USE OF CRIMINAL LABOR ON SOVIET PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION (DOI: 1930'S - 1977)

Created: 9/20/1982

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGDENCT OOKESTIC COLLECTION OIVlSlON

SUWNART: AS OFORKERS FTTOM PRISON CAMPS HERE SUPPLYING UNSKILLED LABOR ON GAS ANO OIL PIPELINE PROJECTS IN THE USSR. SPECIFICALLY. PRISON CAMP LABOR HAS USEO FOR PRELIMINARY WORK SUCH AS CLEARING FORESTS ANO PREPARING ROADS AT THE GAS COMPRESSOR STATION AT BOGOROOCHAN1 . SUCH WORKERS RECEIVEO NO WAGES AND USUALLY WERE HOUSED IN TENT COMMUNITIES END SUMMART

1. OURING THE PERIOD COVERINGHE AVAILABILITT OF LABOR ANO CAPITAL INVESTMENT HAS MORE THAN ADEQUATE TO COVER CONSTRUCTION ON OIL ANO GAS PIPELINES IN THE USSR. AS OF THE LATE IS'70'S. HOWEVER. FUNDING AND SKILLED LABOR BECAME INCREASINGLT SCARCE. PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION WORK IN PARTICULAR GREW MORE LABOR INTENSIVE. DATING BACK TO THE YEARS OF THE IS30'S THROUGH ifSOS YOUNG PEOPLEERY ENTHUSIASTIC ATTITUDE ABOUT SIGNING UP FOR DUTY ON OIL ANO GAS PIPELINE CONSTRUCTIONURING THET BECAME INCREASINGLY OIFFICULT TO RECRUIT lNDIVIDl'*! IR WORK UM3EH AOVERSE CLIMATICv/INC, rONOITIONS.

CRIMINAL PRISONERS OFTEN HERE USEO AS UNSKILLED LABOF INS TO CLEAR AW AT FORESTS. DRAIN SHAMPS, ANO TO FASHION ROADWAYS,FOR LAYING PIPELINES. THAT WORK ALSO WAS OONE IN SOME AREAS BY MILITARY CONSTRUCTION BATTALIONS. PEOPLE FROM THE ASIAN REPUBLICS SUCH AS KAZAKHSTAN FREQUENTLY COMPRISED THE WORK FORCE. THE CRIMINAL FORCE CREWS HERE USEO FOR LAND CLEARING WORK IN THE UKRAINE PRIOR TO THE WORK ON THE YAHAL GAS PIPELINE PROJECT. WHEN THE CLEARING WORK HAS COMPLETED, THE CRIMINAL HORK CREWS WERE REMOVEO FROM THE WORK SITES BEFORE THE SKILLEO LABORERS AND KOMSOMOL CONSTRUCTION GROUPS ARfl.'vro. EVERY EFFORT WAS MADE NOT TO INFORM THE LATTER GROUPS i. -iT CRIMINAL LABOR HAO BEEN USEO ON THE PROJECT.

AS OF THEOTH POLITICAL ANO CRIMINAL PRISONERS WERE TASKED WITH PRELIMINARY CLEARING HORK AT PIPELINE SITES. THOSE WORKERS EARNEO NO WAGES. THE WORKERS DESIGNATED AS "KH1MIYA" OIO. HQHFVFfl. EARN WAGES FOR UNSKILLED LABOR ON PIPELINE PROJECTS. SOURCE HAT THE TERM KhlMIYA REFERRED TO THOSE INDIVIDUAL WHO HAO SERVED PRISON TERMS BUT HHO HERE DENIED THEIR CHOICE OF RELOCATION SITE IN THE USSR. SUCH INDIVIDUALS HERE PLACEO INSTEAO ON VARIOUS WORK PROJECTS.I

Ih THES WORKERS WHO HELD UNSKILLED JOBS ON PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS EARNEOUBLES PER MONTH. THOSE WHO HELD SKILLED JOBS SUCHAS PIPE WELDINGUBLES PER MONTH. THE ADDITIONAL PAY WAS REFERREO TO AS "CLIMATIC" OR HARDSHIP. :

5. THERE HERE FOUR CATEGORIES OF CRIMINAL CAMPS IN THE USSR. THE CAMP'OF GENERAL REGIME (LAGER" OBSHCHEGO REZHIMA) HAS FOR INDIVIDUALS SENTENCEO FOR LIGHT OFFENSES HITH TERMS OF UP TO SEVEN TEARS. THE CAMP OF INTENSIFIED REGIME !LAGER" USILENNOGO REZHIMAI HAS FOR FIRST OFFENDERS OF SERIOUS CRIMES. THE CAMP OF STRICT OR SEVERE REGIME ILAGER' STROGOGO RE2HIMA) HAS FOR CRIMINALS SENTENCED FOR MURDER, RAPE, ANO OTHER SERIOUS CRIMES. THE CAMP OF SPECIAL REGIME ILAGER"0 REZHIMA) HAS FOR REPEAT OFFENDERS, INDIVIDUALS HHO MERE CONSIDERED TO BE ESPECIALLY OANGEROUS TO SOCIETY. AMP DESIGNATEDSILENNOGO REZHIMA" HAS LOCATEO NEAR KOLOMYYA AND PRISONERS AT THAT CAMP HERE USEO AS UNSKILLEO LABORERS ON THE UZKGOROO SECTION OF THE ORENBURG PIPELINE. AMP DESIGNATED AS "STROGOGO REZHIMA" ATYANY NEAR CHERNOVTSY ALSO SUPPLlEO UNSKILLED LABOR TO THE PIPELINE PROJECT. WORKERS AT THE LATTER CAMP NORMALLY DID MINING AND QUARRY HORK.

fc. ONLY CRIMINAL CAMPS HERE LOCATEO IN THE AREA OF IVANO-FRANKOVSK. CAMPS FOR POLITICAL PRISONERS USUALLY HERE LOCATED IN THE LESS POPULATED EASTERN REGIONS OF THE USSR IN ODDER TO DECREASE THE POSSIBILITY OF CONTACT WITH OTHER SOVIE. CITIZENS. SUCH CAMPS HERE LOCATED IN CONSTRUCTION SITES ALONG THEECTION OF THE PIPELINE ANO HERE BELIEVEO TO HAVE SUPPLlEO UNSKILLED LABOR FOR THE PROJECT.

7. 5fe THE IVANO-FRANKOVSK OEPARIMENT OF THE MOSCOW SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR DRILLING EQUIPMENT PROVIDEO BORING EQUIPMENT AND ACCEPTED CONTRACT WORK ASSIGNMENTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF THE GAS COMPRESSOR STATIONOROOCMANI, OUTSIOE OF IVANO-FRANKOVSK. CRIMINAL CAMPS LOCATED IN THE AREA SUPPLIED THE UNSKILLEO LABOR FOR THAT PROJECT. UNITS FROM THE MVO FORCES ATTACHEO TO IVANO-FRANKOVSK

IN INVESTING

THE LABOR AND CAPITAL REQUIRED TO ERECT TEMPORARY HOUSING AT CONSTRUCTION SITES FOR COMPRESSOR STATIONS. IF THE CONSTRUCTION SITES HERE RELATIVELY CLOSEITY OR VILLAGF SKILLED LABOR RECEIVED HOUSING WITHIN THE CITY. IF THE SITES WEREOOO OISTANCE FROM CONSTRUCTION SITES. THE WORKERS LIVED IN TENTS. THE CRIMINAL LABOR FORCE WAS PLACEO IN TENT CCM^JNITIES REGARDLESS OF THE LOCATION OF CONSTRUCTION SITES IN ORDER TQ SEGREGATE THOSE WORKERS FROM THE LOCAL POPULACE

9. Crt-ENT: BASED ON HIS PERSONAL EXPERIENCE IN UCRK AT VARIOUS OIL ANO GAS ORILLING SITES, SOURCE IS OF THE OPINION THAT THE SOVIETS DEFINITELY ARE CAPABLE OF COMPLETING THE YAMAL PIPELINE WITH OR WITHOUT THE ASSISTANCE OF WESTERN TECHNOLOGY. THE ABSENCE OF THAT TUHNOLOGY, LIKELY WOULO DELAY COMPLETION OF THE PROJECT BY SEVERAL YEARS ANO WOULO DfiAH CAPITAL ANO RESOURCES-FROM OTHER. SEC TORS OF THE SOVIET ECONOMY 1

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