General Information onu- lthout. Confinement and Corrective Labor Colony Settlements in the USSR
CIA. HISTORICAL RBflWfl
Office of Economic"Research0
Corrective labor without
Under corrective labor without confinement, the convicts areob within daily commuting distance of home. The sentencing court establishes aa percentage of earnings for the duration of thewhich the worker must pay to the State. Those sentenced to corrective labor without confinement are not entitledacation. Unless their work is exemplary, it is not included in length of service totals. Unconfined convicts are required to appear before established state organs whenever summoned. They may not quit or change jobs without special permission. If they fail to appear for work, the management of the enterprise to which the convict was assigned must report the case to the appropriate State organ for further prosecution.
According t'j USSR Supreme Court Chairman Gorkin: "In the first quarterercent of all convicts were sentenced to corrective labor without confinement."
Soviet data also show that in Voronezh Oblast of the RSFSR,, eople found employment after warnings that failure to do so would result in criminal prosecution. Seventy-eight people were
sentence 1 to corrective labor without confinement for avoiding work. Information concerning the number of criminals sentenced to corrective labor without confinement is not available. 2 percent of the oblast's population were forced to work against their will.
Corrective labor colony settlements
Corrective labor colony settlements are characterized by more leniant conditions than other labor camps and prisons. In corrective labor colony settlements convicts:
may receive unlimited packages;
may possess cash;
work regular hours;
are paid no lessf their earnings;
arc held without being guarded, but arc kept under supervision;
are free to move about the entire colony during the day.
No convicts are sentenced directly to corrective labor colony settlements. Rather, convicts who aro well-on the road to rehabilitation may be transferredorrective labor colony of general, intensified, or special regimeolony settlement after having served no less than one half their sentence if tho law provides for their relcaso on parolo; after having served no less than two-thirds of their sentence If the law does not provide for their release on parole. From this regulation we can
estimate that the maximum number of convicts in colony settlements is between one-third and one-half of tho number of convicts in general, intensified, and_special regime labor colonies.
Colony settlements are most numerous in email citios, especially those normally closed to foreigners, located in climatically harsh sections o* the country. Convicts are assigned to heavy manual labor, particularly onprojects or in plants whose operation involves health hazards. As many0 prisoners worked in colony settlementsn the Vologda Oblast. The number of convicts in colony settlements is said to be growing.
Identification of Camps
sources have identified the followingnd labor camps:
m Moscow:risons, some in the city itself, the show prison for foreign
Lvov: eiqht labor camps, oi" which six are inside the city, including one for women and another for juveniles,and camps builtuge furniture complex, an agricultural machine factory and an electomechanical factory;
Odessa: Four labor camps and two prisons. Two of the camps are for women, one of them "stricthe inmates do manual work in metal production, building and agriculture. There isstrict
regime: camp for men;
Leningrad: arge concentration of prisons, camps and psychiatric prisons:, including four mental prisons in the old Alexander Nevsky monastery and two more in the
Riga: At leastabor camps and prisons, with closed prisons containing special cells forprisoners in isolation;
Moldavia: Seven known labor camps;
e Perm: Twelve known labor camps, including one isolationbut estimates runotalamps;
e Archaneel: Twelve known labor campsi
e Murmansk: Seven labor camps known, many moreiev: Five known labor camps, prisons, and psychiatric prisons;
Voroshilovka: Five known labor camps, and two specialized mental hospitals where political prisoners are said by ex-inmates to be receiving particularly harsh treatment;
Minsk: Five known prison camps,ail in the city taking up three streets;
Azerbaijan: Seven known camps;
Tomsk: Twelve labor camps;'
Dnepropetrovsk: Eight labor camps plus the Pndne-provskaya mental hospital;
Chernigov: Two labor camps;
Omsk: Seven large prison camps;
e Krasnoyarsk: Fifty prison camps, manv rith "strict" and "particularly strict" regimes;
Krasnodar: Sixteen known prisons and camps, including the general district investigation jail which has condemned cells from which men are sent to work in underground atomic plants in the Ukraine and allowed no contact with the outside world. Betweenen are packed into cells forithout ventilation. There issychiatric camp0 men and women;
Sverdlovsk:rison camps, of whichre strict regime including one for women felling timber;
Kolalosed prison camp zone;.
Vorkuta: Four camps whose inmates work in the mines>
Chernovitsk: One campoo prisoners, doing hard labor in quarries;.
Kaliningrad: One large camp whose inmates work on furniture manufactures
pecialised mental hospital; . _4
Kishinev: One hard laborefrigeration- _
Korkino, Shelyabinsk: One strict regime camp for work in the gold mines;
Ionavc: One camp whose innates do hazardous workhemical combine;
Khodyzhensk: One camp for BOO prisoners at an oilfield;
Type of Jobs
Prisoners quarry uranium at the Aksu mines in Kazakhstan ond the Jolti Vaki mines in the Ukraine. From their camp near the naval base atbay near Vladivostok they clean the wa.ite outlets of the reactors in nuclear submarines. They burrow for gold in the far cast, where women prisoners ruin their lungs by blowing ct the gold as it runs along conveyor belts. At Shikotan on the Kurite islands in the Pacific, women prisoners unload trawlers for the biggest canning center in the country.
The Soviet Union's railways were built larccly by
prisoners. They are building the Baykal-Amur raiiway, and unpublicized KGB railways.
The film studios in the Smcrlis district cf Riga woro built by prisonora. Somo of the prisoners went on to Liepaja tohemical plant, and other,,
sent to Daugavpils to do electrical work. Prisoners finished construction of the Rigas aditajs factory and built additions
tolant that produces electrical appliances, "others
are workinglywood factory in Bolderaja, on the new airport in Kalncie:ns, andew bridge over the Daugava.
There are also permanent crmps, such as the womens' camp at Ilgucieras, where the inmates sew clothing, and the camp near tho Braslas station, where sew<ng and bookbinding are performed. Inmates produce furniture at the camp on Maza Matisa Street in Riga and in camps in Valmiera, Liepaja, and Jelgava.Original document.