EAST ASIA REVIEW

Created: 6/17/1980

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South Korea: Park Chonq Hee Revisited

Lt. Gen. Chun Doo Hwan'a recent actions areof those taken by former President Park chonghis successful ascent to power. Aftera coupark established anfor his election to the presidency twoby entrenching himself and other members ofpurging "corrupt" politicians andto amend the constitution and return powercivilian government, neutralizing civilianandej^jgUfty to supportelection as

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Special Committee for National Security Measures/ Standing Committee

Announced onay, the Special Committee forSecurity Measures (SCNSM) is composed ofx officio members (the Prime Minister, ministers. Martial Law Commander, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of staff, and service chiefs of staff) andppointedilitary officers and one civilian). Although the government has justified the establishment of the SCNSM under constitutional and martial law regulations, its legal status is tenuous. It is supposed to exist only as long as there is full martial law, but,structure appears too elaborate to be

Government spokesmen have described the SCNSMoordinating body between the Martial Law Command and the Cabinet. Political observers believe that init willeventuallyCabinet and the National Assembly.

The Standing Committee of the SCNSM, establishedune to advise and handle the daily activities of the full committee, is the real source of power and Chaired by General Chun, it is dividedeaded by six military officers and seven civilians; it also hasilitary and three civilian) appointees without portfolio. Each subcommittee will have between five and eight staff members.

Purification Campaign

The purification campaign recently launched hasthrust. As an anticorruption drivepoliticians and bureaucrats who havefrom their positions, it is likely to havepublic support. Butove tocf the military's actions, it willto the mounting discontent of the politically The focal point of the drive is theSubcommittee of the newly appointed Standingthe subcommittee is chaired by Kim Man Ki,general who is with the KoreanAgency and who served previously asthe Defense Ministry's Joint Investigation unitArmy Provost Marshal. ress announcement on 6the types of misconduct leading toleaking classified information, andas well as "easygoing attitudes andof groundless rumors." Businesses haveexcluded, however, to preclude

Constitutional Revision

General Chun has asserted that he favors continued evolution of the political system, including formationew government under an amended constitution. One of the government's first announcements after theof the Special Committee was the resumption of work by the government's Committee for Constitutionaland Deliberation, organized under the Prime's of^^ce of Legislation and chaired personally by him.

Established last March, this committee has been the center of controversy between the government and the National Assembly, both of which have claimed the right toew constitution.* The government's failure to specify either the contents or timetable of its proposed version of the constitution createdof its motives and led students to take to the

its in mid-May to demand acceleration of the process.

a gesture to demands for politicalthe government recently announced that its draft will be ready by the end of July in preparationational referendum by the end of September, presidential and parliamentary elections early next year, and trans-ferof powerew government by and coordination with the National Assembly have not been officially ruled out, but the government is proceedingespite its gesture on the timetable, the government remains as vague as ever on

'"?tJie substance of its version. It almost certainly will bear the imprint of the military leadership's affinity for the Yusin Constitution--but with cosmetic changes for popular consumption.

Neutralization of the Opposition

The military leadership, which has never trusted prominent dissident leader Kim Dae Jung, began toa case against him early this year to nrewnt arw possibility that he might be elected president..'

Since arresting Kim onay, the Martial Law Command has publicly leveled detailed charges of sedi-^tior^and pro-Communist ties against him, j

Kim Young Sam, president of the oppositionPartyas been treated more"house

Prospects

Despite these moves to institutionalize his role, Chun will have to modify Park's scenario significantly from this point on if he is to succeed in. Park resigned from active duty just prior to thejoined the Democratic Republican Party, and won the Presidency by narrowly defeating his oppositionin an election which, by all accounts, was fair. Chun, however, does not enjoy the popularity that Park had when he initially seized power. To compensate for his lack of support, Chun may be compelled to manipulate the constitutional revision process, suppress theopposition, and ricr or otherwise qua^ntee the

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NORTH KOREA

ay

6 May

ay

unofficial delegation from Japan led by Diet member Kuno visits North Korea. 8 interim agreement permitting Japanese fishing boats to enter North Korea's restrictedsea zone is extended for two more years.

Working-level representatives from North and South Korea meet for the seventh time at Panmunjom to prepare for talks at the pri-ae ministerial level. There is no progress, but the two sides agree to meet again onay.

song attends the funeral of President Tito, traveling via the Soviet Union and returning via china (refueling stops only). In Belgrade, he meets briefly with SovietBrezhnev and Chinese Premier Hua, as well as leadersumber of other countries. Beforehome, Kimour-day visit to Romania.

May

ay

US Army patrol exchanges firemall number of suspected North Korean infiltrators late in the evening near Panmunjom, but there are no casualties. North Korea quickly protests the incident.

KCNA, North Korea's official news agency,tatementSeoul's attempt onay to

troop reinforcements in capital area by citing the threat

from the North.

US Army patrol in the Joint Secu-

rity Area again exchanges fire with suspected North Korean infiterators; no casualties are reported.

20Korean party and public organ-

izationsoint statement condemning the imposition of martial law throughout South Korea on the weekenday.

The Military Armistice Commission holdsst meeting at Panmunjom at the request of North Korea. The two sides trade accusationsthe incidents ofnday in the Joint Security Area.

22representatives from

North and South Korea meet for the eighth time to prepare for talks at tho prime ministerial level. There is no progress, and North Korea suggests lengthening the interval before the next preliminary meetingull month due to the Cabinet sbakeup in South Koreaay. The two sides agree to meet again onune.

tatement criticizing

charges by South Korea of Communist involvement in the disturbances in Kwangju and Seoul's linkage of Kim Dae Jung with Communist sympathizers.

Korean police authorities re-

port the captureorth Korean agent in Seoul onay. Thealleges that the agent hadto enter Kwangju to exploit the student-led rebellion.

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I1-song inspects the newtown of Taean southwest of Pyongyang and checks progress on the constructiontudy hall in Pyongyang.

Two days after South Korean troops retake Kwangju, the North Korean party daily, Nodgnq Sinmun, pays "high tribute" to the people of Kwangju for their resistance andecondhird Kwangju "sooner or later."

Hay

3 June

publishing house of the Korean Workers Party announcesive-volume history of Kim Il-song's exploits during the anti-Japanese resistance. The work is said to be based on the remembrancesumber of Kim's partisan associates, including most of the party elite.

North Korean public organizationsoint statement criticizing South Korea's establishment onay ol the Special Committee for National Security Measures and the release on the same dayeport by the Martial Law Command on the insurrection in Kwangju.

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