Created: 6/1/1980

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.National Foreign Assessment Center

Soviet Naval Mine Counter-Countermeasures

An Intelligence Assessment

Information available as0

has been used in the preparation of this report.

Sonet Naval Mine



Mines traditionally have played an important part in naval warfare, especially in ibe case of tbe Soviet Union, whicharge coastline to protect. Naval mines are used cither defensively or offensively to deny hostile surface ships or submarines access to selected waters and harbors. The minesrotracted and continuous effect on opposing forces and alsosychological effect, which is important even if the mines themselves are not particularly effective. Sweeping devices and techniques, known collectively as mine countermeasuresathinefield. Mine counter-countermeasures (MCCMs) are employed to protect the mine from being neutralized by such sweeping devices and techniques, m

CVara cteristtcs of Natal Mines

All naval mines can be grouped into threebottom, moored, anddescribe tbeof mines in water. Mines also are categorized by exploder system, by launch platform, and by their primary role.ives the characteristics of moored and bottom|

Table 1

of Natal Muses











Moored mines have buoyant cases tbat arc mooredable attached to an anchor on the ocean bottom. Thc maximum depth of deployment usually depends on thc maximum hydrostatic pressure that tbe mine can withstand or tbe weight ef the cable that the buoyancy of the mine can sustain.


Mine Coerrf enneasurcs

Mine ccaintermeasures includeinefield and bunting, usually on an individual mine basis. (Soviet mine countermeasures ate shown ineutralization of the mine is the goal in either case and is accomplisbed by removing, avoiding, orthe mine. Removal is dangerous because tbe oiine usually is sensitive to motion and changes inpressure. Avoidance requires bigb-resolution sonars and may not be geographically possible.involves cutting the cableoored mine or causing tbe mine to self-destruct without harming the sweeping forces. f|

In mechanical sweeping procedures, mechanical cutters (fixed, sharp,haped blades) and explosive cutters (explosively fired chisels) are towedurface ship oret of floats, depressors, and diverlers is used to keep the sweep wire away from tbe sweeper and at the correct depth. The mine's mooting cable is channeled into the cutters and levered. Because the mine is buoyant, it rises to the surface where it can be destroyed safely. The mine also can be destroyed by the use of explosives to cause sympathetic detonation of tbe mine explosive, to destroy the minccase. or to disable the firing<J

Another minesweeping procedure results tn thc mine destroying itself. The mine will self-destruct if tbe firing mechanism is deceived intoalid target is present. This deceit is accomplished by towing mechanical or electronic devices that simulate tbe signaturehip or submarine. Self-destruction also is accomplished by using "guinea pig" ships to transit the mine fie 1'

CouDter-Counlermeasum (MCCM) MCCMs can be designed into tbe minccase.into the mooring cable, or considered as an influence exploder system. |

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