume was utilized. This was apparently the direct result of utilizing standard sheet metal enclosures, front panols, chassis dimensions, etc." ommand and control van)
"The writer had the opportunity to review parts of an air-to-air vehicle from tho same builder. In comparing the units, it has been apparentincere attempt was made to userJwareroup of vehicles. The case In point revealed aotuators (pneumatic cylinders) that were at least visually common to each vehicle. Additionally, hardware items (damps, brackets, connectors) appeared to be common design and supply." ndissiles)
Little Attention to Cosmetics
"Adequate space was available for all the components of the system, making it easily producible. No unique manufacturing
techniques wero In evidence. Conventional techniques were utilised throughout the product. Consideration for cosmetic appeal appeared to be minimal." issile)
"Qualify had been applied with more discretion/discernment than any other In tho writer's experience. Where precision and cars were required to assure function, thoy'were readily apparent and where not required, little effort was expended. This wouldery mature and realistic approach to the application and control of quality requirements. An element that generallyigh level of quality, at least visually, were the welds. Machined parts best demonstrated the overall philosophy. Many were very crude by contemporary standards! however, they too reflected precision where required." issile)
"The chem-mllllng of skins [removal of metal by etching with an oblating chemical] shows rough surfaces, undercut! at edges, and sharp corners, none of which would pass US inspection. The Soviet integrally stiffened wing skinsing surfaoe in which the outer skin and load-bearingcut out of one piece of metal] have ribs that are parallel to each other (do not follow percentre not high and thin, and are not tapered in thickness. Soviet riveting consists orercent drivon-bucked rivetsivot that, requires two operators forto hammer the rivet and another to hold the template that fastenso blind fasteners [any oneumber of fasteners, such as screws, that only require one operator to Install] are used. Extensive use of alloy steal fasteners Is made rather than Monel, stainless, or titanium fasteners. There ie little concern for the effects of dissimilar metal contact such as alloy steel to aluminum." (MZGnd SU-7)
"The overall appearance of the hardware indicated that the major consideration in manufacturing waa functir with little or no consideration for cosmetic appeal. Site in weight do not appear toignificant design criteria." issile)
"Tho Soviet design philosophy appears tocceptanceeavier airframe,horter overall life in terms of environmental influences. Good finishes and close tolerances are not the general rule but are
ercent line is the rate at which the gap between the ribs in an Integrally stiffened aircraft winy widens or narxowj from ono edge ot the wing to the other. TO cut the metaling1 and leave, rib* that follow percent lines reeuires much moremachinery than does tho cutting ot metal to form parallel ribs
very good in the areas where they are really required. Corrosion protection such as exterior painting and plating are not equal to US standards." U-7)
"The entire hardware suit reflocts impressive standards of workmanship, especially the handwork involved in assembly and wiring. The wiring ia point-to-pointi That ia, each wire is routed and sold-red into place Individually. Ail solder joints are of good quality and consistent, and wires are evenly strippod and dressed. No loose wire strands (presume wire is stranded, but no check was possible) were evident. Hardware was not burred during Installation." adar)
"Machining operations (drill, punch, mill,re at an absolute minimum. Welds are not dressed) little or no attempt was made to remove burrs or flocklngs (residueoating applied to keep stamping tools clean) from stampingadar)
"The (gyro) spin and gimbal bearings appear toood quality with rogard to the balls and ball grooves. Outside finishes are less than instrument bearing quality, however, giving the impressionow-grade bearing. The poor coast-time characteristic of the gyro may be attributed to either an over-oiled condition or excessive preload." eeker head)
inimal use of anodica finish for corrosion protection) however, no sign of corrosion." adar)
Lagging Design Technology
"This equipment,ew minor exceptions, could have been designed by us inra and fabricated by us inra." adar)
"Cost analysis studyovietunsight system reveals that the technology involved approximates that of similar US systems designed ineriod. S manufacturerunsight8 that looked very much like thsystem. It was manufactured inunsight) j
Although the design is orude in some respects (note the external push rods! to actuate the roll control, and the wire holding the booster fins in the foldedt is quite funotlonal in all respects." issile)
ugged, heavy, high-quality material anduns, turrot, and electronics) .
"The examiners were particularly impressed by the BMPvehicle. Itegree of sophistication cfwhich the Soviets were not expected to pousess* and transfer case arrangement on the-vehicleSeals to assure pressuriration are superior tothe US, and it is equipped with automated CBR devices andcannon loader that operates with an indexingwhich is Unique and eliminates the need for a (BKP)
"System capabilities concept was quite ambitious. The technology representedearsto present state of the;art." uns,
"The Sovietunsight;system was assembled withworkmanship, particularly in the electronics area. There was, for example, very careful tying of wire bundles, indicating that the labor content in the assembly of the equipment was high. Tho Soviets used better caro in the details of construction than would have been used by tho US in producing comparable equipment. Some of the wire connectors in the gunsight system were self-aligning and show advanced design techniques, considering tho time of their manufacture." unsight)
"The equipment and technology are estimated to beequivalent tointage equipment."
"An analysis of the hardwaro available for observation showed tho manufacturing technology to be comparable to that experienced [for US) missiles produced in the. These misnilos were an air/hydraulic system with vacuum tube
type of electronics." issile)
"Tho technology used is not equivalent to0 American technology. They have used mostly vacuum tuhe circuits with very little or no solid otate circuitry. There were noprinted circuit boards but rather mostly hard wire boards with discreto components. This system is probably equivalent0 or0 American system." adar)
"Itacuum tube type radar employing no solid state technology. Wiring Is all by hand) no formed cables were in-
dlcated. The entire unit la labor intensive, that ia, hand labor was used to an excess in lieu of mechanical, automation, machine, or cost effective aid(s) in completing any operation. Cables are obviously assembled bycrimping of wirelaced extensively, (in fact it looks moreood sewing stitch on the cable jcover ratheracing job). Cable relief points are manually tied within the wire bundlos, and each wire end is individually tied to prevent fraying. No use of teflon or heat-shrinkable plastic to protect these wire ends waa observed. All of the aboveigh use of manual labor rather than machines or other labor-saving devices." adar)
arge, flat rib-stiffened casting (appears die cast) on the antenna, of very thin section, is pushing, and may be beyond, our state of the art. From appearances, it is not acid dipped for thinning. It would be worthwhile studying this in more depth with respect to alloy type and method ofadar)
"The general design period relative to US hardware would appear to be2 This equipmentarked similarity to US World War II equipment in theand application of components. The command and control van is all vacuum tube, oarbon resistor, with all chassiscabled and laced. The only major departure from equipment of this approximate timeas the limited use of single-sided printed circuit boards. Such boards weresimple in circuit layout and density and were rigidly mounted and hard-wired to the internal chassis cable." ommand and control van and radar)
"Examination of the relative complexity and quality of the vehicle aa compared to its US equivalent,A1 Imodiumndicates toesaer level of complexity aa well as quality. Specifically, the vehicleange finder, and has auapension, powertrain, and fire control of simpler, lees expensive design.' We have estimated that this vehicleer pound basis0 percent less costly vehicle."
enerally unaophlstlcated approach to design inof vibration and shock environment, although no evident failures appeared. Although unsophisticated in approach to the problem, the use of shock mounts on the equipment main frame at all appearedurprise improvement to us. Studies by us of oarller vintage hardware had determined that all ecnjipavent waa hard-mounted to the aircraft frame." adar)'
Logging Production Tochnoloqy
"Tha chem-rallling of skins [removal of metal by etching with an oblatlng chemical] shows rough surfaces, undercuts at edges, and sharp corners, none of which would pass US Inspection. The Soviet integrally stiffened wing skinsing surface in which ths outer skin and load-bearingcut out of one piece of metal] have rlba that are parallel to each other (do not follow percentre not high and thin, and are not tapered in thickness. Soviet riveting consists ofven-buckod rivetsivet that requires two operators fo-to hammer the rivet and another to hold the template that fastenso blind fasteners (any oneumber ofuch as screws, that only require one operator to install] aro used.1 Extensive use of alloy steel fasteners is made rather than Honel, stainless, or titanium fasteners. Thore is little concorn for tho effects of dissimilar metal contact such as alloy steel to aluminum." (MIGnd SU-7)
"The machined components appear to be made from forgings or castings, with machining limited to such applications as critical surface mating (none for weight reduction). Soviet design does not requiro thrno-dimeneional or sculptured machinir.g. Alloy steel and aluminum (no titanium) (are) used for forgings, and aluminum and magnesium are used for costing." nd SU-7)
"Machining, chem-milling, and tapering for woight reduction aro not apparent as on No uso of titanium in place of alloy steel is made for purposes of weightnd SU-7)
"The Sovietunsight system was assembled withworkmanship, particularly in the electronics area. Thore was, for example, vary careful tying of wire bundles, indicating that the labor content In the assembly of the equipment was high. The Soviets used better care in the details of construction than would havo been used by the US in producing comparable equipment. Some of tho wire connontora in tho gunsight system wore aolf-aligning and show advanced design 'techniques, considering the time of their manufacture." unsight)
i . I ercent Una is the rate at which the gap between tho ribs In an integrally stiffened aircraft wing widens or narrows frum one edge of the wing to tha other. To cut tha metaling and leave ribs that follow percent lines requires much moramachinery than does the cutting of metal to form parallel ribs
uggod, heavy, high-quality material anduns, turret, and eleott >nlca)
"Coat analysis studyunsight system reveals that the technology involved approximates that of similar US systems designed Ineriod. S manufacturerunsight6 that looked very much like theystem. It was manufactured in unsight)
"This equipment,ew minor exceptions, could have been designed by us inra and fabricated by us inra." adar)
"The entire hardware suit reflects Impressive standards of workmanship, especially the handwork Involved in assembly and wiring. The wiring is point-to-pointi that is, each wire is routed and soldered into place individually. All solder joints are of good quality and consistent, and wires are evenly stripped and dressed. No loose wire strands (presume wire io stranded, but no check was possible) were evident. Hardware was notduring installation." adar)
"Materials used appeared consistent with (those of the US) as did methods of fabrication and use of sheet metal tooling. Thereack of newer style plastics, such aa ABSut other older types such as Micarta were inadar)
"Electrical components appear to be quite almllar to American manufactured components. Powdered iron or ferrite cup-cores like we use were in the ADP [automatic direction finder)." lectronics)
"The uie of double insulated hook-up wire,lastic inner jacket (presumably for electrical protection) and fabric outer sheath (presumably for mechanicalouldack of plaatlo insulation capability either in terms of formulation or production capacity, since the technique used required more assembly time." adar)
"Radar equipment, aside from antenna, employs subminiature vacuum tube discrete component point-to-point wiringno semiconductors of pwbs." uns, turret, and
"Components, for the most part, had the appearance of being direct copiesajor [US) suppliers. An interesting
observation waa that many oomponenta were date stamped, with the latest observed date Two items of component interest, in comparison to [US) hardware, are the lack of carbon resistors (the substitutes appear to be of ceramicnd, conversely, the lack of ceramic disc capacitors (most are tubular)." adar)
"Adequate space wbb available for all the components of the system, making it easily producible. No unique manufacturing techniques were in evidence. Conventional techniques were utilizod throughout theonsideration for cosmetic appeal appeared to beissile)
he minimal amount of special tooling and equipment required to produce. Assuming the .axt vehicle produced in this facility/facilities follows the same philosophy, tt would be reasonable toery low cost and apecdy re-implementation." issile)
"No unique or unknown manufacturing techniques were in evidence. Conventional machining and fabrication techniques appear to be utilized throughout the product." issile)
"Skills appeared to be commensurato with the requirement. Critical components, such as gyros, showed greater refinement in manufacturing techniques and skills than was evident for circuit board assemblies, machined surfaces, and exterior finishes." issile)
"The vehicleoviet commitment to engineering and tooling for production not normally to be expected. It alBOegree of craftmanship never before seen in Soviet producedcraftmanship which Is not absolutely necessary,urfaces finished which would not have to be put through the finishingstep." (BMP) ,
"The manufacturing technlquea employed were approximately equivalent ;to those utilised in the US in the0 time frests. These techniques are adequate for this design but could not be utilized for today'a sophisticated misBilo systems, due to cost, size, and weight." issile)
"The hardware available for observation did not appear to show any excessively difficult manufacturing requirements. The manufacturing technology employed appeared to be in line with the state of the art of issile)
"Tho packaging design of tiieardware requires the use of hand wiring techniquesignificant degree. It has been estimated that fullyercent of all component and/or circuit connections have boon mado by hand. With respect to printed circuitry, very little use has been made of thiswithin the electronics boards, while this approach is implemented tolightly greater extent within the modules used within the control electronics. The overall electronic packaging is reminiscent of techniques utilized in early Hodedoye and Sidewinderardware." issile)
"Manufacturing quality is good and the internal design is equivalent to OS technology off the issile)
"Protection plating, coating, or painting is at anminimum. Most individual chassis are raw aluminum. In areas whore the equipment is pointedo preparation of the surface before painting is made. ew areas,were coated, but no general attempt was made toprotect this equipment." adar)
"The production methods/techniques employed require the sequential performance of severalncrementseach one generally requiring the usepecific piece of universal equipment and frequently only hand or power tools. The associated skill levels required have been the semi-skilled grades*igh level of dexterity alongeneral commitment to performance by the labor elements would be required to assure uniform product quality. There was virtually no evidence of the use of automated or high-rate production equipment ih features where their use would be visually detectable* conversely, there was much evidence of manually controlled fabrication and assembly." issile)
"The construction of this Beeker implies the existenceacility whichigh-quality, accurate toolingset up for this design. The basic cleanliness of tho Interior of the seeker head furtherontrolled area for assembly and testing where the standards for contamination are very high." eeker head)
"It was noted that electrical wire bundling was largely done manually, and that no mlcro-mlnlaturi".ation was evident. Also, hydraulic piping and fittings used flared connectors, with little evidence of welded connections. It is concluded that in both these areas the Soviets are usingecade or so old by US standards." nd SU-7)
"This equipment is simple, made to minimum standardslant with minimum sophisticationarge laboradar)
"In conclusion, it is obvious that many more man-hours of labor are being expended on fabrication and assembly compared to US practices. There ia little evidence that the Soviets are using automated fabrication techniques or advanced assembly methods." nd SU-7)
"The processes used to pioduce the chassis were old,methods, and duplication would require no new orequipment." hassis)
Labor-intensive Manufacturing Methods
"Inspection was evidently detailed. Each electricalpoint, including some that were not wired, bore an inspection dye mark. In addition to an obvious visualthis may also havehassis ring-out [check of circuits for continuity) of completed wiring. Each piece of hardware (nut, screw,lsoye mark that probably doubled as an antivibration operation such as our Glyptal applications of an earlier era." [Glyptaled liquid chemical that was applied to connectors. Upon contact with air it hardens andeal that prevents thefrom vibrating apart.] adar)
"The Sovietunsight system was assembled withworkmanship, particularly in the electronics area. There was, for example, very careful tying of wire bundles, indicating that the labor content in the assembly of the equipment was high. The Soviets used better care in the details of construction than would have been used by the US in producing comparable equipment. Some of the wire connectors in the gunsight system were self-aligning and show advanced design techniques, considering the time of their manufacture." unsight)
"Itacuum tube type radar employing no solid state technology. Wiring is all by hand- no formed cables were The entire unit is labor intensive, that is, hand labor was used to an excess in lieu of mechanical, automation, machine, or cost effective aid[el in completing any operation. Cables are obviously assembled bycrimping of wirelaced extensively (in fact it looks moreood sewing stitch on the cable cover ratheracing job). Cable relief points are manually tied within tho wire
bundles, and each wire end is individually tied to prevent fraying. No uee of teflon or heat-shrlnkable plastic tothese wire ends was observed. All of the aboveigh use of manual.labor rather than machines or other labor-saving devices." adar)
"Extensive inspection of every solder joint was indicatedolor-coded varniah dot on each and every connection. No changes, re-works, or engineering Improvements were indicated by the uniformity of the assembly and the untouched Inspection marks." adar)
"Tho entiro hardware suit reflects impressive standards of workmanship, especially the hand; work involved in assembly and wiring. The wiring is point-to-point! that is, each wire is routed and soldered into place individually. All solder joints are of good qualityconsistent, and wires are evrnlyand dressed. Ho loose wire strands (presume wire isbut no check was possible) were evident. Hardware was not burred during installation." adar)
"This equipment is simple, made to minimum standardslant with minimum sophisticationarge laboradar)
"It was noted that electrical wire bundling was largely dono manually, and that nc micro-miniaturization was evident. Also, hydraulic piping and fittings used flared connectors, with little evidence of welded connections. It is concluded that in both these areas the Soviets are usingocade or so old by US standards." nd SU-7)
"In conclusion, it is obvious that many more man-hours of labor are being expended on fabrication and assembly comparedractices. There is little evidence that the Soviets are using automated fabrication techniques or advancedmethods." nd SU-7)
"The printed circuit assembly appeared to be handthe body of the components held up off of the board (MIG-21
ack of large plastic sleeving waa apparent. Thefor this lack were hand-stitched protective covers on main cables, and the use of hand whippingight binding that prevents cable unraveling) with string on cable and wire ends." adar)
"Tho equipment is assembly labor intensive as opposed to utilizing technological advancement to reduce labor." ommunications)
"The packaging design of theardware requires the use of hand wiring techniquesignificant degree. It has been estimated that fullyercent of all component and/or circuit connections have been made by hand. With respect to printed circuitry, very little use has been made of thiswithin the.electronics boards, while this approach is implemented tolightly greater extent within the modules used within the control electronics. The overall electronic packaging is reminiscent of techniques utilized in early Modedeye and Sidewinder (AIM-9B) hardware.** issile)
"Judging from the number of hand-soldered connections in the seeker headreat deal of time and well-thought* out planning is required to assemble the hardware and avoid errors. eeker head)
Reliability of Eculpr.gnt
"The team was impressed by the total number of controlin the van electronics. By actualelays are utilized, including snap-cover telephone type, hermetically sealed, and miniature. From tho atandpoint of reliability this would appear tootentially troublesome arwa." ommand and control van, radar)
"The team was equally amazed at the total number ofpotentlomotera [these allow for acrewdrivor adjustment to vary the electrical currentircuit] within the system. By actualotentiometers are used throughout, and this again should have an additional effect upon system ommand and control van, radar).
"Tho farcod-air rack cooling system would appear to beon several counts, namoly, volume of air handled vs rack dissipation within the van onclosure. Even innvironment, the rack temperature appeared to be very highhort period of operation. Bow effective the cooling system would be in the desert environment is questionable. In addition, the forced filtering system appeared to beinasmuch aa grit, particles of sand, and foreign matter were found throughout the drawer chassis." ommand and control van).
"Tho seeker apparently has low sensitivity in terms ofthe art in CW [continuous-wave] seekers. This may bein design It is simpler and less expensivetarget seekors with lower sensitivities, which innot undergo as much receiver degradation whon committedconditions. Thus, missiles areigher stateand will require less field maintenance and (SA-6
"The mechanical characteristics of the resistors inare certainly less than desirabletress When soldered in place, these devices can bebroken with only slight excessive handling of the (SA-7
orollary observation concerns field maintenance. estimates of field reliability are beyond the scope of our observations other than to note that this specific suit of hardware bore no signs of field repairs, the difficulty of field troubleshooting and repair is inherently obvious. As previously mentioned, the tightly packed, layered construction renders the replacement of parts (other than many of the tubes) difficult. Also, there are no service loops in the harness wiring [or] in the component leads. In terms of troubleshooting and fault isolation, it would appear that relatively highly skilled technicians are required. Presumably, there is some kind of special field test equipment to provide assistance in isolating faults to the black box level, and possibly some additional equipment to troubleshoot each block box at an intermediate or depot level. There are some test points on the front panels of the black boxes. But designed-in help* to the field users practically stops there. Hires are notmarked [or] even basically color coded to indicate that they carry power, signals, etc. Chassis are minimally marked to indicate( the specific component in the circuit that ia mounted at that position. Although the pins are individually numbered on each terminal board, the boards themselves are not individually identified, and the individual terminals on largo
* This include* any equipment kid to tha field maintenancesuch as built-in terminals provided exclusively forcircuit continuity, coIor-cwJe-d! wiring for easynd identification marks* on terminals. Later US equipment hasprogram tapes which, when runiece of equipment, will isolate trouble spots.
components areAll of this means that highly experienced electronics technicians, workingombination of schematics, wire tabs, and pictures or drawings, and using basic laboratory teat equipment, are probably needed to service the hardware." adar)'
"Theoncept uaed does render field changesat best! The hardware is densely packaged, built in layers, and all hard wired! There are -no replaceable plug-in units that could be easily replacedjin the field by improved versions, except at the complete black box level." adar)
'i I i > ' *
"These features indicate that the first equipment maintenance
level is module replacement."
"The maintenance of the vehicle can be readily accomplished assuming the availabilityadre of trained (not highly skilled) technicians. Most elements of the vehicle are easily replaced, adjusted, and in some cases, field repaired." issile)
"Each unit front panel provided numerous test pcints available to tho technician. It would appear that all adjustment andwas performed by means of the numerous blown-fuseand the several hundred test points as provided. Thedoes notelf-check capability or anything that would assist in rapid isolation and identification of faultyommand ond control van)
"Tho graduation level electronic packaging design does not lend itself either physically or economically to any seriesas any efforts to carry out repair work might well create more problems than they could solve." ontrol package)
"Should an error or component failure occur, the gyro or seeker head is probably discarded because the design does not lend itself to rework or repair." eeker head)
Reference Guide to Soviet Military Hardware Examined
The systems examinedwere
manufactured in either the Tate sixties or eSrTy seventies. Except for tho BMP infantry combat vehiclo and thontiaircraft gun, however, their basic designs date back to the fifties and early sixties. Despite their apparent lack of sophistication,numbers of the systems are still used by Soviet and Soviet-supported military forces.
nterceptor. Thoexport version of the Sovietis primarily an all-weather, medium-to-high-altitude interceptorecondary rolo of ground support. It is capable oflight. Theo similar to thoxcept that it is equipped with the older Spin Scan airborne intercept (AI) radar. Thes equipped with the new Jay Bird AI radar, which givesetter low-altitude intercept capability than the export version.
Thourther development of the Fishbed series aircraft initially designed2 by
tho Mikoyan Design Bureau. Tho principal changes are an improved engine and weapons system. The aircraft is equipped withngine, whichaximum engine thrust estimated0ounds) This engineirect derivation of thourbojet engine used on soma earlier Fishbed odels. The most significant weapons changes made in theere the internal installationm twin-barrel cannon and the addition of two more wing stations, which enables the aircraft to carry four, instead of two, air-to-air missiles.
There is some evidenceater version of the FishbedFishbed Lreplaced then the production line and is currently being fielded. However, theemains the mainstay of the non-Soviet Warsaw Pact air forces as well as the air forces of Egypt and Syria.
ighter. Thes the first of three variantsedium-weight, sweptwing,fighter designed in the early fifties by the
Sukhoy Design Bureau. Zte primary mission is ground support and interdiction, but it also haslear-woather interceptor.
Serios production of theegan in7 and the fighter is estimated to have become operational When fielded, it wao equipped with anurbojet engine. Its armament consisted
of one gun in each wingaximum payload0 pounds). ircraft-later variants of the Fitter produced in the late sixties and earlyvariable-geometry wings and were modified with an uprated engine, avionics, andpayload. Thes being replaced bynd Flogger aircraft .in Soviet Frontal Aviation, but there are stillith Soviet units andith other Warsaw Pact" air forces.
B Armored Personnel Carrier (APC). TheB is an amphibious, eight-wheel-drive APC. It can carryroops and is powered by twin gas-fueled engines.
For amphibious operation, the vehicle uses asystem similar to that found on
TheB has two machine gunsmall turret and is equipped with overhead armor. It6 and is based on the, an earlier version that lacked the turret and overhead armor. An intermediate version, theK, had overhead armor but no turret.
Currently both theB and the newer BMP are replacing older APCs in Soviet units. The Soviets
mountedetractable pylon. Like earlier versions of thehese modified vohicles have four-wheolweighounds) andop spoed of aroundph). They also have four auxiliary wheels for added mobility in poor terrain. Theas also been modified to serveransporter-erector-launcher (TEL) for theurface-to-air missile.
edium Tank. 2 medium tank, first fielded with Soviet tank and motorized rifle divisionson) vehicle armedmm smoothbore gun. The tank's gun is the only major improvement overs predecessor,hich was first produced 2 uses the same engine, transmission, track and suspension system as
The Soviets boganew medium tank with their ground force units in the early seventies. Thisncorporates significant improvements overnd has been replacing45 tanks in Soviet tank and motorized rifle divisions. Nevertheless, it appears that2 will remain in the active inventory for some time.
ntiaircraft Gun. Theracked tactical antiaircraft system for defense of combat units against low-flying aircraft and helicopters. The weapon was first produced The most significant advan-
tage of this gun system over older weapons ia theof an acquisition and tracking radaromputerized fire control system. The fire control system has an analog computer that automatically aims them gun barrels and an indicator that enables the system to distinguishoving target and background clutter*
Fourre in use in each Soviet tank and motorized rifle regiment. Those weapons, together with theAM system, are replacing the olderelf-propelled air defense guns in tank regiments and the towed light antiaircraft guns in motorized rifle units.
Surface to Air Missiles
od 1. Theommand-guided^SAM system designed to provide defense against aircraft flying at medium and high altitudes. The original version of this weapon entered the Soviet inventoryodfielded9 with an _
improved fire control radar, the Fan Song B. odifications have been made to improve the SA-2's low-altitude intercept and electronic counter-countermeasuros capabilities. Although theystem is old and is gradually being phased out and replaced by newer aye terns,-it is still widely used by Soviet strategic and tactical air defense forces.
od 1. Theommand-guided,system designed to provide point and barrier defense against aircraft flying at low altitudes.
The system is primarily used to defend fixed It was initially given to Soviet units Modifications to theave improved the low-altitude intercept and refiro* capabilities of the system.
SA-6. Theobile, short-range SAM Bystem intended to provide Soviet field forces with defense against high-performance aircraft at low and medium altitudes. rototype of this weapon was first seen in7 Moscow parade, but it was not fielded The system consists of three missilesEL and associ ted acquisition and fire control radars mounted on separate tracked;vehicles.
SA-7. Thean-portable, shoulder-launched, infrared guided SAM system developed for tactical defense against subsonic fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft flying at low altitudes. The original version of this weapon entered the Soviet inventory It is similar to the USodfirst observed with Soviet forceshis version has improved range and "altitude capabilities.
"The Soviet! ace cucrently replacing the tvo-rillauncher at some sitesewer four-rail launcher. Thie' doubles the number of ready missiles for firingo if-.Original document.