PREMIER'S VISIT FURTHERSTI-SCVIET GOALS
hao Zlyang's recent visit Co Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh reflected renewed Chinese determination to strengthen Its po alt loo la South Asia and to encourage the nations of the region to ovenooe their differences and unite to resist Soviet Inroad* in Asia. Beijing is attemptlot to maintain Ira traditionally close tlas vlcb Pakistan vblle resuming efforts to establish good relations with India. China apparently calculates chat the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan makesove more urgent end that the current climate Ismore favorable for Its success.
Zhao's visit to South Asia--the flrathinese Treatcr sincenot result la any new agreements or surprising departures from Che general line of Chinese diplomacy ia cha region, but It underscored Beijing's determination to keep Soviet and Vietnamese activities la Asia ac Che forefront of International attention. Zhao's sCSCemenes duringune Crip emphasised repeatedly Chat Sooth Asia is pare of the frontline against Soviet glocal expansionism, aad the XINHUA account ofune banquet speech la Islsmabad quoted him as saying that "at present, the situation In South Asia Is developinglreccloa favorable to the people in the region aad unfavorable to the begeaoalata.1*
After Zhao's return to Belling, both he and Chinese Vice Chairman Deng Xiaoping amplified the Importance China attaches to the region In remarks to UN Secretary General Kurt valdhulm, reported by XIKBUA. Deng, after condemning the Israeli air strike against Iraq* nuclear reactor, declared that Kampuchea and Afghanistan are "the two major hot spots In the present-dayad that "no matter what new problems emerge on the International scene, the issues of Kampuchea and Afghanistan must not be put amide." Deng's insmints are reminiscent of statements be mads to visitors to China la April urging that the fellah situation not be allowed to overshadow events In Kampuchea and Afghanistan.
Zhao's visit served to cement old ties in the regionime when Beijing la renewing efforts, begunmprove Sine-Indian relations. Bs clearly Indicatedeaa conference la
Katmandu, reported by XJJDIUA. that beljlog's overriding Interest In South Asia is to foster coopsraclooesolatlon ofdisputes In the face of the perceived threat fro* the Soviet Colon. The development of relation? of friendship and cooperation in the region, be na Inclined, vould be lo the
interests of peace and stability as veil as In the "cause against begtmoolsm.**
rOR PAKISTAN AND <JOVN
Zhao's visit to Pakistan wis carefull-
orchestrated to stress the Importance of Beijing's bilateral ties with Islamabad while demonstrating lncrused Chinese responsiveness lo Indian concerns. Inune banquet toast, Zhao repeated the standard assurance that the Chinese Government aad people "firmly support" Pakistan's "just struggle to opposs foreign aggression and Be went on toare public refereoce to teijlng'a military aid tosecond at this highinceSoviet Invasionune news conference, but he used terms Intended to allay Indian suspicions of collusion against its Interests. He said that since thi Sovlee invasion of /Jghanlrtangrave military threat" to Pakistan, China "fully understands" Pakistan's efforts to upgrade national defease capabilities and "will give whatever energetic support It can to these efforts."
During the news conference, Zhao further justified Chinese military support to other count.les in general by claiming that the Invasion of Afghanistan and Soviet support for Vietnamese involvement la Kampuchea were "important component parts"oviet global strategy which must be opposed with energetic scans. Be stated, "We mave always rendered energetic political and moral support to the countries and peoples that are subjected to taegemoalst aggression and expansion andhem material ant other assistance within our means.*'
The strength of Chinese support for anti-Soviet forces wasIn Zhao's dramatic tour of am Afghan refugee cam? near the borderurat, esture designed to sags'eat Beijing's material and political support for the Afghan resistance wl-nout sub stent latins Soviet charges that Beijtnn. la arming and training the rebels, Zhao mat with refugee leaders, strongly denounced the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, aad praised the Afghan atruggle. Be expressed confidence that the refugees would be able to drive Soviet forces from Afghanistan and pledged that the Chineseand people would "resolutely stand on the aide of the Afghan people and support your just atruggle." Zhao thanheckuan to Pakistani President Zlanl BAq for his Afshaa refugee relief fund.
BEIJING'S APPROACH The importance of Zhao'* trip laNEWstageew approach to India was
toade clear by Zhao's repeated calls for iaprovei Slno-Indlan relations. Zhao disclosed In Pakistanune that Foreign Minister Huang Hua would soon visit India; the trip had originally been planned for the fell0 but had been postponed by the Chinese due to India's recognition of the Phaom Penh government of Heng Samrin. XINHUA has sincehat Huang Bus's visit will begin onune and will be followedisit to Sri Lanka beginningune. Reaffirming the approach for improving Sino-Indiao relations outlined by Dengisiting Indian Journalist inhao calleduneesolution of problems "step by step" through friendly And in Nepalune he saidpackage solution to the boundarys possible so long as
both sides agree to work lo the spirit of mutual understanding and mutual accotsnodatloo."*
Beijing's desire toore favorable climate for improving Sino-Indiao ties was also reflected io Zhao's treatneot of the India-Pakistan dispute over Kashmir. Beijing has customarily endorsed the Pakistani position, but inune speech in Rawalpindi, Zhao apparently did not do so. Party Chairman Hua Cuofeog had similarly omitted the endorsuacnt in his coast for visiting President Zia in Beijing in May of lase year,ime when Beijing was pushing for closer ties with New Delhi."* After India's recognition of the Heng Samrin regime had soured the earlier Chlneae overture, Beijing returned to Its customary stance, as evidenced by Huang Hua's statement of support for Pakiatan'a position on Kashmir last Decemberanquet for visiting Pakistani Foreign Minlater Agha Shahi.
Beijing's renewed overture to India apparently stems frees its belief chat the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan baa created an opportunity to woo India from Its Soviet ally. Beijing has generally cast New Delhi's statements oa Afghanistanavorable light. Last December Chinese reportage of President Brezhoev's visit to India,ENMIN RIBAO Commentator article onh, stated that India bad not acquiesced In
* Deng's statements on the border problem are covered lo the TRENDS.
ia's visit to China ia covered in the TRENDS of. *
ID IS TKEiDS1
the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan. une CTAKCMINC RIBAO article by Liu Cun, vrltten la conjunction with the Zhao visit, favorably cited India's opposition to Soviet troops in Afghanistan and tstad that Prlae Minister Gandhi had denanded foreign troop withdrawal fro* Afghanistanoint communiqueecent visit tc Kuwait.
Slno-Indian relations are still coapllcated by Beijing's distress over New Delhi's recognition of the Soviet-backed Phnom Penhot Heng Samrln. Beijing has pointed to signsore positive Indian stance on this issue, however, noting la February this year, for example, tbat India did not support Soviet and Vietnamese efforts toecognition for the Hang Saaria regime at the New Delhi eocallgned aeetlng. Nevertheless, there are still problems on this issue. As recently asay, forECflft RIBAO article by Ta Zhoutatement by India's Secretary to the Foreign Ministry Coisslvea which blasted China for the problems in Kampuchea and the tension In Southeast Aala. The article said that Consalves' remarks were "untimely" and "will not help to Improve Sino-Indlaa relations."