Created: 4/1/1977

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The Soviet Hydrocarbon-Based Single Cell Protein Program

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The Soviet Hydrocarbon-Based Single Cell Protein ?rogram



One of the major obstacles to expansion of the Soviet livestock industryhortage of high protein feed supplements. In an attempt to correct this deficiency, the USSR hasommitment to the development and production of synthetic protein supplements, especially yeast single cell proteinoviet animal feeding trials indicate that yeast single cell protein can replace other high protein fcedstuffs, Including soybean meal and fish meal In livestock rations, particularly those for swine and poultry. The Soviet effort probably willignificant impact

While the Soviets have grown yeast SCP on many different substrates, readily available Soviet petroleum resources offer the best substrate for rapid expansion of this protein technology. The Soviets have six high capacity peltnlcum-bnscd SCP production plants In various stages of construction and operation, and two additional plants reportedly are being built. They appear to be having technical difficulties with the production process, especially In continuous flow fermentation technology, but all of the facilities under construction are expected to be completed and operatinghe estimated capacity of the completed plants Is in excessetric tons, possibly one million metric tons annually.ivestock feedstuff, one million tons of single cell protein,rotein equivalent basis. Is equal tof the oil seed meal that could be derived from Soviet harvests of sunflower seed und cottonseed, the major oil seed meal crops grown In the USSR.

The Soviets have largo reserves ofnraffin petroleum, and they probrtbly could double single cell protein production from this source over the nextears. Future expansion would depend on how successful they arc In producing high protein fcedstuffs fromources and on the demandorafflns for other purposes.



Pro/M( Officer Contributor




Single cell protein (SCP)erm used to Identify feed and foodderived (mm microorganisms grown on various organicn-parafflm from petroleum, waste material) (primarily cellulose),Some types of SCP. such ai yeasts grown on cellulose hydrolysatesof alcohol fermentttloni, have been used for many yean, primarily assupplement In human end livestock diets. More recently, SCP hasattentionossible major source of protein fromThe protein content varies with organism and substrate. Yeait SCP. thekind to gain wide prominenceivestock feed,t1

A major deficiency In Soviet efforts to upgrade their livestock Industry Is an Inadequate supply of high protein supplements for inclusion In mixed feeds. The currently planned expansion In conventional agricultural practices Is unlikely to correct ihli deficiency. In lieu of Increasing dependence on Imported high protein fcedstuffs, ihe Soviets are developing and building facilities for synthetic production of protein supplements. The Soviets emphasise Ihe use of SCP primarilyigh protein livestock feedstuff within the USSR, but they also are considering It aspossible human food supplement for prate In-deficient underdeveloped countries.

This report evaluates Soviet progress In the exploitation of SCP from petroleum hydrocarbons and ihe potential role of SCP In Soviet livestock production. This report was prepared by the Office of Scientific Intelligence and coordinated within the CIA. The euloff for Information Is





SCP Food


Hydrocarbon Yeast

Homan Diets

SCP Fermentation

SCP Plant

SCP Industrial




Acid Composition ol Total Proteins of Hydrocarbon Yeast SCP

and Some Conventional Hlfch Protein

Vitamin Content In Various High Protein Livestock

Efficiency of SCP In Livestock

Protein Digestibility and Energy Content of

Contribution of One Million Metric Tons of SCP to Soviet Production

ol Swine. Poultry. Milk or Esirs

Soviet Quality Standards for Hydrocarbon .

Soviet Petroleum-Based SCP

Comparative Value of One Million Metric Tons of SCP to Soviet

Cottonseed Meal and Sunflower Seed Meal Production







To evaluate the Soviet hydrocarbon-based single cell protein program and lb Impact un Soviet livestock production.


Soviets suffer chronic shortages In high protein feed supplements for their livestock. Increased production of SCP derived from petroleumtoarge resource commitment has been made. Is Important to their plans to eliminate these deficiencies and to Increase livestock production. They have established research and development facilities dedicated to the growtng of yeasts on hydrocarbons and have butlt or have plans to build two pilot plants und eight large-scale production plonts for cultivating ycart SCP on petroleum hydrocarbon.

Incrcu*cd quantities of SCP are Important to the Soviet plan to Increase their supply of meat and to the conservation of Iheir groin supply through Increased feed conversion efficiencies of their livestock rations. While SCP will permit the Soviets to be more self-reliant In protein feedstuffs. It will not completely eliminate the need to Import soybeansor harvest yean of cottonseed and sunflower seed, as occurred2ecause of the feed demands for Increased livestock production.

To develop and produce petroleum hydrocarbon SCP that meets prescribed quality standards,ighly* pure) must bo used as the growth sututrute or,il substrata IsloflUM purification step must be Included In the final Stagesprocessing. The Soviets are having difficulties In1 pureand in purifying the SCPevidenced by their acknowledged need for Western process technology und Initiation of negotiations for thh technology.

The Soviet SCP plants are designed to produce yeast onaraffln substrateultbtage, continuous fermentation process. The major processing steps arc fermentation, separation of yeast from substrate, ond drying. Technical difficulties In thr fermentation process and problems In separation and purification technology make ll unlikely that their present process Is operating at anticipated efficiencies. Many of these difficulties are etpceted to be resolved through purchase nnd exploitation of Western technology.

Six Soviet SCP production plants are In various stages ofd operation, f*

It Is estimated thatnow under construction at thesecompleted and tn production0 withannual capacity In excessossible capacityillion metricThere may be further increasesome Soviets claim to have aproduction capabilityetrlctonsfrom petroleum hydrocarbons In fourrationalumber of fermenters have 3ln ODer-tjpn

nters arc operating at

well "below ruted capacity.

illion metric tonsarnffln substrate will be consumed In the production of I


metric lom of SCP. This amount of paiafflnmall fractionf the lotal paraffins available to the Soviets from 'heir petroleum production.he USSR producedillion metric Ions of petroleum, much of whichigh concentration, uparaffln.araffln must be removed tothe physical properties of petroleum for other Waa,

,SCP Is expected to be of significant benefit to the Soviet livestock induitry, particularly swine and poultry. The production of SCP will provide the Sovietseliable supply of high quality prolHn without lailng agricultural resou reel, iueh as land, fertilizer and equipment. One million metric tons of SCP representsrotein equivalent basisf the Sovietyear) of oil seedf which are sunflower seed and cottonseed meal In terms of land-use savings, this quantity of SCP would be comparable to thj amount of sunflower meal and cottonseed meal that could be obtained fromillion hectares of

Minitowers6 million hectares uf cotton (average

Anillion metric tons per year of SCP could meet the demands of tbe Soviet livestock Industry. SCP from petroleum hydrocarbons, along with expended ptoduciion of cellulose hydrolysatc SCP. probably will permit them tootal SCP capacity ofillion tons per yearr about Iwo-thlrdi of their requirement. The Soviets have large reserves ofaruffln petroleum and. If current ventures ore successful, they could probably double the amount of SCP grown on this petroleum substrate over the nextean. Future expansion probahly will be dependent upon the demandarafflni for other purposes, on Improvements In technology for producing yeast on cellulose hydrolytatei, on Soviet success In developing technology for efficiently producing other types of SCPacteria on natural gai or yeoit onnd on the cost effectiveness ol producing SCP versus other sources of protein feediluffl.


One of the prime obstacles confronting Soviet livestock production plans haseneral ihorlage of all types of feed. The most acute shortages are concentratedhigh energy and highoviet feed rationsarge proportion nf poor quality roughages with relatively low protein andontent. The addition of more high pmieln feeds would increase the efficiency of both roughages and feedTherefore, intensification of the Soviet livestock Industry depends upon availability of high protein feed.

Soviet Investigators have attempted four general approaches to nonagricultural high protein feed(waterisciculture (marine and freshwater fishicrobiological synthesis (single cellnd direct chemicalOf these various alternatives, the Sovleti felt thot the most viable for them was the growth of protein rich microorganisms, mainly yeasts, on substrates such ai wood wattes and petroleumince the. the Soviets have been rmphatltlng SCP derived fromaraffln hydrocarbons Inheir rrasonlng Is based on the large reserves ofaraffln petroleum In the USSR; petroleum refineries whicheliable, concentrated source of substrate; and the smaller capital Investment per unit of productionaraffln SCP plants lhan for wood hydrolysate plants.ydrocarbon substrate, the Si vlets believe they can produce enough yeast SCP to help overcome their shortages of high protein feed. They now dalm to be the first country to organize large-scale production of yeail SCP from petroleum derivative) and currenlly are building targe plants for production.'* u


Livestock Feedstuff

The moit Important Indleei of the biological valueigh protein feedslulf are Its amino add composition and dlgntlblllly. On thb basts. Soviet and Western data on the nutritional value of petroleum grown SCP generally agree that Itigh quality protein supplement for livestock, principally awlne. poultry and prerumlnant cattle.

The estenllal amino add dhtrlbullon In yeait SCP Is compared wilh soybean meal and fish meal, which represent the best of the plant- and anlmol-derivcd

high protein Feed supplements, and with sunflower meal .ind cottonseed meal, Ihe most abundant high protein plant feedstuffs produced In the USSRhese data Indicate that the essential amino acid composition of Soviet and Western hydrocarbon grown yeast SCP products Is equivalent or -uperlor to the oil seed meat*rotein supplement. SCP Is superior to the oil seed meals In total protein content andutritionally limiting essential amino add In most grains. Uke most oil seed meals. SCP Is deficient in methionine. SCP wouldaluable complement In rations using large quantities of sunflower seed meal protein, with Its relatively high methionine and low lysine content. With the addition of methionine, which is economically produced In the USSR by chemical synthesis. SCP has an amino add distribution comparable to fish1 The latterighly favorable amino add balance and Is prizedrotein supplement for swine and poultry.

In additionighly favorable amino add balance, yeast SCP Is richer Inltamlns than either oil seed meals or fish mealodderorula yeast produced on carbohydrate hydrolysates. has been used In Ihe USSR and elsewhere for many yearsitamin supplement In livestockydrocarbon-grown yeast Is comparable to hydrolysate yeast In vitamin composition.

The Soviets have conducted extensive animal feeding tests with their petroleum-based SCP product. They claim to have achieved an Increase ofon productivity andn feed conversion efficiency with the addition ofCP to basic rations for swine, poultry, and prerumlnunt cattle'* These and other data dearly demonstrate the value of SCPigh protein feed for the above types ofhe large Increases realized. Inand feed conversion effldendei with the addition ofCP Indicate that the basic control rations were severely inadequate In protein and corroborate claims that high protein livestock feedstuffsajor need In the USSR.

Animal feeding experiments conducted by British Petroleum Company (BPC) with their SCP product confirm the fact that hydrocarbon grown yeast SCP

Table I

Amino Acid Composition of Total Proteins of Hydrocarbon Yeast SCP and Some Conventional High Protein Feedstuff;


Tabic 2

Vllamln Content In Various High Protein Livestock Feedstuffs

Soybean Collonw)




a high valuerotein source for iwfne and8 In contrast to Soviet tests. BPCuality control ration containing adequate soybean meal, fish meal, and methioninen test rations, SCP replaced either soybean meal, fish mealombination of the tworotein equivalent basis at levelsf the diet for swinef Ihe diet for broilers end laying hens. These Indicated thate no significant differences between control and lesi (SCP) rattom In promoting growth of broilers and pigs, egg produclion and fertility, Utter size and growth rate of pigs farrowed by sows on test rations, and feed conversion efficiency. BPC tests clearly show lhat SCP canlarge portionsrotein equivalent) of conventional animal and plant protein supplements In anlnal feeds. The tackegative (protein Inadequole) control ration In these tesls prevented demonstration of the true value of SCProtein supplement In protein deficient diets.

The Institute of Nutrition. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. Moscow, conducted biological assays on the Soviet SCP product, using rati as the experimental animal. These tests Indicated that the protein efficiency ratio (PER) of Soviet produced SCP Is approximatelyhat oftandard reference protein. The value of the SCP product Increases to that of the control (casein) when iu amino odd composition Is Improved by combining SCP with other sources of animal am. :gelnble proteinigh methionineat essay procedures on BPCs SCP product gave similar results by theethionine to the SCP."

Determination of protein digestibility and energy content of the BPC yeast product on chicks and pigs

Table 4

Protrin Digestibility and Energy Content of SCP

addition lo Increutcd output of livestockhe Soviets claim that supplemental SCP In mixed feeds would benefit Soviet agriculture by substantially reducing time and labo: required per unit of produclion and by Increasing the feed efficiency of both roughage and concentrated feeds. In view of the results the Soviets have reported on theirirlals wilh SCP, the claimed added benefits are rcalMle. The estimated value of SCP to Soviei livestock production coupled with Soviet oil resources and production costs, apparently justifies the emphasis they place on yeast SCProtrin feedstuff

Hydrocarbon Yeast Safety

The Institute of Nutrition, USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, under the direction of Academician A. A. Pokrovskly, conducted expensive studies on the biological safely of hydrocarbon grownhe purpose of the evaluation was to determine toxicity and tolerance levels In animals and to assess the quality of livestock products produced on rations containing SCP.

This study, which extendedear period, wns carried out In both medical and agricultural Imtliullons with the feeding of many different hydrocarbon grown yeasts to thousands of agricultural and experlmentol onlmala. Including rats, dogs, monkeys, rabbits, swine, cattle, and poultry. The studies resulted In the establishment of preliminary quality standards (tabley the USSR Ministry of Htollh for hydrocarbon grown SCP for use In animal feeding. Methods of using hydrocarbon SCPivestock feed were recommended olio.

Table 5

Contrlbullon of One Million Metric Tons of SCP to Soviet Production of Swine, Poultry, Milk or Errs

Milan (illiniumI ml)

In prnducilm (rem SCPmprilVmrtit

11 " 'ill

PWM Uwrruw mrr

roducUonm SCT



miillion mliter.and drmlng ykMnd "Savings In milk hy liwdln* SCP I"UW



TableSeme accumulation of theie in tissues of

and farm animals was apparently

Soviet Quality Standards for Hydrocarbonwith certain SCP feedstuffs. The problem

was claimed 'cy the Soviets to have been overcome by

ipcciflcatlon of alkjnei used as the substrate and

of using hydrocarbon yeastlmal

** **

adds are more prevalent In nature lhan most

had realized. These fatty acids also arc

readily by the animal.

AfilJual Nnt

oviets dolm tlwl multlgenetatlon experiments

a ianimals have shown that hydrocarbon SCP has a

high biological value with complete absence

carcinogenicity, mutagenic' y. and teratogenicity.

Investigations of hygienic, physlcocnernlcal

trj organoleptic properties of meats, eggs and milk

- farm anlmaU fed hydrocarbon SCP did not

The principal SCP components havingany major deleterious change. Long tern,

deleterious effects on Its use as an animal feedstuffwere conducted In rats to evaluate the

listed below. As Indicated, none of these wouldfrom hydrocarbon SCP-fed anlmaUood. In

toalor problem provided the prescribed generations of rats fed this meat, no

standards arewere reported In behavior, growth and

development, food metabolism, liver enzyme systems.

hydrocarhons. particularlyin hematological, morphological, andwhich may accumulate In onlmalfactors. Assessment of the biological valuealk-ne hydrocarbons In SCP. at the lowof dairy products and eggs from cowsby the USSR Ministry of Health,fed with SCP rations were generallyby the animal and do not accumulatefed on these products did show somesignificant extent. Polycycllc aromaticblood cholesterol and lipids after being onmany of which are carcinogenic In man,onths. The latter resultIn SCP products meeting SovietAeading Soviet nutritlonhl.caution In using SCP In feeds for lactntlng

, , , and laying hens,'*

add was present In various yeast samples

at levels: High dietary levels of .

... , . controlled Investigations of produdi

adds produce an actumu atlon ot uric acid * jj

.r ., . 1 . aned on hydrocarbon yeasts were carried

primates andajor detriment to the extensive , '

, . mmt c .i arge group ol human volunteen. Taste tests

of yeasts by humoru. The Soviets claim that , j _

not revta any differences between meat, da ry

occumulatlon of uric add does not occur to , ' . . .*

significant degree In livestock when SCP SCP fed animal, and

ucleic Kid Ii fed at level, upf ,h.

meat produrti irom SCP fed animals were

e. Pos-lble presence of fungi which producelasting more than sta months.m

having possible hepatotroplc, carcinogenic, orIndividuals. Theft studies

toxic properties. No toxic subslances of thisthat these products were highly nutritious

were found In any of the hydrocarbon yeastpalatable and there were no unfavorable effects

analyzed according to the Soviets. Sub-lances offrom theirare not allowed under the rtondords established

by the USSR Ministry ofconclusion from these studies was that

hydrocarbon yeait SCP, meeting the criteria

d. Hydrocarbon grown SCPelativelyby the USSR Ministry of Health, wasof fatty adds with odd numbered carbons highly satiifadory feedstuff supplement forwith the lipid content of most conventional when fed at Irveti upf the diet,

In general.eismcnli of the safely of using SCP mi an animal feedituff were substantiated by BPC* and Japanesen multiple generation Hudles In roll and quail with the BPC yeart SCP pioducl.enerations of rats andenerations of quail have received SCP dietsffects.

Human Diets


Although the Soviets claim that they are not considering the Introduction of proteins from unicellular organisms Into human diets, they, as do many Western nutritionists, realize Its potentialrotein source for human consumption. A, A. Pokrovskly of the In-Hlute of Nutrition states that the use of SCPignificant protein source for human diets has considerable risk from the safely standpoint as well ase concludes that the bkomas- of microorganisms must be subjected to rigid technological processing to Isolate purified textured protein for human consumption, Western experts agree and some feel lhal SCP In the human diet to any reasonable extentrotein food Is at leastears away."

Soviet interest In the posilble employment of proteins from hydrocarbon SCPuman food was ihiwn during ihe Joint Conference on SCP of ihe US/USSR Working Croup al the Massachusetts Institute of Technology onot this conf;aper by A. N. Crlgoryan, Chief of Laboratory of ihe All-Union Institute of Protein' Synthesis, was presented on ihe development of methods for obtaining purified protein substances for food from microbiologicalhe Soviets also demonstrated synthetic foods resembling rice grains, macaroni and caviar, which were probably preparedurified, artificially flavored protein derived from soybean and/or SCP with reduced nucleic add and lipid content."

ll Is doubtful that the processing of SCP prolelns for human consumption In the USSR will go beyond ihe laboratory stage In the near future. This Is based on repeated admissions by the Soviets of the need for SCP for animal feeds, the possible reluctance of the Soviet clilrrns lo accept petroleum based SCPajor dietary supplement, and ihe relative expense ofurified protein. This position could change drastically if world food suppliesudden

lrvltnl indy iht Crnlial Imiliitir IW- unil find I'-t. i-olland.

downturn and prospects for using 3CP proletn at an aid to developing nations appear advantageous.*


The major factors Influencing the productioningle cell protein product consist of the growih medium or substrate, the microorganism lo be cultivated, and ihe fermentation process. The Sovl-'j has* been Involved In research and development of the production of SCP from hydrocorbons and alcohols since the. They have Investigated each of ihe basic approaches: (I) growth of bacteria or yeast on purified paraffinIS) separated from cruderowth of bacteria or yeast on ihe gas-oll fraction of crude oil, containingormalrowth of bacteria andnrowth of yeast on ethanol,rowth of bacteria on natural gas. Yeast grown on purified normal paraffins and gas-oll has been


Eitheraraffln or gas-oll can be used for production of suitable SCP products for livestock feed. While the gas-oll processess expensive starting material than thearaffln process, it Is necessary to employ an additional centrlfugetionolvent extraction stage al ihe end of the harvest train to remove residual hydrocarbon from the protein product. The unmetabollied, dewaxed oil with improved pour point Is returned to the refinery. BPC has developed two production processes, one to handle Ihearafflns and the other the gas-oll substrate. Products from both of these processes meet European Economic Community and Soviet quality standards for animal

According lo the Soviet press, the results of SCP research and development at the All Union Scientific Institute for Protein Synthesis In Moscow led to ihe

'or protein rich foods was pointed osilM studyy ihr Maisachuirlti Initllulr oflor the National Srkfscra ihh. ItMalod lhaloarv-raM* ripardin*i by nolakn lhal conventional US.Ibased on rurtf-nl and poll a'lkullural irtrarrh will hr at>lr lo mrrl IxHh US and fairlin profpin drmandi lor an lod'flnll* (ulurr ald-vonllc andonally mmprUIlT'if hi br dnirahar lo anticipate tone dvmaodi by moitapplkatSoo of srlanr* and tochnolojty Ino insltiT production outs ol conventional ptolrltt loodi aod totrln aonn-rs mix hi ptortdekrtnallvn "Ilk Ira pamuo' a* th* aalkoa'a rmmrm" Tonof iWrrasa'th treommrorled tiy Ihh studyOP, rsoophnlmynthrtie and pl.ol.-ynil.-lk.


tlut purified no.rnal paraffin(he bcil substrate fw large scale production ofttcln Advisory Croup of ihe UN Symposium. BruurK, in. R. Shendcrcl* italed Ihat research showedikancsnf iheI8urity1 was the besl substrate foe producing SCP meeting the quality standards accepted In theeast grownaraffln (CM-CIS) it said to contain lessf residual hydrocarbons In the final feed product. This level of hydrocarbon In the SCP product meets Soviet quality standards for animal eed and the product requires no further processing to removehydrocarbons.

The Soviets are apparently having difficulty In large scale separation ofaraffino CIS) as evidenced by admitted needs for US process technology by the Ministry of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industry of the USSRw Theegotiating with Llqulchemlca, an Italian firm, for construction of two separation plants (turnkey)ombined annual capacityillion metric tons of normal paraffin. InS. It was reported that the negotiations would probably not be completed untilt willean to put the plants In operation from the start of production, t

The Sovietsave had problems apparently with purification of the SCP product. They claim that healthajor consideration In choosing normal paraffins and are very concerned with cleaning the productrowing yeast on1 Althoughuraffln Is the probable substrate of choice, the Soviets are Interested alto In utilizing the cheaper diesel fraction (gas-oll) in SCP1histtractive since It produces the protein concentrate as well as low paraffin diesel oil byrganlsms that selectively deparafflnlze ihe oil

lint tVpulrl Mtlrs Bn-'d fmIndiHOyd- USSR OunHllnbl-rt

The repeated Soviet emphasis on the use ofuraffln substrate and the apparent probtems In obtaining iheurity suggest that the current Soviet petroleum SCP production process Is hasedaraflln substrate, considerably lessure. It It probably necessary toolvent extraction ilage lo remove residual hydrocarbons and etcesj nucleic acids from the protein product.


One of ibe most Important factors related to SCP production from hydrocarbons Is selection of suitable microorganisms. Soviet scientists Lave reported extensive research In this area and have Investigated at least nine species and numerous strains of Candida yeasts. Including C. Impicaltt and C.he species used by BPC plants.4'Soviet scientists claimigh yield strain of Candida gullltermondll has proven to be ihe most suitable and Is ihe principal yeast currently being used in the production of SCP In therotein content!st cell to substrate yieldove been claimed for selected strains of this species.**


The SCP production process consists of ihrec major steps: fermentation, separation and purification of blomats. and drying of purified blomau. The Initial research and development on fermentation processes foe the production of yeast SCP from petroleum derivatives reportedly was conducied at the All Union Institute for Synthesis oft It believed Ihat In (hit experimental process, the Sovietsa two-slage. airlift, continuous fermentation method.'

Subsequent research conducted by the Institute for Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms at Puschlno apparently led to new end Improved methods for production of SCP from various carbon sources and resulted In conslruction of the first operational pilot plant for petroleum fermentation atn airlift systemaraffln with Improved air distribution and ferment circulation was believed to be the primary system at Krasnodar.2 the plant was considering the use of newly developed plate column* This pilot plant and possibly one at Novo Chemlkovtk (Ufa) provided the yeast used In Soviet feeding and medlcoblotoglcal sludlet conducied by the Institute of Nutrtllon. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.*1

The development, design, and conslruction of production scale fermenters and ancillary scientific equipmentoint effort of various Institutes under ihe Main Administration of the Microbiology Industry, the Moscow' Institute of Chemical Mochlnery. ihe Ministry of Machine Building, and Irkutsk Scientific Research Institute of Chemical1 According lo ihe Soviet press. Inquipment was not yel available for use. bul the


principles ond apparatus were lulled for automated cuntiol of .rv.iu-.Mn1 fermentation processes.SCP planli ate being planned and'

easonable evidence that the Soviets haveontinuous flow fermentation system utilizing multiplelthough the Soviets began using airlift fermenters, they were not believed to be able to do the necessary mixing on an Industrial scale and the major mtilng Is probably by means of mechanical

Trie First Deputy Chief of the Main Administration for Microbiology Industry of the USSR claims that the Soviet hydrocarbon process Is simpler and better lhan other processes and lhat they were to have licensed their process by lateThis clilm Is refuted by evidence that their large scale productionlch are In various stages of production, are not producing efficiently or near design capacity. US specialists who visited the Soviet Union were turned down In their efforts to visit Soviet plants became the Soviets said they were not operating at ruled produclion.'0ome Soviet scientists who claimed let have been Involved In the design and construction of the production facilities staled that output was onlyf rated capacity."

The apparent failure to attain production goals Is consislenl with other Indications of bioengineering difficulties associated with scaling up laboratory processes In large scale production. Majorin the field of microbiological synthesis, especially for single cell pmteln production. Include the lack of reliablel era nee tensorsroduction scale continuous fermentation system, lack of automated systems, of fermentation control, and the lack of overall product control and reproduction efficiency. The crux of the Soviet problem seems to be In applied computer technology and chemical engineering, especially In computerizing the productionhile nutomatkin ond computer support are likely to be Incorporated In their design, the sophistication and (jiiullly arc probably well below those of Western

the^^re three basic computer control systems unoer study tn thehesehe compuier coupled fermentation unll purchasedS firm. New Brunswick Scientific Instrument Company Inhisocated at the Inslllutc of Protein Synthesis and. althoughngineers visited tht UShree-month Instruction courje, the unit Is still noi being operated optimally. J


this system was not In operation because of Inadequate air. water and electrical facilities, and tht Inability of tht Soviet scientists and engineers to comprehend equipment operationn original design by the Institute of Protein Synthesis, status unknown,ystem being developed by the Kazan Institute of Chemical Technology which Is In lhc Initial stages of dtvelopmtnt. Based on discussions with Soviet scientists and engineers. Western experts believeaboratory fermentation system at Pushchlno. Institute for Microbiological Physiology and Biochemistry, has temperature and pH coupled controls which optimize yield ihrough computer vWled variables. Pushchlno fa reportedly the mosl advanced laboratory project undert Is doubtful that any large scale or pilot plant fermentation process Is computer controlled.

The Soviets appear to be having problems with other areas of the continuous fermentation process and fermentation equipment. They have repeatedly admitted problems with foam control and arc now attempting to control foam mechanically to avoid using antlfoam chemlcab which may Interfere with dispersion of the mixture in ihe fermenter. Mechanical foam control Is preferred by US fermentation experts. Soviet representatives to the US/USSRexchange meetings have shown great Interest in research on fermentation environmental mensuration equipment such as amino add analyzers, oxygen sensors, and carbon dioxide sensors. Most of thisIs already commercially available In thtentrifuges and spray headeparation and drying of have been purchased from Sweden and Denmark, reportedly because Soviet equipment was not satisfactory and did not hold up}

he Ministry of Foreign Trade purchasedUOO of fermentation equipmentS company. The equipment, comlstlng mainly of fermentation chcmostals. Is being used In the laboratories at ruihchlno. They also orderedl fermentation chemoslals from the US companyhere Is also evidence that the Soviets acquired solvent extradlon technology for removing residual hydrocarbons from the final SCP produd from an unnamed Wesiern* "

Although the Soviets apparently have designed, built, and al least partially Installed iheir own fetmcntatlon equipment In Industrial SCP production plonls. they have expressed an Interest also In purchasing entire SCP planls and technology from Westernt was reported thai the Soviets

signed ii letter of Intent to purchase un SCP plunt from an Italian flim. Compagnta Trcnlco Induilrie Peirotlhb letter of Intent was lo be exercised only after the SCP plant being built In Italy wai operating and the proceii for producing SOParaffln by continuous cultivationandida ipedes of yeasl was demonstrated. This process Is based on (he useubic-meter airliftn the fallritish Petroleum reportedly was negotiating with the Soviets toon/year SCPeither of these negotiations has reached fruition.

The present Soviet hydrocarbon SCProbably basedontinuous fermentation process. The yeast of choice Ii believed loigh-yield strain of Candida gultllermondl. The culture mediumaraffln substrate, water and salts of phosphorous, ammonia, potassium. anJ other elements necessary for optimum cell growth. Separation of the final SCP product Is probably by centrlfugallon and solvent extraction technology. After separation the yeast Is concentrated and dried In spray dry-rs. The yeast-to-subslratearaffln) yield ratio Is

In general, the Soviets seem to be scientifically strong bul weak In applied chemical lech' logy and engineering. In spite of the enormous amount of Soviet activity In microbiological synthesis of protein, they ore apparently encountering considerable difficulties In optimizing production scale operations. The realization of full production of their SCP plants In ihe neor future may relate to how successful they arc In attaining Western assistance and technology.

The fiist pilot plant locatedeliolrum refinery was constructed duringn Bashklnkya. ASSR. at the Ufa Petroleum Refinery Novo ChernlkovsV. The pilot pla..ts al Krasnodar and Ufa provided the yeast SCP used In Soviet feeding trials and served as the models for construction of large scale production plants.

Based on Soviet press reports and open literature, and reports from Western experts engaged In exchange programs with the Soviets, elghl Industrial petroleum-based SCP plants are being constructed." "


According lo the Soviet press, however,


construction at Kremenchug was started In



flnt experimental Soviet plant for producing SCP from pelroleum Ii believed lo have been put In operation4 In Krasnodar. Thb plant operatedas-oll substrate. The Soviets encountered Inxlcologlcol problems when gas-oil was used as the substrateecond pilot plant was built at Krasnodar utilizingaraffln as Ihe substrate. The Krasnodar facility, which reportedly Ii engaged In other microbiological productionlcohol from sugar, hydrolytle SCP. Is believed to have produced the flnt hydrocarbon-based SCP meeting Soviet safety standards In the. The facility subsequently servedilot plant for testing newly designed Icrmenlallon. lepara'lon. ond dehydration

According4 Soviet preis releases, the Gor'kly plant will have on annual capacity0 metric tons and three olher plants under construction, presumably ot Klrtihl. Ufa. and Volgograd, will have capacities.l/y.



The Soviei) htve utilized cellulose derived yeasts (hydrolysate yeast)eedstuff for many yean and SCP from this source represenis over half of the total SCP produced In the USSR at present. Although some Soviets have claimed that productionons of hydrolysate yeasts were obtainedtther evidence Indicates that the annual production Is probably closerons annually. Officials of the All Union Research Institute for Hydrolysis and the All Union Hydrolysis Corporation stated that there arc aboutydrolysis SCP plants in the USSRypical outpulnr. Crodova of the All Union Institute for Protein Synthesis slated thai there were aboutydrolyil* SCP plants,otal outputhousand

The Soviets are emphasizing the production of SCP from petroleum derivatives and make the reasonable dalm thataraffln process for SCP Is much more promising and economical than the process using wood pulp or other celluloslchis claim Is based on three major facton:he USSR has large reserves ofaraffln content petroleum, the value of which Is Increased byetroleum refinerieseliable, concentrated source of substrate that permits construction of plantsigh production capacity,onstructionarpffin SCP plants requires only about one-half ta much capital Investment per unit of produciion as the construction of hydrolysis SCP plonts.

Soviet press reports Indicate lhal eight Industrial scale petroleum hvdrocfl'hon hosed SCP bclnfi huill "


overcome (holt process dllllcsiltlcs, which Ihey probably will do. and plant conitiuctlon proceeds at the projected pace, the Soviet' probably willydrocarbon SCP production capability In eiceii0ossible production capabilityilliony that time

Although the total production of feed yeasts In the USSR hai Increased Meadllyeveletric tons" It Is doubtful thai the Soviels met5 goalf SCP from all sohey will probably be well on their way to achieving their goalillion tons of SCP from allhe Soviets have large reserves ofaraffln petroleum and, If current ventures are successful, could probably Increase SCP production from this sourceactor of two over the nettears. Future expansion, however, would depend on demandsaraffln for otheraxes, detergents and prices on world markets.

Yeast SCP Is ixpectrd to be of significant benefit to Ihe Soviet livestock Industry. The production of SCP will not tax agricultural resources, such as land, fertilizer and equipment, while providing the Sovietsellaole supply of high quality protein concentrate. One million tons of SCP representst.eight bases, of the calculated combined averagel cotlonseed meat and*eedssuming an SCP productt protein, one million tons of SCP wouldt of tho major oil seed meal production onrotein equivalent bails. (Cottonseed and sunflower seed are the two major oil seed meal crops grown In the USSR and representt of total oil seed mealhii quantity of SCP would be comparable to the amount of sunflower meal and cotlonseed meal realizable fromillion hectares of sunflowers6 million hectares ofalues are based on the calculated quantity of meal obtainable per hectare of crop, averageu

Table 8

Comparative Value of One Million Metric Tons of SCP to Soviet Cotlonseed Meal and Sunflower Seed Meal' Produclion

Cottonseed Sunflowermeal


SCP ai percanl of mealbases)

SCP ai percent of meal produclionequivalent M*

SCP million heciaret.

average annualAssuming SCP protein content.

Biologicalmeasure of the proportion of the food protein which can be utilized by an animal for synthesizing body tissues andhe percentage of the protein nitrogen absorbed which Is retained by the animal

or tending to produce cancer.

Digestibleenergy valueood lesi the energy contained In the feces.

Feed conversionof feed consumed per unit ofody weight, eggs, and milk.

to or Involving blood.

to or Involving the liver.

to the chemicalof living cells,

Metabollzableenergy valueood less the energy contained In the feces, urine, aid gas (rumlnantsX-

with form or structure.

or tending to produce genetic changes.

Oil teedremaining after removal of the greater part of the oil from oiloybeans, cottonseed, sunflower seed, rape.

ProteinIntake minus fecaleasure of the valuerotein feedstuff.

Protein efficiency ratiogain unit per unit weight of protein consumed. The PER normally uses growth of the rateasure of the nutritive value of dietary proteins.

or tending to produce malformations In the growing organism.

chain hydrocarbons having the general formula CaHll4,tl

Crudecontentood as measured by multiplying the analyzed nitrogen content

Original document.

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