Created: 7/27/1982

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Political Succession in China





foSowing ttMgmntm organiiafknum> peaporotttm ot th* CtHmahti

Th. Cm+rt hnrnWama Amnnj.Drntmnm llittini Ammtf. MaSaor*?



TK* KwtutmtoH.

TH. OratortWljMWl Miad^OI.




Thu Estimate concentrates (If on lhe outloo* (or politiealin the People's Republic ofRC! mn Ihe next few yaars-that it9 or lo. end (J) on ike ngnftouKv of that outloo* for the United States It ihould be strewed lhat hard IMeHWence on certain oflight, and thai many of thte Fttlmate's aiamtments are accordingly bawd on the best nidgrncnti of the Intelligencey and of lhe outside eiperb who have eiarakvd ihiian Del Ealimate now In presroHon. NIEPRC ProeoeeU for National Development In, cununej In detail the outlook for China's rlevetopmeni





A TWStaMfkMKasf rk* ft IU Itmrni UeAwhip SefeUoo

The State*

TV fnnctinl PlivurtNature ol thr


C Lwdenbip In Ihe

The Style irv! Policio ofFiatmWin-Typehe Style end PaictcjStrident Badfadh-Type

h* United

ANNEX A. Selected








The problems China faces ate so enormous lhal regardless of who succeeds Deng Xiaoping, its present lough, de faclo boss, most of the mater patterns of Chinese politics and policies will continue. China willast LDC, marked by wariness of commitment and lack oftechnical skills. Economic development will be halting and uneven. The PRC will tend tolosed authoritarian society. The partnership with the United Slates will continue to be arm'a length in character, the question of Taiwanrincipal ongoing source of friction.

At the moment, the transfer of political authority toicked successors, party Chairman Hu Yaobang and Premier Zhao Ziyang. appears to be offairly smooth start Their succession to top power will nonetheless be subject to numerous hazards: their requirement to achieve demonstrable results; considerable continuing opposition to their bold policies from within the military (PLAX the party, and the bureaucracy: andneed lo establish themselves as national figures with potent too cadre support of their own by the time Deng leaves the scene.

The possibility cannot therefore be excluded that strident or sliarply divided regimes might return in China, at the eapensc of political stability, ecooomic advance, and fairly predictable foreign policy conduct.

On balance, however, the chanceluccession to power of such officials as Hu and Zhao,eneral continuance by them of fairly pragmatic courses. And, ihe longer Deng remains active the better the succession prospects of Hu and Zhao In Ihe short term they would almost certainly have lo share powerollective arrangement of some kind wilh party eldersew senior PLA figures. But if Deng remains In power until,5 or beyond Hu and Zhao would probably be able to establish themselves as first among equals within the PRCs succession leadership. Thereafter, one or the other of these two figures would become dominant.

Il will be of great consequence to US interests that succession in China not Jeopardize the strategic benefits the United States derives from its relationships with the PRC Broad US interests will tend to be

best served il generally pragmatic policies are luaitinucd by successors fake Ha and Zhao

Should Hu, Zhao, or other pragmatbts indeed come to rule the PRC, ihey would place continuedmphasis on the Chinese 'motherland.'" Ins on tdeoloiy.RC would retainthough not necessarilywltb the United States, and could be eipecttd to eaplore ways and means ol* lessening the level of hostility with the USSR,arallel vtccmion proceai might well also be takingragmatic regime would nonetheless stop short of btsfca'Iv changing China's anti-Soviet orientation.trident backlash regime come to power, it would probably aot lesarn the level of hostility wftli the USSR.


he succession of political aulhofity in ihe People's Republic of China (PRC) isdynamic, ongoing process it brgan some veirs before the death of Mao Zedoni, it continues now, It will not be completed when China's present boss. Deng Xiaoping, leaves the scene Even then, "succession" in any other than an immediate sense will not have occurred and more leadership permutations will prove necessary before the transition nf political authority from Maoist to post-Maws! China can be said to have been fully accomplished

2 In such an Interim succession, moat of the vest proWems which markontinue So will many ot the reaponars of Chinas leaders to thoseof who those leaden may br

China willoor, vast LDC that is developing only slowly. There wil continue tohasm between the PRC's goals and cap*Duties Economic develcpment will be halting and uneven.

China'smeet great difficulty In coping with the residue of Cultural Revolution folly:lethargy aad cynicism in theearth of skilled technicians,ureaucracy grown wary of commitment.

Whatever the degree of development achieved, the PRC will tend toight, closed, aathoritarian society.eaden will seek technical assistance (ram the outside world, but not to such extent as might truly open up China to significant "foreign bourgeois" influences

The PRC will sta be faced with the problem cf how best to deter Soviet power and pressures and fVinng'sChinesealmost certainly wish to do so withoutigraficantry closer partnership with the United States to displace tbe present, somewhat arm's length, Si no-US

Furthermore, the Taiwan problem isransient one, as far as Chinese leaders arc concerned. It will continue toivisive element between Beiilng and Washington, and the possibility cannot be eiduded that It might come toajor variable affecting not only Chinese poftrirs, but Chineseands well.

gainstackground that the succession picture in post-Deng China will be played out For some lime Deng has been trying lo instituiionahre the passing: of political authority lo his two chief lieutenants, party Chairmanbang and Premier Zhao Zivanaj No direct challenges to them exist al present, indeed, (he most recent appointments of new officials represent clear victories for Hu. Zhao, and Iheir associates. The succession to lop authority of Hu and Zhao wlil nonethelessomewhat fragile proposition

Even though their patron. Demi, is well on his way lo packing the PRCs governing apparatus with his own people, (his tough party veteran does not hamseJf eeooy an unchallenged rxssttion. He will continue to have to operate within the confines of collective Leadership, and will again have lo retreat when he provokes too much opposition from more cautious andleaders

Such opposition lo Deng's radical changes will remainalbeit often muted and fool-diMglng in character. Tbe principal sotucea of such oppoStinn will continue to be certain old guardbe PLA (China's military, the Feople'i Liberationertain party leaders (national andbrought to power during the Cultural Revolution years, andigantic, lethargic bureaucracy

economic collapseajor failure of Ihe PRC's present Cevelcpcneot programs are improbable, but Deng mustbe position of hu heirs sufficiently in the reialively short actuarial rime available lo him, so that political succession can pass in an orderly manner.

Hazards abound, and If Deng, Hu, and Zhao do nol bring demonstrable Improvement to thr life of China they could become the skeptics' newest scapegoats This clanger will enst even though ibis problem may beymbolic esse: ihal is, not so much that the policies of Deng and his associates must succeed inpecific degree of actual progress in this or lhat aspect of clev^loprnenl. bul lhal failure to achieve reasonable progress will give various rivals political weapons with which to contest the nailing down of political dominance br Dreg and his associates.

Their succession will hang in Important measure on how well they have established themselves as national figures with potent top cadre support of their own by the time Deng dies, becomes Incapacitated, nr leaves the scene

4 Should Deng depart in the relatively near future {over the neit year or foL Hu ind Zhao would almost certainly have to ihare power, probablyollective arrangement of some kind with party Mmew senior mlhtary (PLAI figures

hould Deng remain In poweronger period (say, IBS orhen Hu and Zhao would iirofcably be able lo establish themselves, al least initially, as first-ansone-equak within tbe PRC's successor leadership.

No confident estimates are justified as to what would occur than, for, in addition to the domestic and foreign clrcunaUnces of the time, the question would soon arise as to whether theof Hu and Zhao was to be one of shared authority, at ef or* superior lo the Other partner, or of just one leader alone

There are countless precedents in Chinese history lot im* one leader, and some precedenii (Imperial, republican, and PRC)rime lechnieian associated with themost reccnl example, Mao and Zhou Enlai Zhao Ziyang has some of the makingshou Enlai. Butough, able of Ileal who might outlaw Hu One thing Is dear there are no eiamples in Chinese nsstory of Irufy shared top authority

6 In any event, should the succrwjon process elevate Hu. Zhao, ot othersli to top positrons,RC would place contlnord emphasis on China and ihc Chineseeu on ideology It would continue to open itself up somewhat lo foreign technology andonlyimited degree II would keep ils basic tin with the United Slates, but would continue to distance itself somewhal from us. to bargain toughly. lo criticise many US policies, and Increasingly lo identify itself witb the Third World As part of this process, such aregime would probably esploee ways and means ri Uwening the present level of hostility with lhastopping short of basicrlly changing China's and-Soviet orientation.

i balance, the chancesairly manageiilUe Miccession of power lo such officials as Hu and Zhao,eneral continuance by them of fairly pragmatic PRC courses, at home and abroad. Further, it is dear thai virtuallyPRC leaders wish loeturn loremes of lhe Cultural Revolution Nonetheless, given the enormity of China's problems, and lhe many adverse ccmtingencie* lhat might affect China's politics and policies over lhe neat few years. Ihecannot be eicluded that intense IretabtUly might return In tome new forms Some combination of critical economic setbacks or political factionalism could occur over lhe net) few years lhal would bring lo


power tfrsdenl or ihnpli divided retirees otind whkh would cur back sharply on the generally pragsnatic counts Deng. Hn aad Zhao champion In such circumstances China's development prospects would suffer. Belting's behavior would he more difficult lo anticipate. Sine-US relation! would almost certainly be rurthrr set back, and ihe Soviets would be given new opcaxtaatues lo try lo exploit China's vulnerabilities.hinese backlash legrrne, however, wouldnot lessen the level of Inutility with the USSR.

8 The United States will have considerable atakr in the outcome of political succession in China It will beef great consequerice to USests that the transfer of political authority there not leopard ire the itrntcsjic benefits Ihe United Stales derives from lis relationships with tbe PRC Broad US interests will lend to be beat served if generally pragmatic policies are continued by successors like Hu and Zhao

0 Tbe United States will almost certainly not be able to exert direct or significant influence on political succession In the PRC' There will nonet helm be opportunity for American officials toumber of creative initiatives that can Indirectnfluence Cfunese politics and policies More important, the United Stales can inadvertently injure tbe political positions of those PRC leaden cf most interest to us and so give the Soviets opportunities lo fish In any tumbled Si no-US water*.

ndeed Soviet cooslderatiora trill certainly Interact with the working oul of future Chinese pontics sad policies. The transferring of political authority In the PRC will be accompaniedarallel process in the USSR The successors of Beeihaev will probably notenuine or full Slno-Soviet reexjradhabon, but they may see profit in some lessening of the level ot hostility with tbe PRC Meanwhile, even thougheaders will continue lo view Ihe American connectionecessary adjunct to the PRCs cleviloornenl. ihe value to them of thatwill continue to hang importantly on their perceptions of the degree to which US woe Id possess*is the USSR benefit the PRC* security and strategic Interests.



4 FtrfrmrasrryBprrlnJit, pracm.i.a Zhao, aad the*hrar ba* cbaace war* th* awillM i* deal il *aany prooiemt and lo hjhjyare modem .octet. AiaahbiVaTfceuit In be vary ssnaui" aboutin the near lutiae At belt, chancel during (nil period liver onlywteraas scanned here aad there In lhe cronoma: He of China The problem* noaartr aud hoand Indeed all of Chns'i kedcri -aira vast pooulalion ofkllkm.lloor aaddy la.IB aba. aarvahwal paw* in

eartnat hveh at per capra* cosaaaaatlnn hi per oapna CUPa aaam USleVirnaled) It* raeray rrwurc*agtna. It does not havr lh*iv rapidly lo raederniae itselfas nni> limned meant of tltradlaai foreign caplul orrded*nd Irehnobtv from abroad

& Thr aajnaaui lo Den* will be played oatwldrca lhal tarlodo ort only probioa. -Wcfc lh* PRCwnb many other of rhe warhl'i UK, bat also laVffy^ahMnnaieMioth.rar.f ihr devebgaaeci test facaat Oaa* and (heoot "ay.east an aa art Aha. China aarliafaa; Dragsard axtrt. -filch id many mpr.li papond*ajeH oil from lhr? worldkadert .re economacal h/ unaUtril lo permii brar miaahtrs af foretca ^chnaciam and plaitti into Chansrr,ataC leSinowdiip with the USSriilane nrlkaiy rU.bivihmrnt ef ol

lh* Ohwal thof

vaawd irtjiawaipifs. profc

ha Chaaa encored much.


lllater so mna

MMb* pulWd Am. bra can thea br damnedhaving been wrorg all atom The resulting mass cceJ'mor- and Irttiaildalioa hnwideoipcealataxi naadr lU no- of coao-mitment. and alienated them (rem th* iheiortc ofni Thu procew hai aacped thFrtaWnesabtllh' lo ff mm tie uww imw am nU* 1'ivo rhe peoMao didt tha kbo ailan Thr narat grlrxiusew pmrewi hu- iiaiicliiagggaggggdj MdlnoWl tgggggia. gggggggg) ard Am card for at laraa

Theprofeatnnil (last..onibaus noae

when utrd. boi Il ueeattw orrt wHnktio trairxd""St. for eiancle. mayumber nlofar-nr*of declineartkUti tcotokal problcoa H. will not ralunlerr ita. ho-avai,dea ifllor perweawd "mrnc prnarratIhc presentd pohutalnt at oanrh aa reoaoaUfbnwaver.a aex- ibai a. noi so moth lhal iWl Dmi and Mi awoclatea mint unwed Irreef actual progren in thu or lhal Mpertagassj al. bat IBM folhire as achat ve mraaMc praam -Hi an* hiMi rivalsponi with whin io coMex Hw aaftoail polltKal dornaMrire hv Deng and his

g Sacceanoe -illbans* alaat a> aaw-afabie economic wtaa tochaOcal eoastderwtona, ow eveaiil pcAlkal Down pnatKoa achieved For all (tin. ill* the poHlkal style ol Dang and hon certain monU an alien oat to mot Oilnear.t heetv atfawliaalaainraai ef Chinaeedt<ad* tapporl these leaders rn* bimini Chi nor pride and provoking widespread icaaMmeriit among the (linrar Thuerriblyrrak fnai what ManChina for vllh ii lu diawtacti andm Mao <bd ral up so .in >ibul vers- realba nakeop uf the Chlnrw. lh.li liadlllonai Manoceritrinn ami waitmeal cupenoflty Suck ten* intra dill dominate atfaal, the ball al CVanai basr pepulaikoB. I- lhe part. Rartf. wbaca eaporaM laa-lh dorlas the Oit-rtial RFvcJulSsn.

To ibis Uluatkm Deni XMopina biuigi remaih-abie rrallHairr. This loufh veteran cl pail. Infighting ha* caasbad bach to thr tap Inm ihrar paeglaga He has workedebcSant bareaacraev and milHsrv. orn though thry in tornotted htm lo back off on many noah and psoas ofthe Clgangeoaar,ssaaaalica lo ggagga Us fad dearfrrailaloaiit Ceaiainwa nrgme and mci-atv.hwdarahlp has caamd damnlag the USSK for baMaibe pteaeM Savwl Mn* La>ine bete*nrBai-aad 'axial

gaolndUfs lhe loo pomton of hit htm

aillUscntly U> lha rraaltveh short actwanald-abla io Mai.thai oohncal imam ran paas at ba orderly manner. Ifiaidi sbcwnd. Bad II Deng Itn. and Zhao do not (Onunun to brtta sorae demanttrafale lasproveraenl to the kfr ot Cham ihry caoM baooane the anrptiq' newest npetaaii The hSatory of the PRC shows that China! hclanaad peopla can toler-ate conaadatable rconomic wtbach and dlurrav. The

Ih. huidrafsof ibrmanttdlertt ttrba oraaaowd durlna ihcoa- thaihwat lo Deac'l mneal taartas

hai Dcasctn am odn to Ua- TRC'i bobras aadvrsure Oaaa's bdv-enaacni aod toor aireriBoa altcan to the Stat with which ho hu lath-ono) an nqululo Iwlanc iof of poiilicallorcea Thefateoill i* bfgrft drlirmancd bv lac wariuog eat of rfcaaewfcas bnen lha rawth allders Bat as foreign influences heiped ahape etenb In imprilal and rrpuldiran China, so forelanSotiet aadwall lo mi* de-cm* af fact poota-al bradtesnsn aad gatsyggggihe


0 9

B. Tha PrateM (ooderihip Sitoorio"a

etietlton thai Dent Kiaopinsthelomnotl leader an)ihoath I* bo" eperetnmheetna-of the font looderiialcBi"'mJnUr* pour>eiaflect Den*trofram, do the

to Mrearaiir* ihe buieiucrecy and pack II with more rnrwulve official* The recently rwnxdiaied draft Coe-lltoiioeia sain foe Dene and ho anocialei, aithe rwrtieular rmmtilm ed be- official* .peeanled oe proeeMdWheittiw.alieno iter.

IS Three are Irdluener. He earmc*tuerbliged to share poaee -Ita other leaden ted lohe CMlnt of collective leidenhlp ralber tbtn dktttlr*deannei-llrated bv the numeral retteiit Dens Iiji bid In nuke in ih* tail It* yean -he* he rxovoked Utatich (tppotitirn from ihe mot* colna andhe CNttrtlMIhaberet, htm hem resweeed hi mtoyfe Mot overyew (and allcaa| to earn IW! SoJh Fleemm'.eel forthl the rao

t rablaaei Deoc Km meed eaoaervMW ptit. and milittiy aradrn In ihtrply dellmttlii Ihe earlier ansa ol pefroiaaMe erilKWfn ol Ihe rrartrr* Do* WU unable lo wbmH the ratlaid title tomutwion uNai axialongrew mThe

ke,<unU anting forth thetbu-o the ttaat.hkef of Malta ehtrf of the PIA.aet-culae deieemlrans ihe eemmaod eekibxHtipi amcna Ihe PLA. the parly, and ihe Brneraraenl

adled. Ihe IhnBa to Deng'i eaihoillv -ere clearly realilered In Dent'i havlnf hado

atsume the no* of Chairman ul tbe petty'i MilHtri

Comaimkm in It'SI allee

oppralkei had developed within the PL* lo the idea of gyving lhal pouMoti to Ho Vaobane. i> Dm| had la ltd iiMd txh tieae ti On* and hiirtaelr* ieeaaral oaooaa ofad tVhere -til be ttonDena'i abehry to nailan ordtri. <uci*wMt of nohncaJ aathorrtv Draa -ill mean-ride ha* to be cueful net to allow hU axivt-timt* abraave and ImneltHxu manner iltnuie hli Koab. ewedally nnce. ate ll tn an overalla nieeeuot Maoitasjiional leader rndea-otinf lo channel uHinule ptbtnal luteeteiaei la direeMea at haduntina

fairly ar-brMia efloel lemtt the board Periapi meet ambiliaiB are certain of Denir'i actooipaiinna raeai-ueea deilaned lo penvide Ihe oolttkal and eoclal preri'lor fllna'i eionnnk' andeior> eaent Here- and hu aaeoclaiei are vekinaieate (ubitantial rhanfri In the retttrne'i idoulofv. ctravlaatie* aad prAeka Theae leader, are

Tryta* taere effevti'e. endea-aasal bureatmaey at lhaau mefFcctne or recalcitrarit maaai of ihe pailt. thr arrvrinmenl. and th*courar.Iheie raaAi mean-hilt with reformat

Separtlinf texJ-ileal and adrnlinlraliee liuic-ttora andu partIn to dear*oee veeuritiaitoa of (unction aad fewer eauhlplr pottfokoi

IVvaM official (eaeepretariom of the tVC'lfaraet Maaatd of hn, poht-.'

Trytaa toBore lonnaainf lecal ivUaen

Scndina many elite lorcUkBs abroad foe Irai

UMradlni Chena'i educational 'vUcir- to abuml in ike yean of the Oalturd

Vehapi meM impoelant. Deaa aad hat lirolee-inti are ao- Utieat the dnatkc step of Inlaw

ind eaplirttlt lo col bach the swollen ranb of ibr PRCind mlinarvtar thaW Mad. nWand the racakarint wdl raeef crnaOorrreeitlaitc* In rhu tfhrrnr of Drag'i thro remain wpeem- Hut iru vliiblr. ind with its rcat reduced II la no kwper lo monopollic alt of diini'ibefore,o there Imore than it batthe aiatr apparatns and with new. aitrerutrv* bnchclnce.rarrceaies. ad--liittratann. and atahtary martert

IAew Mran*yrncno ref bet the broad pant leal aritios In which lhe kadrrthip and meretamn dramai are being played mil In Chin* Mem Itnpor-tanl, Mao I* gone, and with him many of lhe potiems which cfiaed poMira in lhr ftlaaM PRC Tbe eiiiemei ot eailler debate and farttonaltfm hive been aarrawed There la more confidrfv* and left paranoia poem amor, elreteeti of the PUCifor eninplc,sa ceatcern about lh* Imataaiaceof mifatary arrack by: there it ulsfac&oo lhat China haa now been widely accepted aimajor power, and ihvrrope lhat ChinaIraders have made Ihe Culturalhing of Ihe pan The locus of much of Cblni's domeatk: pofitiral attention bu eataaahllent peovtmj theejuelrty af fcfe a* the PRChe re0eaeTi present effort to createalk "aperttaal mdaaaaa' ia Chaaa

1It tbould be rioted that luch new characteristic* marlg and the top leaderihip scenes touch more than ihiv do lhe broad provincial and rural art tints which tlltl contain the ball ot China'iand oflKUktom With certainGtsasiadons- aad Vhanfhai. far rumpar-tradibocaJ raott are much atriaajer ato Bartermet bureaucrat! more waiy. and depcr-in at freal new Mlmil Inttiativa mir pronounced 'Sue will certainly not be worked out alone by

atim an toe aaal ear ot aw ttCI

-Irartyi*>intl walThe Chlaara Ceamaaaiam at iBMBwrraww. of akaw KwlhantaH (HneiaM*rJ-Dm*M M

ar* rwrou raaaas kart at*ai oBtMiialni

an aad aha waanrw, lavm un irp hw. ^4

oaaariwawl haaah Itemlo iJM .aad CPlhe mil wall In IISIWrMnlew wm cable alrrxiua imuiiimilih, i-

npiritual linlaylam. wr mutt

mi- an rl'wt loanuroand la ka and order, tn-al avlraon ard em Party i

omduei rwUOw- araoni ereaor aroapi and io thru *BBiaia* a> aril w* an aBi thorn aawaa awh xfllai lU-nl ibbbwb.ctaaot let thea*aal awa laaaty aduaria1nwJ eMilaHlon we mu* ar roara

MrUHaal rfvtBnlierrwawhoU word

r, Hu taabaaf.r

phjyen in Bellinc. bat tn WerBCtton withraWmatnal larereats there aad throoihooi the caaatry. and with nrralei lalluroc* raerted fnaa pnMnesal aad keal lavak

Tha Princ^toJ Ptoyaii

IS Drag's PWasrte* Jwcceaaon Whik Derm bat nor named Hu Tcbang and lhan Titane ha drncnat ed BtccrBora. by making them parly Chairman and Premier, lespectirely. and by according arycieaslng resporarbillllts to them. Deng has an tact atianard in implicit tuceeaslon tehrme which the Chineae clearly leeesjntir. Hie out tome tit thli lucceulon Kheme of coarse rcnulni uncertainnd Zhao are bolh otfaSab of comldnabl*hao hat gained hu operieBce prlaiarllv al the provincial level, ind

trielv known In his Own

naiionsl ligore nor are they snoereally backed up bytrfu radir aupporl ef their own Al the Bsomeat (he* rrenakt iBttrBSSu ot aad front men for Drag. Thry have bean MBCirniBagti riMrd upoa so mahe aathontBliv* aairtweali far Draa.s aoieworthy thai ladolag 'heran* caiafal aW farta lawake Deag'i BBme o* lhat of tbeCentral Secretarial ui kylna down what tbe tiffKial line It lo b* on hay i

t Ibe two, party Chairman Hu fa-hang (bowaslose aeociate of Deng since. far ktnaer than bat Zhao Hu sained much of hu early eiperience In Dcna'i hotne bote. Scbium Province, ihen had years of tentor party asswnrnents ar. Betnng, was pureed during the Cull mil RevcJuUon and again Inlogether with Deng,att -at

rebebiliteied and elected lo it* Mtburo Innd lo General Secretary of lha parr> intd-dUdatj olfxial Ha IBICIiMw onarty -by the CukocaJ Wrla to dolag he appeari loDeeetl fat rialatiumilal futurehao Ha oxaW hearty djiak* from wen* of the warty and oertaki of Chinai inttlltctueJi. and he is net hefd in high regard bv maay military llturet Abo, al tlrnei Huyperacllva manner lhal would to leu welleader than, at peeaeeil.teuteeuai Hit experience tn lorenn attain appeari to be faeb llmlied ihut far

tO By ran. Premier Zhao Ziywnai urban* uflarid who

Biaaa and saJf-ccefidra'lerocnnachrrourrd ud earted aa aa agrl-cultural taperl and tbera party flrU tecrelary inProvince before brtmj pMnped7 ha the Cultural Revolution nchibdtttrdo was itatloned In Inner Monarolla uabl April. when Zhou fcnati tiiniferred him lo Cvianadjntj Province andlateSeibnan Provlnor. where Zhao became lha top parry and tovemment official Zhao ajahMd repv/t* In Cieaaadoag and Skbaarv. eVrarnbereaa<hinifncuftitraf prcjrhac-lasn. eeonrenle Integration,dacinon-nuliat. and tha combining ofnduflrlel, (id comanentalalmcal uroto-iipe*certain of the meaiurei ha and Deng have eater Initialed ai the national level H*ull Politburo membernd heavier In IBM. He has traveled ler theoWheM AMe. aad laptn. and ha* hadttpcmilhikly In the paw tee fevelgn pobCy ot eanatanHal Imrun poetry role arena*o be oa the irxeeaee, Barked nproal'i by hia recent meclintp *trh Tokyo) LomiWiaehavocrar and adaunulraaoe to date. Zhaoilled and valuable nrwri. not yet tbe holder of prim* political cower. H* hat eatlabn of thehou Enlai, bul Zhan'i pinert tl the moment remain* the fupport el Deng.trusttally shown In Mm when5 Ikma made him the top ansatfi own ham* bane of ptrwei. Sathtjanery few yean dare Zhao bad beam paraded It the etrretiafmnl fWvohttMa. enemy of tht people.

he party .luiatyon and

OinonnrI chartget atmounced In3 clearly

Table i


of Astocialei of Party Chairman Hu laobaax and Premier Zhao Ziyang Who Ai*o Hold Major Natiorml-Lettl Petitions

PaUmbenof Associates of Party Chairman Hu taohang and Premier Zhao Ziyang Who Are Known Cuireolty To Hold SeatorPcuitiom


<XP (Mnl CatmMm

IWtm. CXPCcrCral

CCP Central CamnHMt

-iui Of



Certrral. Suae Ctawee

- General. Stele

Bate Oannl


Sw- Council


v of Steal

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aad Vla> of mi .

' iii icoaownnh vw mkmk. ^aiiCaamiiao* in Bfatataaaaaaata Liinm..

H Another chief political heiitewani of Drraji who ma* flow* preniwol*lha noceWoa pacturrWaa Ll Cebout 6i;atof lhai Central Secretarial sad rhr tensor >ee nranaan. Ha> waa one of only Iwo ofr MrnUilletain hit DOiitioo. and ha ii one of (he faw potttka) Ileumstill bold both lentor party andlloae aatodete of Dtrac'i line* the IBSOt. Wan waa parsed twice by the Maoists Heeputaitoa aa an eaeeiVai admnrenwor

tlrincipal ba-wnaH for auhlart matters it Taaaj Delhi (now about THPLA Chart of Staff, ha.Int. I'xeeadrd Dent in thaiIn

FMtnfanr. faiWr/llBH. SccrcW.


Dirarsir. CCP Comnmierw>

Ofo-i- Dumof.ltin


CfcsbmM Pnekli Caaerai

Ikm Ca mm naauatttr'll Caaanawar


Draut. CMnttdcr.I

artsetareirirrtrol tbe Cukvraleajaetes. lo sntjcVeratr Ihf myth ol Mao. aad loIrantenet* of ceemsamlc Dairk Ik nuoetlseletian autoooa CoEunaoa economic plaetnrt anda iff air tlreaan within ibc top leadership al pn" Hr dftrnocal silk Dns bul oo oecasson rmaroi hrm aa tooand not tufficienlly remmllled to strong central control of tba tiram,

As (ar al pmlhac ll eOBCemed. the iljndliie

Dana Xiaocani and Chen Tun an th* hlanni Is

(ha leadership Iricnt" respect dene Utndira

n even hekpVer than Dana's Evenone admlrri

IhrVs neror jl Hvte

element* who wooklroreimn PRC: and |ej certain etemcnii ol th* cnnnrinilve ml dutybone of throe liiuieieturnew Cultural Poululhm. bul toflcihc* they dooaaadciable body of rkiiblihe wisdom and pace ol IVnii "relnrmitl" prtkeiea. moreind more doctrinaire thannd other o| the "eruatfaatn- duc.aaod ab*v*

For hu pan. Hoa haa had io nhaauo*> Iccmeepeats to Damjio Zhao mad ihe parry-o Hu.antertt up ihoaeon keanetfered further letbnctiaml a* oow theaatlra*of thr routhtrroiominaitar Hua raturi aom* mWbaal Krenarh In the middle lereb of th* bureaucracy, but he bja never been able totroiri ueimnal Imie of tuppurt arnorac key liiurn. bli forlunn irein cleurly In lie dec itnine, and.ineiaKn crhii ihoiild occur In the near futura. Iluai chancn olisnili-

- it poat-Dema role -ill peobably dltcpaTe

Mocr clearly ineleeetndenl. Irnnth In sharply fatlhuinother pari* elder. Li Xian-nfan (about TilO. be woi vie*senior ecoeonlc pbnnei. and the vice) ptemlar with the bnarnl contimices aetvlcc Aa llfth-rankltif parti leader, he hn frequently Hood Id for Dong on formal ocaauemi tad hu conollem) himself IVtik'i njual Ui slrrrajth In part haa ale ranted from hl> hum anile* and hu rotetral economic tnintalrin lhat aland In loae udloeno* If Drag and Ora auceetd In dee-earabiMtf eceevaavkc dtrtssoeujeathlng In nro'scnl lortmaneea la declineO and heiibrahV IB and innetw Lanbkeh to pne smoui carabines foe Hu and Ihan mock keeaan. batt orhcr advocaiei ofreJ pbaeiaa and Sonel-eysrdeaalceaeaawtheand will fish' rtartwd actnao

XT Thar PWiMeoJ ami NifUar.af Dang and Nfaoeae coalition eitiM whea* diutmliar memberi irgueimited mtarn to the pari Thete aroupmat of nfflelalt, who often hav* little In common otherutual ikepticumi- Deni end hii reform meaiurct, Incbrde. reipectHelv <al the lunMns Cultural Reiolution remnant! who formerly terVered ireund Mto'iepcai

ent designated tuccetiot. Hua Ctafrng, lb) certain "conservative" old guard part* aad mciirllv

|Hualeailna eeouah ma* wilhprtntfna for matatlon ultehn

tit SUraficanto Denfi broad reform lirit^raim cornel from certain military element!to Decaf from wilhin theot constant, total, or cohesive; It varies from woe to issue and. from lime to time Many PLA ttsydert uiydcrttBad why miliiary modern (ration haa beenower priority in Denaiand ihey alio support hi* effort! to din Western rnm'tary lecliaoloty and lo modnoiie and rearularue ihe PIertain of tbe younger PLA element! are ihemmlvein any case are eaaci to replace the old guard leaden who have dominated tbe PLA (or ao ten* Many leading ele-riicnts of Ihe PLA rorpethcVrl'ulwarknsrrvative cofotnlnlhas blunted earlier shaip PLA etitkUm by moving in the paw year to take ttinlrr account of PLA views and Meresti. bul Ihe sources of discontent among PLA leaden arr deep-sealed and many, among tfaenv

Since tbeorrae elements of the PLA playedkey pylilical role- th* high comma tad nl


lh" I'LA hnni ihrl tho poHitcd,mkIssetui ouo duilrai Ihc Out loial Revolution,penly and bluntly apohc of fa roar ta lhat ihr "correct" poeajcalgnr.ohtaoal tola am lid during lhr ICTOa and hat accetot.iad wtsWt haa pressed ihr PL* aa give an bj rnatKal role and ecateer-Jratr amend oa per-foentln* itt prof etaonat duties

omeigum are displeaard that militaryeri haie lhe lowestnogrirni, and thatcmphaiM hai shifted (rom heavy Indtiili* Ictrull are and fight indutrrv

Some PLA leaden conaidririni literal ulna ol publicunt la army cank-aad-filaa discipline and to axial order Thry frei that Data haa carried tra-aatra of Mao lee far. and they peeM toin Poland aa an eaaaapir ol the unlorearea diarcn that caa(roan radV-eal chaneet toch ai Denf'i Sarh PLA haden ii iiI, corrOder rial IanmH far tooinaerooa foreigno larrdrt-mtrai (he pal riot hrt and moral floor nf Chanai yomh

Many PIeaden haie had trouble with Dent over bread-artd-batter isuci Agricultural re-(ormi stirred resentBM-at when the depeadena ol military men anr forced lo rtfy on thaw owa effom rather than ruotxet from the rnrnmraai at whicheal daadvaaroaj* wnfc Bav able bodied mento the service The parry made ipeeaal efforts to laiprove thu rataanan oed* to br farad wRhrg*acahio forced retiremmH rod demobiilta

Senior offtccn remain reluctant lo wrlhe i- rati dies that corn* only wllh rant and authorlly

| .houkl be noted thai eacept lm wow dltrrunr what certain PLA leaden ronaderoo toft" tad let inward Witlwaclcni Taiwan rxaVca>a. there em lo be lew tagndKanl dllf ciracet at peeaeat between Drna aad PLA leaden owe* Iwaan policy arjettlom Th* ars* anmn lo apply *nB respect to arc rarity nnd grwirflr- tayjea lhal la, hew hr* lo defend China again* mihtary attach Aits, Drai letivei wpporl from wabia the PLA on carta Bi ranna He hai anm* hacking, foreianple. ftoaiore professWeal army alrtite modem

keLAU|tremeiy diiorganlaed (Hr) tararVrd thai many amterr ha raaafrrrapotariet In lhr Army aietvehi ware ttrtmUIr* aboolhe meant to

prrAcct Ihali pmiliran from the UnpmdU* rrctlll-

caiioa campiign which threaten no force raarii of them Ibis retuemeM.

linn,estored rant mira. lets patty control, and an emphasis on guallty over Quantity, and who with the need to liiriit military eiprnditure* lei the rhort term in order to provide more resource- (or China's moderniiaiton projraou. Thoar suprporiett bebeie thai,uiteble economic infratuuetere hat been erected with foreran technical asshyarcr. China can liter proceed to accord neater elMMioa lo detelostina III mililary power alone more modern linen. Tha thread of reasoningong hUtoty in tbe PLA cat ending bach toai oven ha domed doting the Cultural Revolution when Mao's doctnae of People's War held full sway, witb to wrestore politicised army wiih greater party control Today's PLA "rnndernMts" are endeavoring lo move Deng more dearlyosition which boUs that tbe doctrine of People'i War must take Into account Ihe military reaMta-cl the htte Stab century.

eevered military leader who chain the PRCs National People*iCw.grew. and hntili othct leading parly and mihtary posts, itinboliiet the atimiDi of old-guard militaty leaders to maintain lherestige, and bos eietcised ugiiif icanlng influence within both the Army aad the Politburo Oo the other hand, be hat supported Deng's call ior reform of lhe bureaucracy despite what thai .til entail for senior PLA leaden Ye could reappear SoettfcuJarh/ cintentiout Dengbt reform. Or othctuiei might altemot to do so in his name, but Ice tbe moment Ye appears content to withdraw From active DcAli.al rrianeuverlng. In any event he is in falling bea*tk and may no tower beirect political force.

he Di'iiidrnlr. By the rr-gime'i admiuKri.ricciyt ol China'ii populatlcn aredisaffected cm in, dismayed thai Deng and tdi

ot tone further than iheyIn cvdemrmtf Mao'ipermntim liter if unitMtmt mt Chfne. Bad ihr like rarEr Chairmen Ha Ttobarti hat donated three. our/aarrM* atsdowns fWl old Tr htaryma hat can Honed that. If tho*tceent cdOion peoplelit thii catnoty. (hit ttlll meant that tSrat millions ol dissrntm -iih vhtrh lo deal Thee* diutienb ate altipartte lot wilhuol oriatiiaatlofior cohncni protitm. ihe*ant tilenced (of the tsrtmenl. andaarnlel* in th* naar fitture to hate any effect oo national Their crlticismionetheless been h>hey have struct torne retuorwe chords anyone


i ohfeh Chairman Ma* Zadoaa mttUlnar In tba dlmaorld. Hitler shoal Mao's hand irrd catted him o* the shoulder, saying "Toooduch.

wSti thus* people treat Is bouraeoli libera tin


Paraphrased remtita of Pee* XttitjineJ 7

ublic The* ma* come to mil ue nee teen* of ihe PRCi urbannd. since manyear disai-decai are lo.Wt. thro-anr -II eeenrmtttderabfy (renin patati ItmSrrshap than ihey do ateaprcadh to If tht steal edtteat*dibena ar* not eonttrueti-e

an bed mlo 'It Stem in the

lhaf the Oppciit on Deng ' rl

XI The sito Is not to much oaeerloaj lor power by paettcuhtr laclaoaii or top leaders, one of stlean meytel, oneetvl Dent, andiaaaft aa ad ha borne canbdost ofat* has Iraof melon aad betfc-rtbip

Dttenlial rl theiri ett* amema th*

Hv ludrrihip aJhmilh most nun oppoatlson al pro-tent laket the Item ofather than head-on coililirsn. and It ronvei rrneitlli on certain ipaeiflc aaoes.rrnelimei detlerlm oe thlfliaai coalitHmi ol loaden. Other, more liiorUrnrnlal ccmtninlt trita from Oilnai lreal batlc prohtrmt atdace an* Chmete leader Still other eoatmismt ttem more from the taredtt ttrrvm-ttaaeea ed Dene's parneaaar poatrtor. aad pohctra ea*rtat nreaaatan- to Dens corns ikmpry from ihr taeptxtf* prestra aanoeg ibe mil boras of clvutam and nulitar* oflxlah Ibrouiboul the rounUy *ho ccmprlmadrtu iJ nana Den* ran

rarih ludamiriri tittren and leadership


onei-rii-ilThese tlidrnttrivWted froup btttl their ttalernentt did aot

ttrfhe a* a> Iner-aanenl wkh abal aa have heard freea other students tad they dretilbtd tfaew innate taIda spread aount th**ttadeMttwtran Cam hi voath mmm mum* dsetra paeMeal ted eidtaralrnctuae af ano caaaarm lo in Wheat! HotiheyuerqucraiK reformandmi'i raalct any

dlflerersoe. beetuar the tamr *h* hart

deanmaead the aredor poatlwa wfl rtMtnvr to dotsaned Nntba csmna*si atmgameffrtattdthe feopfr'taa* aiderrlt MoaauJinfi* aataane that Hia lie

The unbierr. of relivtnalirti cadree It

tbe moat dlftln* one facinftince It la doubtful whether ihrddliiiuertionttowoei hard aad ucnlm cone* for the SoclahK etuae will eire reitniie the era ft ef rarbrr days

hen are Ho maai pa tph doina tirlhiaa .

al ei lha hu raached an atvoluleb traearnbtr

rardarAiMina. rnrtidltaand cuwitam. avaanna iouu tod pl'aa eal tf laafeet,hen hn* at ansa iKetmt a* naaattw hadh thet


Den*Aonm Ian. lo an enUriedhe CCft FdHbura (Ben*Cat-S April IMII

luccred in owvcominrj iitrrlu in- nmi.nojni and aeedtn* mfiHdorra, they may have lW power (Ahat ingknna endt ha luceeacei

C. leod*crmipIveOt

h Ikrticnlarfact km andaaaialln; bane ranch at* out Iter- al at Oiira't leadenwilltheir nin.nl ii-iiirir.ll in 'urn be affected tv> lhat nicceuloo Thru- baric kuuei whichcute art the framework fee lie wcahaaj eail alare

areeaden to bridle thr chaam between the PflC'i tcclt and capability*,?

- Hew can Chanai kwdari load ii lhe liani ma craa>rraol*Mdaaorfe4ew*

Howiscredited Partr mobilize ChinaI population jml etrneclally rli alienatedloreal nrw China of tomorrow'

Hew canracket reiat antfcneiiarun con-trek Ir an effortapar ahrreativity aadithout tatting looar- foree*nInrther andrrmlno tbe ruUnnutkoritr?

-Heweti'i-eft weak ChJaa beat eeaaire national tnwu'

vrn inch lormidabi* problemt. there will almeat cartatnlv be mine continuing, ahfrftlret combine-lioni of leaden, and tome corrfknitngngi balraeea reiallw Irerdom aadrrtpreaaon laa.rior. ihe jaiadr world taooid be prrpaied for rh* pcenbilitt thai BMcrwinri In Chiiw could take aray of manyonliiinatkm of more-nr-let*n|iitmewhat iwarr taut win rea'mr aaeh aa that re t> fled in. by (hennenpro-mtte Iraderdiij forced br adveneagag-nalfon and rrnrcerMn mnjht becomethe avowedly idecanaical rxiioecliveieo-Maol* rrgiroe; or even ani regime

o andot* -a. to ao brlore Ihry -rl baaed Joe- The palacy dtarajrt ikey lyrabolue may poaibaV be beaten down rind In any cor lha arnnrr Den. dim or lalb, the arc**or the difficult* thry willuierttion uraitKC

Ueaaj thraaal rhe beecene impac Hated, or learc the acene ic the ley near future,r Ihe neil year or to. the fini impuhr of PRC leaden ionld probably br a* aaattirrg of how lunrulul nnd acrepliblr hla new ineaniret had been China might lam lowaideriod, with tomewhalacoam develraani in foreign pahcr m. lire Any oneumber of aarcevatcenon. might ccrme tn pown Mirnaf ot driftannot br aaciudrd that an men cimnaianretnletJigi cally moiivated IrradVrahtD might corn* lo the ten.

ore llkeh. however,ollective Mo-uum uf tome kind wouldrouping whichHu and Zhao. Che* Tun. and varrooa nam rarty and PIadera The Mel. pa ear ace there of Ha and Zhao, deiprie tkar ear bee bark of rnixhndependent from that of Ueerg. would br dur toK ixlitica. progreti ai ihey would have made tuale,of their ietphctt tucceiaon ita tut, the heutcnaiili they bad racceedod in bringing in to artnor pofa Ihr fad that Hu and Zhaoeng) had been raceeedlng in llllrg wp the caater efeiittei latrhr -rJi and thereluctance cc allevive tha eatrerae pottta that marked the Cultural Hevolrjl-mand lhe proanraard tucceuiiin tlraggk lhat went nn lor yean (luring htau'a long decline.

ST. fthat the longer Deng lemalm in place, the greaaet the cruntrci that Hu. Zhao, and like-rrJoded pragma"** rtorainair tbe MaxeaHon

Drag ak> haa Mated ope t>rcen *et.,e

pohtkiby IftgS Ifol that ttav* Drag kan keea able to maiirtain at lea* huf autbor-Ity, then lha rnnat pmbable Uamfer of pdnteaJ aotwould be one in winch Hu and Zhao (or other) picked by Deng) would wcreedrlmai Inter pares Ivor of teadtrrihip atimtien. *ooklrenark. tale pber. it rdycmld br noted, thti would conMitule the

erofv vj:cewl Ml- areargrd politicalhi.it to tail (latwi

Haeo^naaiei ear aatilard at lo what wrmld orrur than, for, j> addition tn Ihe docneuic and

to-ettn eUrvnauoert ol thr ilw thevid mm ecfttt a* loeee" Mu tad Zkatott lo be cnr of linen I*r of oorlo th* other pernwr. oa of ao* one trader alone TNere an counllen pmceckanli la CSnew hattoiy for yuii one

leader, add tome ptocedtr'i (imperial, republican, aid PRC)rime technician luodaled with ihej boa the mofl recent cumpk. Mao artd Zhou Lalai Zhaoanaed th* wiiMtaimm ratal Balc-ath. aole of'atal -boottthwl Hi One thin* ai Craer: iheeenoatorv of truly iharrd top eolhocity

M In any event, tilt imenilmould enaiinu* tounehmeeaal aienda that in manyould not be najollkartly chrfnrot lo*n (roan lhal of ibe peetenl Further. China 1hetber Hu end Zhao or cier.ecerrasvety to be eawprnpertitnbeen formed itrfery bve-ettti Aihhat endured Mao, Zhou, and Dana, iheir prettier wall lend lo lot; Lb ell power bam incee inatitittionaJ In natter, and then retention of Ii aria**hib even mere drperioW ora pettoetd nmoaeaa of powaa lhal1arwof leaden tornewbat deficient at chartrWIImecr. aad imtty -ill tend tt leatf initially le le vniii -mi teal bureawcralk. both In makeup anal tarllr Allh* mm* lime, at cctmpared wlbS Mao andomtni leaden will hat* beengreed lo teehnuJaa'cai and urban peob-ktaaa.t lo the caamde world, to mt*he amtteatlaa ofunpirt tor Ihem and fee rbmr pcrtrrarm will be dillkcufettoation whrcrdevelopment, ihe crnlrrptcce ol iheill airnoff ceriainl* proceed loo tlowry and dittribuie hentllti loo unevenly Notlrrnrouthe FLA *ill probablyeak* on ai-tal and pool teal maovenoaa. ea vrllarbiter of ervtl (htmdee ind. tn tatrentn, perbapa of political luaeemto* aaeff.

tO Within ibit aenrrd otaateit. foe Hvle andooUeknent* type tucceaion would probably have the foaWtraj readenoet

A letdenhi?trdvptatcjon lo traduelltt pobcasi loraed thrmtah rune ami Ai.tiem marked by oompttekta anyone nvnlandore ttdinieal loeleti

ratal bene'IO dIt* OH bat three

Clirwse iSinVlrrd iM the character or ate**

ofctaiie to Ihc Unitedond lhe Wesi-wiih its concomtuiil rarXoawn I* rrnphoio. upon Entr*<nln. innd "HI probably reenatnbasic iietmoal oriental(or amr time. rhTtplle certain presentacks onorrouve" elleeu o< thio the Uarlrd State* aad the VYrot

The aaayraa n- br band

damml M*nd thr

Caui ii that hmlled bvi> retell.* aaab hrarmon* In Kuropr.trraerooaair,heir heeetrrmi

ton thiwurld


Theforrt of resam mmU raxbabr. be Lirli IMbeen bora of of yrwrder>hip aradd ehaAtlrs* ail far What remained of the DetirPUt wrrakl corntjlate ihe new opomltkoiaj. In all tbe PRC probahly wood haveew and eilerrded time of trouble*.

A) Thr rtirir andofirfee of hacklnh Mmm rrreimei mi-hl tend to ihear crwradeibl-i

Ne,f lhe (fax*oral Rcnlu boa rairrrwv bul arretey ranraerd relauxe oaarthrakm and coercive pear*

A clror peedeipoaetton ta live* the mihtan aad heavy uyaWry el lh* eineiwr nf IMbl inoWrt

aad roroumer conciriw

rmphaila on "red" al Ihe eaperae of

Witharrier treatment of Chi-na'i inlellectuab. act*(Hint andecailyowarelo the West

return totrabmty hwderdwp

btrr epttcart toonS oi rxanron arnontradert tof ra.wrj,that certain practicalildnont normal rerallomhlp with llie USSR, aad that lhe oreaer- level ol bordrr hottillly wUh Ih* USSR muU be lett-eoed. If only lo Increaw Chinesehe Influence of arch caanioa -ill

.and tow*.car. Imarn lh* levd ol ita hcatibty wiih lh* Smrlelirowrikrjrnimm: -Chinei* IntrreUi with Waihimjioii

Over the neat lew yean the above protpecti couldlr*nlly Hi ibelhrly event lhal rtlltcel retbackt ihould rceia In development or wen rttylh*r oetarc al tho*

ilavd Sort .could be of varyinaaily ioeWaaj eve* inrne ol tbe pmenl Derrflttt The me* calrern* nate rat* wouldecilaib tetOme headed byype eornervatlvet. poulblv In aaocialkeium-bet of recurtty tetvlc* and certain senior PLA oltken

atf men Urilash mieht lend to theae charactemir.

preservation of tome Iter toand technical tappoit. hot within an Ircreawd overall diiocBllroo lavoniuj law IcaeiBnThere would be arealer rehjetance In con IracUnrj for new iwanti and . In rttab-

lor loreian portrcicwr-on in tbe and ofad in waduaibrcad ha ad

varaced *adt

moee .rrwohoblc China

. More truculrnl lornan pohey rhetoric, llrouih in tbe main ranllnuiny actual wudeace

CrNitpared with UencKIa cooler rela-thonibip with the Uniied State*

Compared *tlh Detnv* arcceaon, pevhapi bna eh.ore nl redwetnak ofhe USSR

acajancai Ice tha uW*ad ShtfM

n aeneeal term, many Chineseol nimf icance lor US lidereati taneeted to eontin-

ii" In more nr Ira itirtrnlver li*inllrli nl whir"lo ibwiiiwlp theChin* Thai country "HI be poorllonl> thmitrowth "IIIrm lh* hmilrd irtnurcet ol Chinaalll with lh*iple lo maintainfuV *nd meaningfuland axial comilk the twtaldr hoi Id andfotetgnrrtmil profabh not Mam Chan* anroaher Ihe primaryputi atH ewberftallBB rreaeenaad Mltetm ai peeat al earebpenewtfan* from time toat thea* effort!iwUhrr rollapar Chaaa'tothipmfM nueath Ounrtradn ehnh bt iitll ikiely felt wnaml*pohtn-al pait and by ibr Bu>tlla of China'*China'i foreign"illfairly prudent despite nxailonel hmdannai and cimlalli, Ihr rnaWry will remainIn in mam dntnrtltc prnMrmt inr min advenbirhni It* leaderabecinnr more nulipnlratv independent,not Imitate to rriltrlteol

Amreiean We. it.lr and pnlley Not Iratl lhe PRC "dl remain Intent-it nationalnli lung at Taiwan bat not been wined tu IbrruMratWn continue* becaute Taiwan it ao near and ret tollie nbirav of the PRC io comtwrto cttule in the foreteeablr future. Tbe Taiwan otmtlnn will ahv retain high impe-tance lo thetderseady biminVS inirniutm Within tbit fraaieworh, ibere mojbt be ownevvhat greater ootnttimity fc* Waihmglon to retnive. fineate. nr get by iprctfle Taiwan problenaragmatic regime thantaiinltt or eilretnBt one of tornr (ind

uce arm* bd b,ationil hero Zhrng Oerajgoiighe keen rooprratlan cl! the people nl Tiiwan drove awa* Ihe Dutch irjnwxi that had onupied Taiwan foeeorv thn bringing Ttiwin bad lo the embrace ol thentw who wanti io leparate Taiwan

Iranh.ted by th- peopk ar-1

catnot br lorgivea. Belling WenWaehnury KkU

There It ne general feeling of gieit nuwtience eencamUg reundkattei with Taiwanie of thr llhmetr prooleor better bring condnlona BrUlng kaden believe thr mow albealo improve the dornetllr


idei of Chin*'i mlwbtrneVnni the Op**ni Wu UStO-til lo) "aar Inretgrirri to ov*rmme wot aimed at lettillrg loreign ararei-taon.national inaepcaJencr aad aehlevwaj. Ihe aim ol diwmeghniag lhr enemy by npkllint the oinlradlctlnnhe mil aid adopting different mruurei lo deal with ihem In aeenrdance with thlleiml'rdeobtedli. lhaf"alongIn aetnraar forearnert" mutt br tfllimrd

Bratng Carttwlenrnerii31

W. Tbe rjucHino of1pecial cue of drffkulh in Sinn-lS reblions.never give up thni ambition to reunify Taiwan with ihe mainland They coniider that Ihe rrvrilul y" retnaim unfulfilled at

aiwan apart, eaperience tugaratirglme domina'ed by Hu Zhao, or similar pugmiliil; would probably benefit broad US Intwalt more thannoeeirrlderll PRC

The Dengelatively knownto Ihc Untiedthinete regimemilar tuccenor regime would tend lo be aho American olflctek would probablyeller feet of what to expect in Ihe way of Charter* conduct, it compared lo hatti more unrtaUe lucceuot iraimr*

Detpite oecaikrnal let tout diffiriihlr) between Wadorglon ar.1thr straleoV irBerrtb of

China will iiMl-bh irrp II indSI haiical-h> al r. IU fi* mmr years ihrrr will mitflim In hrof cvilnrioWe in Chinrwonng Ihr prnDd ol that rwirtnir andnnaontnkmbh trad aa cmaanag aa too-iii- wdh ihr Lrated Stain albeit with manyii mrtoui aata Nfaiitit aSoviethinese wirceuot rriimri mnjid tlmrallio hr anti-Soviet, bulvpnabyerietl wilhilted Slates .midr- beVn

Such ronud-Tnlsnes wo*nlhoarer* thr PRC ami tbo Lutedn llanVl liar PlICi ewitimi-ing oppoailivn to Virtue mete and Soviet drtigni fcwlhaail Aim. PRC support ol Paliitan and nl Alahan iraltStnce a* Soviet tnvaitOn. PRClo lipan lo mlB Soviet p>nd PRCistener cm Snwth torn

Scowlbriaryn Brutal andm wall, concrrnine the cooliai>ancr> af certain rxononUc. trchnnlnajlral. and arholarli ridiargr hrnrfm Tlirtr mlehi noil dimlnlih wort hacllaih reglnm Inowerhina

Ai ha* boon oWuacd. Drupen wotdd rycbabl, ba *mne**Nt Its. aWWttttW Taiwan eractt-n* than aould rto anartW br

hai Ihr I'nifed States and oihrr fnendly rwlnd* pipwari can accaaplMhectin PRCand lallleiet will br hmilrd bt numrroni rontfra-Mi

Tha hattc prliafi rfCWll dame ah. forces, t* cmnparod with fra*<gn in thantng an centralqwntiin at polttictl cxcmnc-i

The relative HHIIi of anna tnd Ihr diilftchna-lion of Iti leedtri tn open up China Ion much to


The many leahttlc ronttrainU on both Chans aod the Ln-trd Stan tdateh mat* aamvt USr mihtrn takninrr to ihr PrK. trnbaefi

Our lath of drUibd know ledam of thr innernao* worttrur* of Ihe Chinese inarm and lamer, thr difficulty nf predict in* iutt how the content and

r nl US pbn wit nnimt on pfu: ui tnd policies

Acrordiiurh.lhr altibi)llietMole* und Ib allin lo'hint'i pnhaical uarrmioareetlr wJI doubtleai he alatht mil abiht) In ellrrt Ctame poliriri "Ifnmnnewhaiti to luch outudr powm' emVml rw-renirily brTbe ereami amrntad elrwrn*dm-

rthap*l*(tele- thr tlalily of the

centente nf Araertnn eondart irnd'rrtrnth to mure (he pobtieal atblem af PRC btdan of Irene* to t'S pryticv.irt ibc Sotati addnf ieo.-twisty Iu profit tram thece proline iriluriml. ihm- mat hr roaaitechnical, diplcanelar.tdwnKra. tl. pnMie wxtor. jndf tarndli mtrenaliniv-al meawrei could ellect the PHC'i fmiirr Tliese coiiJd Indadr btlaleiel ai woll at inahlbtnal mcaiuics as lor.

conlad rrllh. mvllallom In an) ncbanae' for DoUtKal leaders other than the looprotect US iBterriti and bo-odea I'S Influence and ootiom lor the luluie.

npandrd rehvliom nith middle-level PRCfkfarei

Similar npandrd irlf tone altb PRC icholan and tectentclao* studi'lioj abioad. and rsnrctiBi those aho arr children uf ne dnw In eery aman Chianr kroden

randlimi Ia ea-

paneang crmtarn wghmitBr where tbear acttn mai be In* ef entain cwmraarjite jiflueiacnonduci

SnuU-trtle. cjrrlullyiernatinnal leeh-nictl ah) prograens, prnibh'ynmei

F> pa aides' intrrnat lianil etrdil*

t wfll be of eetytsderafalr .narqwence lo thr L'rJtedt*wnMkalhe PRC will not hr lahtagnctman. bag

In parallel with anal won an or. penceio

the ISSg Beeikaaevi tueremwiaaf-caaV boetlSrarratfc ceaCTrtrdat are he and ihe peeamt Soviet Government The ten coleeitim af Sovln lulni mat nam* iron wiiiinf

elected Biogrophiei

Deng Xi toping iiat powerful nan Inten thoughanked third In the Chlnew Coen-muniil rHilyrCCPtherwehy. Purged by MaoZedong threende rtfiarnrd lo power beeeute of Wi terutdtv. hit broad network olnd ibe need lor bit edmirrSa.ra-tlve ability./

Deng hat been lhr driving (race Innlrin-iaalnai effort Stare hat Wat rrtabtlilaliooe Ian arnrreadeuy anted lhe ardaaenoe of thteclo Mao! loeafa and rernaced Ibeni with enable rrrefgclM. and pragma ric* htraarlf. Ihuaean lot bna-ietei oohiical continuity and atabllitr.ieiator. hr has Mreared lhe nord for roaVctiir rjecvtunmakina and political dltctnline in i- ib- tn diropen rulhhei inFarlitir*

(arty Car*.

t bora4 ki SkhnanI to-do familyhideni daring ibee waa niHvD in Chlnrtraffair* In France, where h* came in rnr-tacl "lib other* who would beoomr premJoeal figure! in ihr CCP. He returned to China6 afire tpeadtag veteral month* i* lhewreet al the bang March UWtW Deng *aearojuenthM lb* mihtaryhen he wetrerrtary o* the party*

South weal Ik-en. beedc-uatteeed In Sichuan2 hr (noted to Btumg tnkw premieracmbrt ol Ihe tale Phtraruag Camrnaitan The lei naeag rear he wa* aaanedal Paaanre aad aehaa-ataa ei lha Fhaarar* andCora-mraMon nl the Central giwcinmrn

r, ivut Deng rear ntrleoryralh/ la Ibe parly. By ISM he hodember of Ih* Politburo and Saerelaty Coneral of the CCP In charge of oreanliauon* wbwdlnatc to the Central Commit lee. In ISM hr waa pc ceo card from htweM ranking memberohdyuro ofo tUth tanaiargolitburo of ITember of H> Standirrg Commtl Ire He waa aha lagged Ceraeral Srerrt*rr of Iheodyuthoroyrhnlrd hlaoi

Dunng Ih* IttMhrag becara*lagly aetlve la foreigntrtkruUrlt wtfh other Cominuiaat purlin Heruuo* regaaarntaliv* of lhe CCP at entire) meeting) with Ihr CtmimiimV Party of the Sevier Union. Aa the relailonahlp between the two nr.rtiei loured, r*liong. oultpohen

ofifaieol Sonet poetries


Drng mi lhe reecrtd inghett Mctam af gayaged athe reappeared3ate toncuet wgh hu old nil* of Vie*ecret party meeting bier that tear eartat-rd him to the Pcathuro Ine wasice chairman ol the CCP and wu alto named vice chairman of ibe piny Military CommiuMrn and chief of waff afrmy, prali ibat gave blm more influence over the miblatv than be

had bad be)ore the Cultural Renoiu'wi.

In6 iVra again waa removed from all hahebe Garni ef Pour Th* leaWtng Srplaaabai Hae dked and ahe gaaag waa arrerted. thereby pat*ag the way ha7 far Daag to regain lh* pnetiatu he had bat ui the prrttoiO yearew. Dttg baa maneuvered to itcwaie

men" and party offo henrlalrd at etprntrll"m,Mi (II1 Vlrr Chairman Hi* Cuoleng lie nrheitralcdln-linrmm-i* ihrirt^re: jnd turn pmii lorimatouaB bail locked wurew. iruBiwd aa chef id tlaff Ui Frtwuaty IM) and aa Mir JVaaarr aW foaWtng Snarmbrr lip nffnillyHmal poaaraon aa chairman of thrcmipni Inix innntht din br Ion* dr lactn celid n( die miliary iiiviy Irnm Hid

IiKkineice president of llirool from ITTh-ail until hr hnuiur CCP Chairman, and he ah> trrvnl at dinvtnr nl thr Proiuejnds [VpartinrM (mmilil February IMO. He hoi hern third (rcntjry nl ihr Central Duelpllnr Invertiirni-brt of llir PoHlhnni aliireR.


nW taeriery.

Vaobeno. Ii one of Chi one fomrnonlU Party Vke Chairman Dene Xfaooiaart ere* trusted uitn-ciitei In Februarye <ra>ember of thr Politburo Standing Commiltre and arwral arcretarv In charge of the thru nrnlv cmiahhthnl CCP Secretariat. He teplacetl Una (in'tiaf atnf tie (XT inoppirtr his lipidhr parlv hierarchy. AiCmrral Sceiiiaiy' ond parly Chairman.li in unprecedented mm bi IUI lino of pmti that allrwvi himiniunrrvitr bnth ihr formulation and implement uliw of (XT policy.roviuon in the Cliinoe Coraliluitfii thechairman aim command) the aimed (nrcet.reak vllh recent practice, taerver. Hu dalconcur re oily ammte tbe penal Ion of chairman ol ibe (XT Military Corn min Ion. in part hrrausr important military leaden lack confidence in him.

An expert on CCP affairs. Ho huWr variety nf parly rxMltnta dunna. Ihr pay) ltvr> years thai lie te allowed him Iniuivriiielltec^inlidaliirn of oprratieinal cnnlrnl of the party in Ihr hand) of lie-UrniEbl rtfinnim and to reduce ihe uifluercrlements. A) director of (he CCP OrgsntiatJm Orpartmeiit (rorn7 ouidjianarv ISTfU. he supetvlifd the rehutnlitalinnb wands of nlll-ciab wlui had been pureed oVirirui the Cullurul Revo


Hu. llie am of poor pratonti.horn5 in Hunan Hit eaten hasie led ihai nl hit mentor. Dene They have known each other tliace al bail, ohtt! Hu vrrveejolitical eon>miujr and director of an Army political deport rune iinrbi Oena'i com aural.oth men hekl party prob in Sichuan Province. They then traodninl to BHkiw-vee premier and Hon Intel nfnimurant Voulh Lena or. Ho lueneeiorntly eon-mil rated on )Oulh affair) villirief Uilmup-ilnn duringwhen hr wai (ini lecrctan nf Ihr Shaantl prenincial CCP committee.

Hu aat pursed ehirlna the Cultural Rmnlullnn. primarily became of his rime aMnctalion with Dens.s Hu returned lr> public lifea member id ihe National People'i Onigres) Slandinj Cfeiimitlre.S he aa) managing the CJiiartr Academi ol ScaPDces. He had aim asiurned lytpniiiehilltiei in riil-lure and eifccjinai in order tn uiidtiniiae h'ltbl control in then- array Pureed again byin llir

Ihan 7

itiiBBle for power idMao ^rJfK, Hu was rehabilitated in90 hercrrtary general of the CCP


ne replaced linn Gunfrna ut Prpmlri tnloe)m namrd the ihirilm.-te (nmmutiiw Parti if "CP) lire die* man the tale aim June Hitarer* ia ihr oral few

trail lata hern ckaractreitrd btie-

li'n-nt eeneixfaaa hi ihrjan parti Kr*ir-eniraier premier in .Vprll IttW ironimmediatelyminted Hunt rceomulhlllly rorH"'.jili afliln nf nmerrrnrnt i- etreti lite tierr -taelis'il an tltrrr.tr itiein-hee ed Ihr PeAburn innil rneanlirr atafaabrr of ihr-rti-ii'i- Iny IWDrhr ihotriran of thrIrairteH yjndi.it Cawinui-Ire nf Ihr Stale Ceiitnul tnd Vhrtnler In ChuiHe of thr Slate Onnminlnn for Itrilnirliir ma. the EcontiMi.

Zhao -at hnen in Heaen In JfllS*ardlied-cttt* lemltt HrCCP in ISVl andUW hrocalvrrtan tn ivevi placet Hi and ateamd rleman fro-inoreld arm alhr South China SoMneeeeii id ihr CCP Central Coram liter, rveactouartrerii In Ciiartffhnu When thr mUi.feiitibnllthrd tn IftW. lie tturmiixtal pally aid pov-ernmmt proti In Cutiaadana Prrnince In IBVt hr aaa pnim-erd in thehe prmanctal party coenmittrrhe Cimnn-doetiaa.litre ft. IW hr had hrrnrne ftttlhe fXv-Wvlal party torn miller, wcrriaty of ihr Central-Southnd political coanmluar nl Ihr Cnanfdwa MtVlait Datllkt

Piirtrd In 7 nV Cultural RmraVathwi.

Zhao re tetprtaredaof iheUoeaanol reeiocui pant crwoawtlee and two ihanwaan of Ihe (Set Mo<aD*o! reapond ret neat kman com ml" re la2 lar>here byie had become provincial lliit terrritiry and chalnnan of thr in nl ultimo ry com till are. flrtl pnitticul inmntlt-tar nl thr mihtatt dltlrMt. and pVrtical icmmiaaai nl Ike Caaararjhoai MrLtan tVfmn.a Iniafcrrcdm lira aerrrtaty The

IrlrVn.ma mooch hr Ire am* thf clWlenuri d Ih*

rrvilulkiatry commilti-i- and firat political rumnaaaarU' fbrracdu Mihluit ftr*li*i.

liMu Dnartut "i)

Chm fm

being realoreJ In1 lo (bepluralbe heel mintedeenamt caterW rcoraneaar afdanaWr liau" In lhr drwbpmrnf ol ttirrrnt creiX-ttiC notary. The Chinese peril hu lintcdn Chiru-ir Communiit Parlynn nm Onem leemiol prriligr. Chcnbai aupixat-rd Uriel efforts lo lelnim lhe CO"reduce (nruptaaincompetence Al (nun kmieiei. he hai beenaih Drag"*resorei planahe* ihcr hate affected the rmoouey.

Chen hai been an outtpoaen advnnie ol giving piKflty I" economic planning io lhe neeib ol coruim en and ol greaing balance in economic dnelnpiiieni lir haart role Hi adjDfting economic pnUrkn lhal hate reduced the growth ol hravtaiieand rhr grrnrth af aararcaeare and hajbt anaWri tecaarr hnortaily atanagrmciit dmvnrt

Inrn utt born in linrrgta5 Aetin In CO affaln tlrec. be rote lo hecoroe th* ranhlui rice rvrmrer*ember ol rhr PoUlburng Cornmlltrr64 Uae Zedorajthe Ceeal Lean Franrard aa araiairooiin produce raped rtonoeaic growth Chen rraetrrd khn't policies aa unreiltUrc. anrj humflwrnce brain to erode Denounced durine thr Catbird1 hr kal hi. mem herd up mi ihr Miburo and hatInV hr aai reappcenlrd tit* premier aid beiante lhrctauar oi thr InrTureVial State Ftaianeutl and finaimic Gam mitt ina He re rented at nre aee-ararr inU The Cearunbaaan -at da>inI.

At Chairman ee" the National People* Corraieu laterehe de facto head of flair. He kid urevicuilt been in charge ol the Ml nit iry ol hWfnent fWenaee hai'ke chairman of lhe Chinese Communiit Puny tince3

Alongilh CCP Vice Cbait manmping andn opponent af lhr extreme leftjit Gang of Four Jurmg the gruggle forft He noofthrkn tubterjurntly oppcitedffort" In demote Mio Zedong* choten locceimr. Hid CuofenE. aadrnlgrile Mtot id eat and achievrinenU Ve cams areai pre-tipe androad network ofthat may represent much if the outwit ion lo Dmgi reform ef forbv However. Ve apparently now endoryetLVratiMrerniionnrrangcmeMiandinced political role for blrmclf

Ve *ai born6 la CuanrpJongealthy mrrchanl lamilv. He hai iludied in Singapore. Hanoi, tire Soviet L'nlrm, aad CWrnany Ye haaCP member Wice thetk ind hai taken pari In many 'liflnrtc militaryncluding thr Ixmge hu held pcaU in the military, party, and government. He uatanful ol the People, Liberation Atmy-0 Ve waaember of the CCPeenming the ordy act he military officer on lhat body7 hr had becomemember of tbe Politburoee chairman ol tbe Military CommiiUtin Attachedthe Ckftiunte netertbelcit reialited linofftrul poationt

r of Cbiaai moat ten lor economickaiember of the rohlhui -AOn nana* IVy (CCDaltLlaent aon thr Pafcbtuo Sanytlerb. In trrtM ofIhe dor if*!'" ipnmlrr

hr rnaanrd in0 af tnean la that pott Duma hit career br hatrant) perianal lolruvtna In thend thr wily Atmult, hr hat been an IrarportintIn the political manoiwln* that hat taken place tlnre Man Zrdimadeath inolHKnUy xrthuduihine'i kadenhlp lhat bar been at odeh. with miar ol Ihe motf literal reform pollenl' VtreChairman DmaThrtennalirm rvletroce. bowene. that hr bet wtWnnli eonatiatcd forap powmairal ot party peat*

Ll haaake fiaun In Ck.niitenceniil alimenther he1inuter ol Finance He kM nurte prcttn ftonomUI. hnweivr, aftrr antthn evon-omlil. Chen Yon.CP vice chairman In8conomic developmentphaatri rapid crouthof heavy Induatrv. hu brrn In brnr earl tutdlanted by Chen* policy of Ur ruing con loner indutfrv Slacrowever,ndnrtrT hu received tame ne* ctaphaili

Li5 He leaned ihe CCP and catered1 thr ndnary amice ha ihe iSffh. lit liuerhtCaaaiunat main icrceand atari ale nab ntttil Itfat. when hr lefr the maBtari and became Cn.rrnor of Hebei Province. He remained Hi Habrl until hli trimeer lo Belling4

Haaemoted from Chaumao of the Chinese Communis Parly In ihr mntl tumor nl Uv vice chairmen in June IBSI when Hu Yaobenr.him Ha drmoime wai panrawn out proreu urchntnted by CCP Viae Chairman Drag Maopmi io reduce the powee of Hon and eehn trfrrOa Shttpl. nmnnrd al the time he wai denaraed Haa currently hat aa known aonmrr laarmabif-niei and oaahet aaiy late publK approrincn Hr apcran to ban aa pewn ban thatcan nah rnobliiie to hn advantage Hebol bowevor lee the many memben of the CCP -hn like him. were ptomctedolt of thr Cukuraf rV-rduticoi. i'"nd are now brwig demoted

Hun wu born1 In Sbamloor fanuli. In ibcb heartyao Zedona-'i hnttis dluncl In Humn Province, and8 he tadrovincial rice amrmor Henothl'lrrg thr Cultural Revolution Subarouently brrlected to the CCP Central Committee and hreamr Pint Secretary ol the Hunan

CCP committee

Htmalma1ean harent on Ikr Poattaet5 he became apre mate and the Hantaan nf Pabter Serantr- Said to bepnamalb ckeam mraar. Hut brexsr Premier. Chairman at* ihe CCP. and chairman of tbe party hliaary Pi im mannaft He It the oaty prma In the htacoey of ttwepublic of Gura to hnve held the loo party flovnnmeat. and mioHey putn cor.In0 Hua am ro playced ai rremln Later that year br wot rrlin-ed of lla- dutiei of chairman of' Military Comrtitt-iton and hr It-mally km ihr title ln1

'him'.vIih* uirmiri dint uneIt.imumtc itn-iiiirtimulm II"rmlirr nl lhrarfcil iJ llir- tJ-tnim* (imnninict Purl,wuinitlnr in rVtirilui.llriui.rd ii. Una Nrcn'Uci'id ihr Anhui 1XP nxniiiilinr rfmvjitiw' 1WT7 InW hr "DippninUil j. litr IMi'inW. Hr Mat MiiiMrr in Cfunr nl lhr Stair Amkulniral ('nnimHonii lirrra1 until II waa iiUili-bril in Mm IWW.1 .ltdniil pan ii* HW2 Wan wa. headr> <norlirw Itniup Ibil iwruii thr rtilplrrnpiiWiiin id iihIhiikiI iiininmii piJirm und irhilialcd dnptilri ww thrlilt lullmi.

Waii Wo In HI IIS Inr huiiclulrdice Clhalrmuii Drug Xianinw.

I'.iVi. -hr unknl undrriccrvmnii

H'Iiiihii I'll" irtir. Hr II otic ol DnViIrc-

liir iniiticul irinihtc*hnr4cr* llv In' ah" -micd tlnvlyIWfmmda-Hf-fruik

Want nn'iKHnrm' druhnio "'Ilh npiitiniTiti nliiliilrt lit* lu.eptildtlini Irr tvingrarrnalk'.

viuti In fcev pwlt in il"-nffwn (jm.lmiiiirii ilti2-Viicniury "nilrniynrriiiM (ISW-lifii Win ni. iBinfiil during ihr (Inltml Itt-inlution MOHII-ltMl II;-irtiirmxHr.wllis IBT4 In- had irouinrd hi- haiM* pmiv in Hit* IMKna iiitinitiiulrtlnl MluiUri nln HIT'S, wilydisappear in Aiuil IWTS.fli'iur "a* nnnet.il Hr nippeurd in (Xlidirc. "hiuil)hi* Mml nl lhriivl Cmur nl r'mtriili viiv nilulilrr nl linlu Itkhiill. fnmi Ijihuiv miirllnrH- IBCT alien In-itCCPmniTiunrnl nlfHul In Anliiu Pnnim*.


ef Snrl.

vana-DeWna.Ir-aree CoT-awaoBe'a".ear.lam "to.

mi of(Kr> and ilrpMrJ Gee- Run

eten MMearr afDeeriiar in March IMI. drepltr lhr nlrastiree. of amirir military nffieeet ahn |nr/Herred aimrnnr frcatl arnm act'ie-dut*e haiareihrr nf lhr PiJubuni itoac*ne ma iwr> arrrr fmm March ItTS unnl Ma> IBM -henmrd ti Stale (iiuncitni 1'rtieii9 utlltenrd aa recrrtary general nl ila ('litarw

tflraarttanHI Parti itXPl Mihlary Ccaraarahahm .A* Minuter nlIVfrrse. hefHiloi m

the Minding Ciinwnilire of the cnrnmrauin 1ml de-WtN innat ol lit* lime In lhr demanding allhmnlh breeil irrrria-rUal andra'nr date* of ibr MoBiri

Cent thactt <XP Vfc* Chairman Dengon rirfemr-related maltrti fWfci|vand avdeeaiMlmi nl (hlai'ibail aauanmer prawlli lhanl the cr.ilun rennnmy Both "are agree eni..i,fOie 'mi been

n tgraeetaneii ia rychanan IN drfrine offtake.

Gene v. a. bran inin Hunan lie-ai*olllcer forron MoreareerkatiaiJ Al unof laaei0r newde-rear*.Ire la Wrera. Dee-marl, and Klrdantl PaLnlan. Iliirmo; ami Almoin1 hr wai amlabler ef (wi-tcii affainI al dlrettre id ibrhe CUT (antral CmaatirWeI until IflTa nil

Since atsiirning hi. rien'ntara Drr*l

Imiiim- the unrle mral infknaul anda-lii

ohrli .Jf.er a* ihr-iieirmi ifl.M

Heii fan imj. -Ifd


lhennainiil Ptrh HX.fi ihr Secrrlarlal and theun Inlair lha rnncrrraid Ihe naUUn aliekra* am rmiii at and Inthr pra rd rtna* Trara-ir rWrrae pnlK-yrd Staff jatl aaaaa re ol defeanr he iiapletriiil. irnhci aid nuu-aan the daily hiiiIImci cf lhr mlllliiri nlabliihrvi-nl

ana vharei anthtritl rnre nillaeri dfaln

'ha rlraan thi* MilitaryVjrarlhr tarre tary (ir-neeal nl the Mlilurt (Jnrnndiann.aml Mmlilcr of h'atinnal Defenie Oneince bnuneiia Oaaa'iat nuMan idflreraia hai rnaiUaeritl) craaaielrd thelaaiaf rraMaar* to Deafi re

'ire'mit prinirl tad hai laDnlihadrrli-

o purli ivrnii.iace-nirMl,

Winan In 1PI0 in limunthc

arth UHll-Ul hr ah* emed in lhe Sian-Jarawtra- War illfi-Ul rhr (areayaretrl *ar iMUV MX ararl lhr Knrran oar tlMCt-Vl10 Vamt trrverlilrlari Rrainn.Wihan Vliliiiri Hraaai and the konmlaa Miltlan Refliai lib mini rrreo* cntrrful ruerima daiaili nraeiaaaVe

Iiarei durtna the ieirf Snnln

nrh IHTU.


he. dowaant woty hat Direito-ole al nlatlgaoi* th*ka

r'ri'"-ni end uh of (ha recipient end ol per aora .vderof1m iHKlor irov be ov-horliad by aha loln-li? ollicisla

laipectivB deparintntt:

trMtor. tv/aou olt ibe Deportnantol Smt*

I>tf**t* IrneUoav* Aoaney. Ice tm. Offeta ol Mo Seuetoev of DVerm

ho wgeamsfcn ot Mm Jointf Sroll

f JreH hxor lha Oiroi-i" ot lha Aim.

'raligarxe. lor the DeoorleoeM of It* Novy

Auolone Chad ol StajW.leeaportma.it ol tho Ae fofoi I. tnVexlor ol InlaKpoxa. feeAAorina Coepa

eputy AiaiKcnt Seoetoey lo- Mmnolto-iol frrieHaent* AnofyiM. (or the Deoeeh

vent of Energy

K AitUtoMee the radma) luaov of tameftgoHon

i DteeetorSA. Xotiorol Security Aj*v,

j. SpeOoJ Af**MM to ta Saerelcry to- Nohonol Secvrity. lor theol ait* Ireenurv

IheDitaeerrfliganc* lor O'yapalmaril Or AaoaiT

?7Tlff1bt ratoHaad. or daftroyed by buning in otrordonce wam aafu-ythe Oeeetoror* of trtaKeanee

mil document novarieoinoy retain rtnot In alien o1 onet tha end ofi" III ma maul atoud be Oomofd

liened to th* Iwmedrvj oja-y. or parihoddMiTTTiajaf a',

ogemv ro nia- il in.

WUthat oCximar* waa*eiporoteiy from"

Original document.

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