PRC Organizations Responsible
for Strategic Missile and
Space Development Programs
Office of Weapons Intelligence
. and Conclusions
Seventh Ministry of Machine Building of the People's Republic of China (PRC) consists of five research academics that are responsible for theof strategic missiles, space launch vehiclesnd spacecraft. Four of the academies develop major subsystems and one probably is the overall contractor for systems integration. An analysis of all available information on the research academicsthe confident identification of functions for each, as follows:
First Research Academy. Beijinganyuanrobably the overall contractor for integration of strategic missile and slv systems. This academy is supported by the other fourwhich perform subsystems research. The Firsl Academy probably has developed all PRC strategic missiles and st.vs up to this time.
Second Research Academy. Beijing. Research and development) of missile guidance and control systems and probably cf some slv electronics.
Third Research Academy,a ngxindianof missileiquid-propulsion systems and aerodynamics research related to propulsion and airframes.
Fourth ResearchohhotAD of composite-solid-propcllant rocket motors for strategic missiles.
Fifth Research Academy. Development ofand related ground and onboard satellite
These research academies provide China with lite necessary technological and industrial base forsignificant missile and space development programs. The Seventh Ministry of Machine Building appears to haveautious approach to missile and space development. The number of programs has been small and the pace of development and testing has been slow. However, China appears to be committedajor modernization program, and thatore vigorous pursuit of missile and space projects in the futurel
' The First Miniitrj of Machine Building ii tespoiuible for producing central maeMnery pt mtniiy lor the civilian econniny.
The Chinese defense industry is centered in the Second through the Seventh Ministries of Machinehe Chinese machine building ministries arefor the development and production of all PRC weapons. They operate under the State Council and
are each responsible for specific categories of weapons and related equipmeni. These are: nuclear weapons (Second Ministry of Machineand defensive missiles (Thirdefense electronics including communications (Fourthround armaments (Fifthaval shipbuilding (Sixthnd strategic missiles and space vehicles
(Seventhhe Military Commission of tbe Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, acting for the Party leadership, establishes weapons and space programs and their relative priorities. Tbc National Defense Scientific and Technological<ndstc) verves as oreral) supervise* ofnd arranges for and monitors missile and space prog rams. In overseeing these programs, it works closely with the defense-related ministries. | |
In recent years, much new informationariety of sources has become available that can be related to Chinesemnsileaadipaceorganizations Thisallows us to piece together what appears to be the organizational setup for the conduct of PRC ballistic missile and apace development programs.
the formation of the Seventh Ministry of Machine Building. Oilier, less conclusive, evidence suggests that it predated Ihat ministry by at leasi four year>!|
Analysis of information from various sources indicates that the Beijing Guided Missile Plant. Nanyuan, performs the role of integrating contractor for the development of strategic missile and space launch
Seventh Ministry of Machine Building isfor the development of Chinese strategic missiles, SLVS, and spacecraft. In order to understand how missile and space systems are developed in China, it is necessary to examine the organization of Otis ministry. The Seventh Ministry of Machine Building comprises five research academies, each of which appears to have particular development responsibilities for missile and space systerns.1
First Research Academy, Beijing/Nanyuan
This academy probably is the integrating contractor for the development of Chinese strategic missile andystems. As such, it is supported by the other four research academies of the Seventh Ministry of Machine Building, which are responsible for the development of major missile- and space-related subsystems. The Krst Research Academy is located in| Beijing's southern suburb of Nanyuan. Its Nanyuan
Beijing, however, meacaocmyis with and may be the Chinese designationarge airframe development and prototype production facility known in the Intelligence Community as the Beijing Guided Missile Plant. Nanyuan. There is firm evidence that the academy existedoon after
Third Research Academy
The Third Research Academy was first identified8 in Chinese press reports. It is located in the Changxinriian area of Beijing, as indicated by the fact
name ol the acauemy may oe trie acsigrrirnrjrroi the Seventh Ministry of Machine Building fur the targe center fornown in the Intelligence Community as the Beijing Guided Missfle Development and Production Center, Char.gsIndian. This center was constructed with Soviet assistance beginning intile is known about the organization* subordinate lo Ihc Third Academy. However, former Premier Zhou Ealai (Chou Ln-lai) referred lo the academy is8 as comprising nine large units. These units probably coramroup of research institutes and ai least two factoriesnd
The Fourth Research Academyhein China forf solid-propel lanlfor tiratcgK missiles The academy wasat llohhotlthough iuin llohhot is no! confirmed, it undoubtedlyof the large composiie'Solid-propcllantcomplex known in ihc Intelligencethe llohhot Solid-Propellant Complex. Therethat suggests the Fourth Academy isof tne Seventh Ministry offor the Hexi (Ho-hsi) Chemicalfor the Hohhot
detailed information Is available on theof ihc Fourth Academy other than ihe identity^ of one subordinate organization- the No.nstituted
Fifth Research Academy
The Fifth Research Academy probably is ihe classified name of the Academy of Space Technology, an organization responsible for ipacccrafl development and oo which considerable information has become available in the past year. This organization is beaded by Ren Xinmin. whoice minister of the Seventh Ministry of Machine Building. Although the Academy of Space Tcchnolog) was identified only last year, there is more information available on its organization, responsibilities, and activities lhan onic- -cm.fdi iii tin-ir.Mrv.
its work on satellite control
responsible forf altitude control systems for satellites (it also has been called the Institute of Satellite Attitude Control)
and hive usnlirmcd .
systems. It probably is part of the former Institute of
Automation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences]^
Ren Xinmin identified an organization designated ihe Overall Design Department as another of the institutes subordinate to the Academy of Space Technology. He described this department as being responsible for the overall design of spacecraft and for thermal and mechanical design I
the responsibilities ot the academy arc spacecraft development and have provided dclails of work under way. The academy currently appears to beon the development of communications satellites.
According to Ren Xinmin, the Academy of Space Technologyroject management agency that was established8 to coordinate tbe space program. Il apparently evolved from an Organization f
ket uptktc ana Known asst "
That tbe Fifth Researchhe classified name of ihe Academy of Space Technology is based on the strong likelihood that Ihe Fifthth Research Institute in Xi an (Sun) and ihe Xfan Radio Technology Institute, which Ren identified as an institute subordinate to the organization he beads, are one and tbe same. We believe that other Fifth,nstitutes of the Academy of Space Technology |
A third institute subordinate to the academy,to Ren, is the Xi'an Radio Technologybelieve that this is the SOSth Institute of theAcademy becausee similarity ofin spaceho, two ofofficials of (he Xi'an institute previouslywithlh Institute (the Director,and an engineer. 7hounotherlinkedth Institute with the developmentfor soanding rockets early in tbe
The fourth intitule identified by Rec as subordinate lo the Academy of Space Technology is the Lanzhou (Lan-chou) Low-Temperature and Vacuum Institute. It is responsiblen cryogenics and high-vacuum technology related to spacecraft!
oi cryogenic propciiants aaa nave stated that an explosion involving liquid hydrogen three to four years ago resulted
[he Institute was^avwefl in tnea faciei propulsion system using liquid hydrogen as of atrobably involved studies of cryogenic fuel and han-dling ruthcr lhan actual engine development!
Xinmin has identified four institutes, three factories,est facility as subordinate lo Ihe Academy of Space Technology. One of ihe institutes is the Beijing Institute of Control Engineering, which is
One of the three factories subordinate lo the Academy of Space Technology is the Beijing Dongfang (Tung-fang) Scientific Instruments Factory, ll is located near the Institute of Control Engineering in the Haidicn (Hai-ticn) District of northwest Beijing. The factory probably works closely with the institute and is responsible for the production, general assembly, and
testing of satellite structures j
fcround-test models ol the first two Chinese large assembly building believed to be
part of this factory. The factory is reporied to have previously produced sounding-rocketnd internal components for the second satellite, including the solarhinese press report8 stated that ihe factory participates in the development of vacuum calibratioiLapparalus. One of the uses cited was space exploratii
The other two factories identified by Renhe academy were two electrical equipment plants. One. in Shanghai- makes satellite electrical equipment and related ground detection equipment. Another, in Shanxi (Shansi) Province, is engagedf ground and satellite equipment. Neither of these plants had been previously identified!
The Seventh Ministry of Machine Building appears to haveautious approach to missile and space development. The number of programs it hashas been small and the pace of development testing has been slow. It is consistent with what we would expect from an emerging and inexperienced effort toew and advanced industrial base indigenously. Without extenstve support outside the PRC for sophisticated motile and space programs, aad with little acroapacc development experience, the Chinese have had to embark on building an advanced technological industrial base from scratch. China's moderni/jtion programs for the nextearsore vigorous pursuit of missile and space projects. The Chinese may expect lhal. with the experience gained from earlier programs, their development organizations will be able lo undertake new programs with increased confidence
test facility that Ren identified as subordinate lo the academy is the Beijing Environmental Engineering Test Station, ll is responsible for environmental testing, apparently related to spacecraft and is located in Hairouortheast of Beijing.l
Overall, the five research academics and tbeinstitutes subordinate to ihcm comprise all the major elementsechnological industrial base for conducting missile and space development programs While some missile and space work predates the establishmentf the Seventh Ministry of Machine Building, an effective management structure probably was not emplaced until that time. It appears that this basic organizational structure has remained intaci since thcn|
si JUiy 'v