MILITARY COMPENSATION IN THE SOVIET UNION

Created: 1/1/1981

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Military Compensation in the Soviet Union | |

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The Soviet system of militarytructured lo rcUin jnil motivate careerist* and to provide minimal support forulfilling ihcir term* of service The system incorporates both monetary

primary form o( ewmpcnsal'on for career personnel -ami "physical-o.-hich include food, eloth.ng. and hotr*.mj and con-*ti-.uie the bulkonscript* meager compensation

This approach enable* Ihe Soviet, tu pay high -ages lo careerists-pruviding servicemen an incentive to remain in the.tillcrall compensation ctpcndilufc. low. Compensation alone probably ha* less clfcct on careerdecmonr than -lo ihend Commons Partyraird with ntililary lire. CareerptJCtcd lo become member* oT ih-Party ami must reckon *nh the likelihood of panyif they leave the

Our estimate* of cofnptnutwn arc basedetailed analyw of the manningank .nocture, and compensationcm of the Soviet armedku anclysi* indicate, that the Soviet form have larger proponioniof officer*and junior enlisted men and ti smaller proportion of career noncommivuoned officci*han US force* have. The Soviet practice of using iiinur officer* raiber xtua NCO* ror -hand* on" technical -orh. lo- retention rate* fo* entitled personnel, jnd ihe USSR* rdunce on short-termrovide the bulk oT it* militaryaccount Tor these dis*imilarnic*.

theoryersonnel structure dominated by conscripts cause the Soviet lystcm of monetary compensation to dilfe* significantly rrom pay practice* in the US military:

Soviet conscript*oken cash wage that i* jppro*imatclythai of career enlisted personnel Career personnel, mow ofareake up aboutercent oT ihe Sovrn military but get overercent ortbe pay In the United States, officer* and senior NCO*nd above) constitute aboutercent oT the military and set ki*ercent of the

Soviet pay ii determined more by organizational position or -Mlei" than by rank Position pay account* Tor virtually allonscript* pay jnd about halfof anefficer* payh. nf anofficer'*ctcrmincd by rank. The remainder come* from Ionk ny and special pay. The pay system for the US military i* bated primarily on rank.Q

The US and Soviet system*upplementary paymenisom' pensaie for difficult conditions of .ervicc and special skills. The Soviet* award these payment* fof service in remote area* or high altitude* and (or sea duty, flying, parachuting,ariety of skills like cryptologic or fjreign language proficiency. The Soviet* alsoprovide up loinple longevity credit foremoteighnd at sea US military incentive program* are lew .ample* and do not includelongevity credit for arduous duty, r"

The Soviet pay system has changed liillc since World War II. The adjust-menu thai have been made have favored junior officers, -arrant. enlisted men Since the, the average pay of careerist* ha*ppro* imatelycrccnL Conscript pay changed one-whenotsrts-erelo monthly pay placcofa cigarette

rowth in pay for Soviet military careerists, iheir financial advantage over their civilian counicrpo.ru appears lo be shrinking. While the average careerist's pay increased JS percent5 through the late

, civilian wages increased nearlyercent.

Military officers arc nevertheless well rewarded financially. Generalsnd*ompensation comparable to that of senior party official* and managers of major industries Junk* officers get two to three times the income of teachers, doctors, and industrial workers.onscript's monetary allowance is low. when the value of food, clothing, and housing is added to it. his compensation is only slightly below the minimum wage ofubles per monthivilian.

Overall personnel costs include nol only pay. food, clothing, and quarters but also medical supplies. Ministry of Defense social insurance contribfations. and travelptoses When measured in constant rubles, (hewoercent in absolute terms over the pastrimarily because of an increase in military manpower. Outlays for the nonpersonnel components of Soviet defense programs grew much fcsicr and were nearlyercent higher0 thanonsequently, the share of defense spending for active-duty personnel decreased from approtimalclyercent lo IJ percent over this period.

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Bactirotind

Concept of Scope of Comt* Confidence^ Personnel StrBcinre

Categoric*

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Companion With US Force* Monetary Comprruation

Type, of Pay

Ranfc Pay Position Pay Time-ln-Serrtee Ply

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Diunosition ChaiiS

Nonnvoneury Compensation

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Personnel Support and Benefit*

Medial Care

Officer Privilege* Companion ofd CJIian Compenuiion Compensation and Defense Out by*

Military ('ompeiisafion in the Soviet Union

hit liijI.pcJ id dcuil the manning practices, rank structure, and cnmpensano- .tstem of ihe Sonet armed forces. The mulling >rmaiion was jurm-Ncd in computerizedMt so thai we could calculate overall military manpower toils, whichignificant element of Soviet defense vpcuding This detailed appcoaeh was necessary because thcSovsct Covetnmeni classifiesoimpentatioa rales andol personnel Secrci and compartments muchof the information. This ruper wmmwra our wort and asHsses how effeein* (he compensation systemeeting mar.powctQ

Lvnrept of Comptawivn. The Soviet lyiiem ofcompensation issiruciurcd to main and motivate earecritl* and to provide austeic support for conscripis fulfilling their terms nfoviet publication on the naiimul cixnpen-at>on system defines the two mam forms of compcrtsaiion as 'monetary" andol." Monetaryhe primary form of contpensauoa for officers, warrant officers, and career enlisted men For conscripis. howesrr. monetary allowances are intended only as supplement! to loud, clothing, and housing, which eonnliuic an ausisre level .if "physical" compensation. q

Careerists arc given high pay in comparisonivilians (as viewed by US standa.ds) and 'dative to conscripts. The emphasis on monetary remuneration creates an incentive for professwaal miliiaiy personndemainthe service and undertake difficult assignments.

Simp* of CWregr. The Soviei miliury compensaiion syMcm applies to uniformed members of the Soviet Mim .try of Defense, the Bonier Troops of thefor State Securitynd Internalt'is Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs

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(MVD) Although ihe Seen define an elements of ilieseas "military' and subject them too*ishmu ol iheiriw/jr Strritt. this paper ca Ice la tes military compensation for only those forces filling what in ihe L'nited Slates woukl be considered national >ccurily roles. This.netudesillion men in the live armed services of ibe Mirrury of Defen* and ihe KGB Border Troop. We cicludc from our cakulauom theittoa men who servehe Ministry of Defense construction, transport alum, and civiltroopshe MVD Internal Security Troops.

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In our estimates of compensation costs, we include only those benefit! that onifmmed scivicemen receive. Wc have deluded the cost of retired personnel, thoseisability benefits, civilians working for the Ministry of Defense, and resemsu. j j

( vnftJrttf. Tne accuracy of our compensationdepends on our independenterived es-li mates of Soviet manpower, personnel structure, and individual personnel costs- In alle are more confident of our estimates for higher levels of aggregation than for lower leveli Wc believe ourof manpower are unlikely to be in error by more thanercent, although the margin of error is xnc individual categories. We have high iioer krowledgeofcc-nptnsatwfor tad rumor officers through the rank of major but are lets sure of our calculates of(or senior officers and those in rear service positions.

Our confidence in the estimates alto varies with the lime period underion. Wearge amount of manpower and pay data lor the period fromhehrough the.ag of several years can occurage change and ojr detection of it. our confidence the estimates of ihe compensation rates for the last few years ittiot significant for our personnel cow

are calculated in trims ol IvTOpjy raies -irv bate far for ihe pi tic daia underlying CIA estimates of total Soviet defense eostsandGNI'^

PettowI Strwctsv*

Ow ctimsaiesofry compensation reflectata on embttry comrvrnsaiiun practice* andof Soviet military personnel by organisational unit, rank and position strueiuies for each type ofThese data also are useful in illustrating dilf;iences In manning practices among ckmcnuof the Sovietand between the US and So-set forces [

CttrgortVs. Trc Sv-cifsiendcd scrvKcmcn. and conser-pts. Career officers arc cunmusHsncd byO academies andschools, which arc analogous to US service academies- The majority of applicants for these higher military schools come from outside the armed services, but in someareer enroled man is acceptedrursmissionin. schuot Inlsesiof compicting higher militaryarrant officer maybrrter program to become an officef bui. in this case. ca:ii.ot be promoied beyond the rank nflicftcnam. Soviel officers, unlike their USnormally complete full careers ofears

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A small share erf the officers entering acine duly are reverse officers commasuyned pnmanly throughat civilian universities Another source ofofficers is conscripts whoecondaryand have passed cualif"ing exams toward ihe end ol iheir term of conscripted service. Reserverarely serve moreew sears-

The Soviets caiegonre wtffaM officcn and career nc-scommissioned officers as estended servicemen The) are recruited from among conscripts completing their lerms of mandatoryvir- Conscripts who wish to become warrant officers attend school for up to sitteaded servicemen- both NCOs andrenewable contracts for specified periods of lime that can totalears.

Conscriptserm of mandatory active military duty Most are iuduct'd between the agesofndnd serve for two years (thiee years in seagoing unitsof

the Nass and KGB BordVi GuaruM IndroduaU -ho aic deleircd upiiI aiiet graduating Irom higherinstitution* arc gi>-cn reductions in their terms of service of .isonths

Sirmttmtt. The preceding personnel categories accouai for different shales of thearmed service* The Air >nd Strategsc An Defense Forces have largerof officers than the other services because aviation rcouirct y'caicr numbers of nil-its -naskilled personnel. The telaiively large propor tion of cadets in the* services reflects the need for trained pilots andpersonnel' (see figure 11

The Ground Forces. Straiegic Rocket Forces, and Navy have apptoiimaiely the same proportion of conscripts The quality of conscripts, howes-cr, is not the same for all of the services. The Navy andRocket Forces have first choice when soong men are drafied and psck the belter ouil.fied men from the draft pool lnadd.uon.tbe seagoing ckmcnuof the Navy keepconscrspu for three years. prc*-Jinsod for training on the job and helping ihem attain greater technical proficiency

Overercent of the ground force combat units are not fully manned The lowest strength arsisigh officer-to-enlisted ratio in peacetime During mo-tnlmiion these units would swell wuh reservists, largely in the towerncreasing the percentage of conscripts shown in figure 1.

CompatiioM WiikVSfpttfs. Overall, ihe Soviet armed force*argeron of officersmaller proportion of NCOs than do the US armed forces Iscehese disaundariiiesdifferent approaches to ihe assignment ofSoviet officers perform many tasks that in ihc United States would be performed by senior NCOs and warrant officers. This practice reduces Ihc rccjuiiement for large numbers of enlistedor example, the complementoviet destroyer, etas* ship includes approximatelyercent officers andercent enlisted careerists andofficers Comparable US omts arc manned wnh about

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percent officer* and J5 percent entitled carcernis.'

The Soviet force* have proper tiovatety two-iamls more peopleihe rank of private than the US force* have in the lowest enlisted grade*hrnughhe Soviet force I* structured with moreat the lower rank* to accommodate large nam-ber* of conscripts with limited training and short term* of lervxe. Few of ihcor 2remain in ihc service after their initial term. |^

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assive *cmiannual turnover of conscripts continually feed* new personnel into the

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milita'y. This commaa! arrival of raw concript*nriprititv in design,ndpractice* Soviet weapon designer* have eased potential maintenance problems by emphasmng ihc concepts of reliability, sundardlsaiioo, ami limited modification from one generation of weapons lo the neit. Soviet training and maintenance practices complement thi* doign philosophy Conscriptin the classroom and on thefocuses on devebptng skilh i> narrowly defined specialise* Technically trained rumor of fcenlended server men closely supervise conte/ipU usmg operating and maintenance norm* that leave littlehe discretion of unit personnel.n component replacement, rather than repair, at the unit level also serve* to minimi re shortcomings in ihe irainingof conscript*

Monetary (umpemjtioo

fypesaf'Pey. rtic Soviet* iheif tnihuf* personnel primarily on tiet trie %kill> and responsibilities associated witn each nun'*dim powtwnornlcm. rank payitufsecondars impOtturKc and. when granted. usu.ilh is about hall ol'positionide variety Ol'supplcincriiars jUutijnccs are applied for length of service and special conditions, ifj

RankAll personnel in the armes* forces have military rank, hut only officers and warrant officers receive pa* for it. For Career NCOt and conscripts, ranks carry no remuneration, ij |

Patiiioit Par. Pay for position reflects the amoun: of responsibility and technical competence required by-each billet. Ii adds flexibility to the personnel structure byeward that is largely independent of rank. Position pay is determined by ihe echelon of command, the positionnit, and the technical requirement* of the billet. Q

Billets are loosely associated withunior rank would notenior commandIn order to advance in rank, one must prose himselfillet associatedigher rank.| |

Differentials in position pay canerson of lower rank to get about Ihe same payerson with greater rank. For example,ieutenant colonel typically receivedubles monthly in rank pay and longevity pay.ajor got IJ5 rubles. If the major servedattalion commander, however, he earnedubles monthly forieutenant colondegimental staff would haveubles in position pay. lo lotal. the major would have earnedabies and the lieutenantubscsjj |

Warrant officers and career noncommissioned officers also receive position pay accordinget of rates that usually are lower than those for officers. Duty pay is higher for thoseommand troops and lower (or those in ihe rear or technical services. These rates apply equally to warrant officers andofficers

Conscript position pav it disbursed according loa scale mat ;roups positions according lo the rank authorized os tables olon-cripTs pay is deter-mined by the position ho Tills, however, not by his actual rankrivate assignedergeant's positionergeant* position pay.er-scant assignedrivaie't position receives aposition pay. These mismatches occur when thereplacementthose with specialistnot fit organizationaland when men awaiting separation are as-signed temporarilyower paying positions,

Pay. Allowances for length of service providesoond with proportional increases to it.eir position and rani pay. There are separatepl> rates for officers and ettended servicemen. Most conscripts receive no longevity pay. (Thoseaboard ships receive additional pay during thdr thirdircrew members and seagoing personnel receive special longevity credits. For etample. one sear of flight duty counts at two or three years of service depending on tbe type of aircraft flown. Each year of sea duty on surface ships is credited as onealf years of service. Aboard diesel-poweredear of duty is :reditcd as two years, and on nuclear submarines each year counts as three | |

Supplementary Pay and Benefits. Soviet servicemen recrivc supplementary allowances to compensate for difficult conditions of service or for special qualifica-ilons. These consist of cash payments, gifts, or special retirement credits. The types of supplementary pay and thdr recipients are lisied innd described in appendix A.

Pay Incentives. The Soviets do not appear to fully eiploit thdr military pay systemersonneltool. BecauseoraSoviet obsession withrc-y. pay rates arc classified and hidden from the majority of servicemen. Despite the secrecyspecific pay rates, the general rules of pay probably arean in the Navy realizes that service at sea Is more remunerative than service on land,erson in the army probably knows about the pay benefits of serving in the Far

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Recipients nf SupplcneaiBry Payme.

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about pay probaily nuke* rio difference,because conscripts serve where orderedof pa> differentials. Pay may have soase iniWncc on officers- dulywi tbeiro afle.ncd by demands of the service, career eessttder-ations. and lising conditions-1 |

The pay system probablyeets the recruitment and retention of careerists in the Soviet military.pay macaw ahirply with position and time and is high relative to Sonet civilian standards, it an influence career decisions. Other factors also weigha tradition of lifetime service fori.erv ihc geographical and soo.ilof man* miliary personnel from society, and party pressure on officii. Career cJTicers generally arc ei-pected to become Communist Party members and nsust reckonihc bkefahood of party displeasure -which can affeci subs'iiueai ovilbnibey leave the military.

Diuritoihm. Most of the USSR's military Personnel are low-paid conscripts. This keeps the total payroll low. cva Iboufca some segment* of the military arepaid. Career octscmkI. mestry ofneers. make up aboutercent of the personnel but receive overerceat of the payroll. Military pay in the United States is moret.ibuted. US ofneers and senior NCOsnd above) nuke upercent -Jf the armed forces snd receive J8 percent of the

ompares the distribution of pay ia US and Soviet forces on the nasi'ay in each country. Pay rates for the Soviets reflect typical ag-grcgatet of position, .ink. longevity, and special par for individuals with -sain noted. US pay data usctude base and incentive pa* and allowances for food andn indrviduals rate of payvary wMJefy from the factors used in tho table, j

The dissimilarity in (he overall distribution of pay of the US and Soviet forces emphasizes the lowly position of ihe Sovlci center-ps. Arnoni career personnel, the pay relationships in the two countries arc closer. The payoviet chief marshalima the payoviet lieutenant, while the payS generalimes the payS secondoviet captain receivesimes the pay ofS captain receivesimes the payecond lieutenant. Thewarrantthe Soviets consider to be more an NCO than anpay approximately equal to thatieutenant, but Ihe US warrant officer receives about half again as muchecond lieutenant. Similarly, Soviet career NCOs lag behind their US counterparts If their pay Ii compared lo that of officers^

The average pay of personnel in the Soviet military services varies greatly because of differing rank strut-lures, rates of position pay. and allocations of special allowances. People in national-level supportsuch as the General Staff, where thereigh rank structure and high pay for position, receive the greatest per capita pay (see

Among the services, average monthly pay Is hijttest for Navy and Air Force personnel. In the Air Force the high per capita pay is attributable to the large share of pilot officers. The special allowances associated with service at sea and with submarine and flying duty escalate average monthly wages for naval personnel,

Per capita wages also vary among the US services. Air Force personnel receive the highest per capita wages, and Marine Corps personnel receive tbe lowest. The differences in per capita pay primarily reflect varying rank structures.

Chang's, We examined Sovietor the years since World War ii and found that pay rates have changed little since then. Wages for all conscripts changed once nearlyears ago whenopeks were added to monthly wages in lieuation of cigarettes. Most changes have occurred during the lastears and hove benefited career soldiers:

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he pay of naval conscripts and naval career NCOs was reducedoercent to lessen interservicc disparities.

rank pay for juniorofficers through the rank of captain was increased byubles per month and for majors byubles per month, cauiing overall raises for these ranks ranging fromoercent wilh the lowest ranks receiving the greatest increases.

ank pay increased byubles per month for officers through the rank of colonel and by

ubles for warrant officers, cauiing pay for the affected officers to riseoercent,

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he position pay scales for extended servicemen were chanted lo Increase ihe number of prude* and probably to raise pay rales.

8 there may haveaise in foreign-duiy pay for conscript* in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. At that time,uly pay. which is paid in the currency of the hosi country and applies to all military personnel serving, outside the USSR, was doubled. No corresponding increases werefor troops stationed within Ihe USSR orIn Eastern Europe.

The pay system was affected when the rank of warrant officer was introducedhe purpose of this change was to give added status to noncommissioned careerists who were lo be "officerhey were to receive, unlike other nonofficcr servicemen, some remuneration for their rank/

These changes caused the overall Soviet military pay bit) to grow. We estimate that it costs the USSRercent more to pay its current military forces at the most recent pay scales of which we are aware than ii would cost if the military were still0 pay scales. The share of total pay allocated lo extended servicemen isercent greater and the share of officers and conscriptsercent smaller. These changes have not increased the share of total defense spending accounted for by pay because there have been spending increases in the other elements of defense programs as well.

Nonmonetary Crimp* mat Ion

The Soviets view nonmonetary or "physical"as an important complement to Ihe pay system in providing an appropriate level of support to each category of servicemen. The primary forms of nonmonetary compensation are food, clothing, and housing.

' The initial warrant officeren rent ly was unsuitable. AH of the available eitended-Mrvtc* NCO* were rtetahed a* "officerInhe law wa* chanted once aaain to reeuab-llth lha rank* of noncomrnUtlonedhe category ofpersonnel now Include* both noneomrnissloned and warrant |

Food. Service personnel receive prepared meals, food in kind, or on allowance with which lo purchase food. Conscripts have no option but lo eat prepared meals provided by their units,!

Military forces consume more quality foods such as meat. fish, eggs, and vegetables per capita than the populationhole. Over the pastears, the Soviet diet has improved and in the military diet quantities ofugar have increased; butter, eggs, fruit, and milk have been added; the quality of bread and meat has improved; and the number of calores in the typical meal has Increased. Details of Soviet subsistence practices and costs are found injj

Clothing.onscript is inducted, his civilian clothes are packaged and sent home: his needs for dress, working, and special-purpose uniforms are taken care of by the Ministry of Defense. Conscripts are issued readymadc wear, and officers and reentisted servicemen receive ready made items or material and money with which toailor. Reports indicate that sometimes the money allotted does not cover the cost of having the uniforms made.

The quality of clothing vanes among militarySome differences are attributable to rank.have finer uniforms than junior officers;officers have clothingetterconscripts. The quality of uniform also variesA large share of servicemen receiveuniforms, raising the total cost of theirof how clothing costs are calculated appearB..

Housing. Housing isajor expense to anyin the Soviet Union and in monetary termsa major benefit to Krvicemen. The realgain is the assurance of receiving housing,in chronically short supply. Military housing isof better quality with more space per capita thanlife. Military personnel view their priorityto housingey advantage and anfor enlistedpursuing

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warrant officers, and extendedoff base when possible and receive eitherfor housing costs or an apartment. Theyto live on bate when they arc assigned toare located at "ck*edis. those units

thatecurity requirement or are located in remote areas, at military airfields, or at ordnance depots. In these cases, career personnel receive living space for themselves and for family members living with them. Q

Conscripts must live on base or aboard their ihips where accommodations are provided at no cost to them. Living space per individual is sparse Into careerists. Conscripts are not accompanied by families, butercent are married.

Personnel Support and Benefits

The Ministry of Defense provides medical caru, social insurance, and travel expenses for its members.military personnel receive pensions,assistance, tax reductions, and otherperquisites. | j

Medical Care. All Soviet citizens receive free medical treatment,erviccmon probably does not recognize free medical careenefit of military life.of servicemen receive treatment at institutions of the Ministry of Public Health on the same basis as other Soviet citizens. Nonetheless, the Ministry of Defense has its own hospitals and medical staffs, and in garrisons where public facilities are unavailable,use military medical institutions. Servicemen and members of their families arc allowed sanatorium and health resort treatment when medically prescribcd.[ J

Social Insurance. All Soviet workers nlso are covered by socialform of disability protection. The Ministry of Defense probably makes paymentsational social insurance fund to cover the costs of nodical treatment and pensions for disabled military personnel and to provide survivor benefits for theof servicemen killed on duty. We believe that contributions are paid by the Ministry of Defense at established rates, estimated loercent of each serviceman's earnings,

Travel. Soviet servicemen travel at the time ofchange of station, leave, and discharge. Their transportation is paid. In cases where the cost of rail travel is providederviceman chooses lo fly. he must pay the difference. Conscripts are allotted leave for sickness, for family problems, and oneward for meritorious service. Officers and reenlisted personnel are eligible for longer leave and greater travel benefits. In remote areas familyof such personnel also are entitled to travel allowances for annual leave.

Pent Ions. Pensions are not an Immediate benefit for uniformed personnel, and we have not included them as compensation in figurehey arc, however,In our total estimate of Soviet defense costs.0 we estimate that pensions accounted forercent of Ihe total defense expenditure,

Edurational Assistance. The Soviet constitution grams citizens the rightree education, and Soviet law provides special educational benefits toBeyond the basic military trainingand commissioning schools, the militaryboth full-time and part-time continued education at its own institutions as well as at civilian facilities.

Although conscripts are barred from academicwhile ihey are in the service, they receiveInstruction during preinduction training and active duty that can provide them valuable skills usable in civilian careers. If military serviceonscript'slace at an educationalwill be open for him upon the termination of his active duly. Q

Career servicemen are encouraged to take bothand civilian correspondence rourscs and evening classes while in the service. Such training is afor moving to higher ranks and positions.leave is given to prepare for examinations and to complete diploma projects for courses. The military academies, which are postgraduate institutionsto US war colleges, are available only to officers. Pay Is continued while students are attending schools, and time is given for travel to such institutions.

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Servicemen dischargcd into ihe reserves arc eiempted from entrance eiarro for civilianif the)lo further iheir education. Reservist* who were officers or -Iso ckiendcd their service hut enroll in highern if ihcyn lacoaspLctc cdacaltta. And if they havenWitaryhcy may ifth for Mate mpendt for full-time schooling. Careerindbe reserves becaiiK of poor health, age. or force rcdocuom and neeor pennonsapplyntnd for full-iime higher or specialized secondary schooling.

Tan Btmi/iii, Conscript* do not pay income Ma. which averages lOpcrccni of acili/en't earnings, on iheir military earning! or on any financial bonuses hey receive Other servicemen do car taies < oney earned for training and fov citra

mmmmiIit paracolic wmps or sea duty, on totacco allo-ances and sept-ration pay. and for special duty soch at performingilitary musician ur amu. iQ

tm/iin. Con scripts donot pay 'or poaiage. If leilcrt are sent through ihe troop uml. no payment it required Furthermore, any lettersto the servicemen an be nudedcharge.

financial iismancc it available for the care of ike offspring of married servicemen.h morehildren or Irving in cities receiveorse* pe. child The auilanee rangesoubles per monih per child. | |

an reenlnu orarrant officer, he it given money for purchasing furniture. The amount of assistance varies from an estra month's payan recatitiing for iwo yean lomonths' payan reenutting for sit years orarrant of ficer. -

Ojjitrr Prml tfu la addittoei to the eitra money they receive. cJTtotri arc granted perquanes such at moving to the bead of lines, even in from ofuNic pUoes and using special uores. If sufficiently senior, officers have official cars at their disposal. | j

Computbou of Military and OiiftMi...

Military officvri ore paid highly relative to Ibe average citizen. Generals and colonels rccc7vecouipcrrsat.cn cumparaWe lo thai of senior party crfficiab andmanagers. Must junior offleets have isvotoihree times the income of teachers, doctors, and iitdusirul workers Conscripts, on the other hand,orn-buaaiioa of monetary aad physical retnsMeraiienan Ihe aMntmum prexnbed -age ofubies per month fee civilian workers.

ists total compensation for selected rmlitary and civilian personnelrecent yearre available. It indicates cash -ages for civilian) and includes ihe value of food and clothing received with the stages of military personnel. This adjustment is necessary because Civilians spend, on ihe average, nearly half their wages for food and clothing.hile military personnel receive these goods or aa allowance for them in addition lo their I

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Selected axial*.f Military Cl.dla.TT -

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imet the pay ol ibe workeromparative decreasecrcenC] |

CamprnHiion and IftrfrnM Outlay*

The 4nnu.il con of military cornocnsatioa onal-ex ij led by coanbtmst estimated Sonet outlays lor militaryfood, and clothing oiiti the proraicd yearly resource com of military bousing.le-menu of active duly personnel cosis account for approttmaielyo IJ percent of Soviet detente out-layV<TJ

In addition to meeting hiormduary personnel, the Ministry of Defense must cover the resource coin of medical care, travel, and social insurance for aciive-duty servicemen. These additional costs ateercent of spendingombinauon with military compensation account fororccnt of Sonet defense spending (see figureq

0he share of defense tper.-ling for uniformed personnel (measured in constant ruUes) decreasedercent, rhit decrease occurredthe cents of research and development, sveapoos procurement, and equipment operations andgrew more rapidly during the seve-.net than personnel cosis. During thn period, pcr-oancl cosis roseoercent in absolute terms-primarily became of an increase in militarynd ouilayi for the oonpcrtonoel cornponenti of Soviet defense programs rote nearly 60

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Although rmliiary careensu are financially well re-

terpans appear* to be iJuiaaiag.5be avr-nge aadiury carcemt'i wage increased someercent, while the average civilian wage in-creasedercent. The average military careeristimet Ihe pay of the average worker in

OS ftrincipal dialler of the

air cortr Soviet military pay and ptnonael policy.

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Supplementary Pa*

addition to their base pay. Soviet servicemen receive-illv-jnio to compensate foe difficult tonduioits of service or tpccialThese consist ofcaih payment, special kingcviiyr

SpeeteHu pay is awarded to Qualified personnel with selected skills. Most officer .pecialrsts icccire no monetary remuneration for iheir rating. Qualifiedand navigators, however, receive specialist pay amountingercent of tbor combined rank anday. Conscripts andwrvicemcn may advance through four specialist classes andspecialist allowances that may be as lowr as high asubles per month Such ratings must be revalidated from time to lime through subseoucntons.

Iwtmttor pay isaa incentive grren to academyfor having advanced degrees. This pay. whack amounts to as much aiercent of position pay. probably applies only lo officers. Amounts increase with each additional level of postgraduate ccrtifica-

Seturlty pay is the turn money, perhapsercent of position pay. given to personnel responsible for the storage and protection of classified documents *J

C'ypiotrapkirpay it awarded lo officer and warram officer cryptographers. They teeetvc extraconsisting ofoercent of position pay. contingent on length of servsce^Q

foreign fungssege any is earned for skills ia duty-related languages. Tte nay.ommonly given to those in military intelligencemount*o lOpcrcent of position pay for those with knowl-.age of Western language* andoercent more position pay for knowledge of Oriental languages.

Separation, calculatedeis-icemanhrt active military service It is basedis last duty position. To reduce these obligatoryhe armed forces usually reassign awho has been an NCOrivate's position shortly before hit discharge.Q

Jump pay is given lo para Hooper* according toihe total number of jumps made. Ihc type of aircraft involved, the amount of individualarned, and whether the rump -as made during the day or at

Inclementpay is aulhori/ed for pilots who fly in bad weaiher. This pay is awarded for time spent flying in adverseopeks-per-rauiuie

L0

UrJiral pa; fhich is as muchercent of base pay. i* authorircd for physicians, medical technicians, aod nurses on staffs of hospital* treating infectious diseases, in pathological anatomical laboratories, and in forensic medicine offices. Q

Rtmoie-arta eamptiuaikm i* awarded to careerist* serving in aretvc climates or in area* where it isto obtain food or potable water (teet consist* of cash supplements to basic pay and of special longevity credits for retirement pensionnd it accountsercent of the national military paytoll.

Sea par compensates for the hardships of service al sea. Personnel aboard commissioned ships receivesea nay. svsth possible additional paymentson the type of ship to which they are assigned. The additional pay it highest aboardhere it can amount to a* much as ibe original base pay. In addition, officer* with five or more, ;ars of service receive an annual laa-free bonus of one to three lime*

tfccir base pay. dcpcmkni on length ofruily. shipboard dut) provides adtiniags in iheof retirement credits aad longevity pay- each year of dutyurface ship is credited as oaealf years,ieset-powered submarine as two years, anduclear submjnne as I'iree. fjj

Foreien July pay is issued for service outside the USSR. Most conscripts serving abroad receive all of ihelr pay bl local curreocy. butiiaryare paid parity in local currency andtiWes. The supplement for foreign service probably ish ihc amount paid in localto SO percent of ft*alary RuUe payomestic Soviet banks and may not beuntil Ihc serviceman reiams to the USSR.

Special aiaidt arc for meritorious service orand are usually small sums of cash or gifts inch as watches, which ate purchased with special funds avail-able in the units.

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Methods of Estimating Compensation

Military Pay

Our estimates of Soviet military pay reflect data on three key elements: numbers of Soviet militaryby organizational unit, rank and position structures for each type of unit, and military pay practices. The current pay system is based on Order Numberf the Minister of Armednd its subsequent modifications. Although the taws governing pay are published openly, the schedules of actual pay are contained in classified documents kept at each unit.) |. .

Computer Analysis. Our information is put into two computer-based models.ilitary manpower model. Is used to estimate strength of the force,heay model, replicates the Soviet military pay system.]

The manpower model has seven majornational command and support, the five subordinate military scrviccs,<and the militarized security forces. Within each section we identify the appropriate types of subordinate units. For each ofnit types, we estimate the order of battle and manpower. Our aggregate manpower estimates are the sum of these individual elements.J"

The pay model has threeentral logic that incorporates the functioning of the payet of tables of organization corresponding to units in the anpower model,et of data files containing pay rates for various types of pay. The modelstimates of pay for position, rank, longevity, remote-area service, specialist ratings, sea service, and sepjra-

tion.Q'i ; ; s

Confidence. Our confidence in our estimates ofand organizational structures Is high for frontline combat units, less high for support and higher level command units, find least high for national-level command elements. For some elements at the national level; for example, we know little more than the name of the commanding officer. In such cases we have developed subordinate rank structures from conceptual models derived from belter known low-echelon staffs

We are highly confident of our estimates of pay rates for lower level personnel (conscripts and officers from junior lieutenant throughf the factors used to calculate longevity pay, and of position pay rates in combat units. We are less confident in our estimates of position pay rates in higher level command and support organizations, of many types of specialty pay, anday rates for extended-service personnel.

Soviet Military Foodcosts vary by rank, service, and type ofWarrant officers and reenlisted servicemenadvantage of prepared meals, receive food inbe given money to cover the cost ofubsistence allowance withmay purchase food at retail rates or pay forofficers' dining facilities. Officers in rearor in small isolated units in remote areas ofcan buy food atercent of cost. Officerseligible for rations of "luxury foods" likebutter.| |

i

Special food allotments arc also issued to those in- olved in special types of work or periods of intensified exertion. Flight personnel (pilots and maintenance ubmarine crewmen, and divers are among those eligible for additional

ummarizes our estimates of the pervalues of the food or subsistence allowances

provided to servicemenhese estimates

human source reporting on the nature of the

ration In the USSR and analysis of established

Estimates of special and supplementary rations given to major categories of military personnel have been derived from human-source data. Officers receive bet-

t

Pet Capita SutnisfeBtr (lists

Bonlci

Swfpc Roctei

hore

rocee wj Air Otfiiui

'i lumi

Senior officersore eipeusive wardrobe than jtinior ones- Naval uniforms for career personnelcost more than the uniform! for other services. Ground, strategic rocket, and air defense force units located in arctic regioruore eiperuive cold-weather clothing issue than other units.

The clothing issaedature of new items and used iiems that can still be used as service uniforms. A

one forutysed one lor everyday use After eightewssued, ihe guard duty uniform becomes everyday wear, and the old uniform is discarded or forwarded for harvest workers.

i :

et ofawoAr

Personal items such as footwrap* (used instead of socks) and underwear are issued morefootwrapsate of four pairs per yearate of three ordinary and one thermal setonscript turnset of uadkrwear and footwraps for washing once ;

The conscript keeps tut parade uniformo keep this outfit until be reaches SO. when hit eligibility for reserve calnip endt.

Table 4

Ptr Year

Dill,

Siiikim Air Oifinw. iml birtitpcfgitn

5

The clothing estimate wascalculated by multiplying ihe number ofttendcd-duiyJ of Acer* in ihe various services by (he average annual coil* of all clothing and uniform items issued to each man in those personnel |

Career military personnel have additional housingerviceman is tent to aa area where he mail pay forousing, has real ateduced byercent Iftationed abroad, bisheept available for tus return. The familyeceased serviceman may continue toilitary housing but the lent it raised to civilian rales after lix months.

For the purpose of tha paper, we calculated housing cents By apoortioniag our estimates of Soviet milnary construction, maintenance, and utilities costs between personnel andpersonnel facthtica and adding to the resulting figure an estimate of the cost of off-base housing.

5clothing i

current estimates of per capita ihe Sonet trrlnary.

8 the Soviet Covernmeni esublishei ihe lowest rent rates in ihe world, and they have not been raised since. Yearly civilian rent averages onealf ruble* per square meter of usable living space and amounts lo no moreercentamily's incomearrant officers, and eueodedwho use off-base housing pay even less than civilians An officer pays around one ruMe annually per square meter of Irving space, and warrant officers and fee filn ted personnel areubles per square meter. | j

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