SOVIET LASER WEAPONS TECHNOLOGY: A COLLECTION GUIDE (DELETED)

Created: 12/1/1983

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

"

Soviet Laser Weapons,ollection Guide p|

.mm -

Soriet Laser Weaponsollection Guide

Contents

Introduction

Laser Technologies

C-aera)

Gud/rnir.ic(GPL)

Cbemio] Lasers

asers

MeUl Vapor Utm

Ruby Lasers

Doubled Neodymium Lasers

_EJccinc-Discharge La

diner Laser*

Nuclear Pumped Lajcn

Lasers

Free-Electron

Transfer Chemical

Plasma Recombination

Pboiodistotiation

14

Explosively Pumped

Dye Lasers

IS 15

Related Technologic,

Optics

Beam Control

_Mirtpr Technology

15

Acquisition. Tracking, and

Nozzles. Exc-.ott Scmbbcra,g, mrf

W catioca

Battlefield Lasers"

Weapona

BaUiitic Missile Defenae

Aatipciiceifltl

weapom cooititBlemajor new form of weapon rysuai capable of celivcriag nfllcieat sacrfj toariety of targets of rniliiary lifwncance-The applications of such weapons couldroad aa those of missile* or fans. The five majorof laser weapons that combine to define their proeoise are the near tnsiaateraoea delivery ofthe potentialargeide field of fire within which the laser can rwisch rapidly fron target to tarfet, rapid growth of kill marfia as the raafc to the target decreases,otential for selectively delivering enerfy at the optimum location on the target- These ombined to mate btaar weapon lysisou highly rraporulrc. Majoran atmospheric propagation probities aad tba requirements for extremely aeenrate pointirj and tracking aad Doe of sight to the

Bceanac even tew-power lasers arc highly Intense coca pared with natural-ught levels with which season operate, Uscn haw tremendous potential for aof countertneasureasers eaathe arming accsracy of ihrea. weapoD systems by temporarily saturating or permanently damaging or oeatroying eleeuo-opocs tad human eyes or byfalse guidance signals or falsi targets for laser guided wcapona. The application of Lasers ia apace makes even greater aaa of the fiveermic* cited sbose-atffl

A laser weapon system ta comprisedasing source, tbe optica that perform tbe focssslng. beam coatroL pointing and tncking. and all thc other aasceiaiad

i ca assist ia tbe proper fanctioruag of the rystem. This guide will focus primarily oa these laser types aad their aasodatad component technot cases. Scene insight wsTJ be provided as to how the technologies come together for various weaponsaad finally, collection targets, facilities, per-sonatina sod key Questions will be addressed, ffj

which an affectively fielded as weapons tys-icma will have the potentialigh-density threat environment, to methodically move from target to target over (heiro coverage, fecaa their beam on the target, hold the Mlcctcd aim potat dcapite Ihe target's spaed and maneuverability, and toital eompoeeot or the airmetaral isHegrrtr of lot target or lo igalting the fad or warhead isor less.tU

Teckncalogje

Laser devices are generally caicaori-cd by ihr tating medium (for example, carbon dioiide (COJ. iodine (Il hydrogen fluoride (HFi deuterium fluoride. (DFL aad ao fonb) and paurrping uchaiquc (for example, gas-dynamic, chemical. akctriC discharge, pboioiooiza-iM/dKsocaikn. and to forth) neee. lo achieve aa ascited itaie- Release of th* stored energy through emtuloa produce* aa intense.ated, rnoraocbromaiic beam of light. The Soviets

call these devices optical quantum jrnen-icri (OKGt) Oner they operate beeauK of the discrete

energy Icvclt associated wilh quantumists laser devices with several associated

general ^ara meters ^1

Thar GDL was the first high-energy HEL developed capable ofulli mega wall peer outpnL Tbe do ce iuelf is ca^rnposed of three sobsyiiams. combststlon or electrical beating chamber, noixJes, andavity (sea fiffttrthe chamberot flowing gas with molecules generally ceraspying an cadted eatergy slate. Tba eacltad gas then passeset of espanaSoa ssrjzxlcsnd cooling the gas resultingopulation urrertaon of the lasing medium As Use gu flows peat the rapueat resonstor, pbotons ere reflected back and forth bet ween tba parallel mirrors resube laser beam. The duTuaer Uses allows the exhaast gas to decrease in kinetic Istssfwj (velocity) end Increase ta poUjrtial rnergy (preasarx) to be sBsatsttssssal (coco-eyrie operaoon) or codec, ccaaprcssod. and mrytctod into

Inaser device can be divided intoiba gain generitot and thc opticaleach performing unique functioni. The gainis primarily the material that has beenan eacitcd state. Whea the tain generatorin an optical resonator assembly,of parallel mirrors, randomly emittedreflected back and forth ttimulatiog thcadditional photon and the ampUliadc erf theincreases. There are two basicoptical resonators: stable and unstableare most applicable lo devices *ubregions arad unstable resonators ut mostto laser darviccs withnspereat mirrorthe beam allowing part of the beam to eaitUnstable devices employ spatiallyallow fully reflective optics to bethe beam being reflected out of tbeRccaute the unstable resonator allerwsoptics, it it most applicable toHEI -m

-i art .fir ist^-fiti

ii*araber (ciceecl-crckhe oscw common GDLiant racdmm combined withombustion chamber an

hronahonlea creatingeedatJoo inversion andhe resulting beam ia fa6avelength andperated in the COTtiaM-oos -are roodcfM

Key Intellixcoce QueeiioM:

I. The most bnportant parametersDL an the beam qwatj, .right, ria, type of fuel CaoLd or bqnidl. foeJ-tatxfure ratios, floe rat.unclion of output Po-cr. and .he type* and dex^ ^ded-mg msicah. ued) of iKpervxmc flow aozzie*.

Figure I

Gasayoamic User Device

Farit ii important so uww foci . misiiirt n -

J. For electrically dnvCT GDLso know electricalej aaaa

OiewcnJ User*

Ir cbcmicalhe um implies.- or men chcmJCshi are combined in tbe cavity of tbe Laacr deviceorm eicited molecule*ew compound,

Thra corn .nuojiiy operating de-ice ia timila' in Opera-lion lo tbe gasdynamic later with tht addition of injector aotilee rn the canty to permit tbe imroduc-lion and miaing of the second chemical into the rapidly fleeinga general,: con wm of foer primary rejiom precombumoe chamber (duscciationoiilet, canty region, and difTuaer Thereumber of variations of Ibn general detifn. loma employing lubsonic flow within the laser cavity (therefore the absence of supersonic norzles] and different methods uied to creaie the initial dissociation of the rcactani chemical gaafcaj for thc production of active chemical eentrri-gfl

QUALITY PAGE

Fl,,

Jwid. (HF) Users (sec) represent

Ul ed Suit, todayapable of prcducin. th, mult.mega-an powernecessary fora(,on. The device iUelfoper-,ea by combining free aiorm of fluoru* with hydrogen rwaocsles craulimi in vioraiionally excited rnoaecalei of HF

Two unique aspects of HF laser cmeratioos are ihe toxicity of the buing medium sod the requirement for wster-IreecoaUBfs in the optical resonator HFtsoncentrations of ooJy throe pans per million, thus large doxa require scrubber system* io prevent

tnnranment damage. HF attacks most materials aad caa enueafi) dears de aa unprotected surface. Most

hyrlrasrcaaser emission lines are stronglyJed by water. Thus, water trapped in optical cctiistaa will ebtorb HF eroiision and destroy the rraiiwsp and even ike ecNrcal components as well as decrease the laser beam quality and power flux,

The HF laser emitsumber ofra which itegion of thethai is tubjeet to stroni sirr-apberic

POOR QUALITY PAGE

absorption DcuUriam fluoride (DF) lasers emittprciitl regiona, which it norc readily Irmnioiitiod through ibe unhl atmosphere.

Tbe (cdioeaterean* atmeans thai kvcUoi

aboui fear aad aaaa limes the , of HF aad DF laacn respectively caa be achieved with eaaivskati lares and equal powera ao^Uoo,eeled that iodissc laaeri "ill achievej- ouaa no* cfTiotociea aa HF aad DF deviccatradc-offi in apcrtarc size, la-orbit weight, aad lathal-it* to be oiade for space-based apcJicaticea. f|

Aa aitracilve aspect of iodine Using ia that, aoliba DF lasersexhibit multiline lasing, thc aodiae laser caa be made to lataingle narrow bead atm.esult, laser transition flixiuaiicea, which caa sired beam Qaairty aad beam coatrol system problems associated with multiple wavelength re avoided. Bast

Iprcaetrpe argon-ion lasers have been built:awhe forwOW Userervice lifeoars Its dimensions liodudiai powerlOcnv The Utter operate* ia the siaek-froqaaaciode lesccuceuaj^

Appbcatasas of these Uaen have mtcUOcd acaliaaar

eiTccts. Ore User pumping, pfjouxtsceajcslnd tingjc-erysul semicondBaor reaiorjiion U

I. What are tbe new incrcasea in service life, power ontpoo. and mode selection'

Argoa laa Laaars

Forecade, researchers at the NcnosHant Soence City have been experimentally aad. lavestigaiinaj aad developing aigoa ioa lasers. Their goal has beea to develop high-power argon-ksa lasersecsg aft Their iaecatigaiteass larva racfwded Uscr-Rsode controliinina waactra of .- Usants In aa aaxcJcratlag field near doclop-tncnli have centered oa special cathodes and optical system for ihcac Users. Outputs from these Users are Um visible tpccirvan (Area) aaat aaOO-watl range. New Uvcstigation* and develop-aDcrru have beea ea aa crgoa-icei laser with sepersouic flow

Mrial Vaaser Lasers

A asrtaJ vapor Useretal ioa in vapor fonn as tbe medmxn for the Using actios. The metalxcited by bji ewcrnal sourceao^tThe Soviets contiouc to dominate ia tbe liicraiure poblished on metal vapor Users, la thc last year, tbe previous EstO authors was ittcreajed by 50

The Scvwjts are conceotraiing oa the followingar the development of powerful metal rapor

Transverse discharges.

Fj tumefy powerful pumping cirami

High-pause rcpeation rates.

Multiple-User output tummisasj

Oscillaioe-amplifier cocfirurauoiH

Metal particles inbigh-prexsarc buffer gas.

Ruby (AL- O, C,mits Uarr ester g) in the visible (red) region. Tbe So*ieis cxavtimsc lo ate ruby laser* ithe Held fee miliary-related arjpaVstre-aa For catm-ple. tbe Soviets have beenefkctor equipped) since UTO. Inoviet laser rangefinders eniptoyed by field artillery forward observers, appear souby User. Ruby lasers also might be used in other military application soch as blinding and scrctor degradatine.

Soviet eejurpenenl described in open source literature is primarily for educational, scientific, or industrials far back as tbe, several anils were described as having performance ratings foiUUc for military applications, (foragainst people) but these units were notnd packaged for field use.

Key Intelligence Querxioos:

I. What is the tutus of RAD in ruby Users1 What arc current applications? Describe dimensionsM packaging.

hat specific military applications use ruby Users?

Needy

Tbe output of neodymhtm lasers (where either gjaxi or YAC is thc Using mediam) can be frequency doubled, and.esult, the out put it converted to tbe visiblem) wavelength. Soviet research groups ooro-monly nse this icchniqwc and tbe nonlinear optical materials required are readily avxiUble. fM

Li Carbon dioxide (CCy esectrie-discharge Usersperate alavelength, whicli falls into one of ihe streospberes kith-transparency windows. Energy is transferred cither directly to the CO, mediumiV pmoaaxer, aa electron gun, or through an intermediary gas (usually niirogco) and dilntent. Tbe device ttmcturt parallels that deacribed ia tbe gas dynamic section with Utile variation from the general device de^criixron (see fijuntea

Carbon monoxide (CO) EDLs operateumber of wavelengthsm. Carbon monoxide coniJnaes so be of strong interest fear development of crxsewtmos-phenc User weapon, especially if opcratioo can be lastrtctrd in wavelengthsam. CO Users may atso form ibe basal for tacau-ierm sirborn* or apnee-based weapon systtrns. CO, Users have achieved efTaiencaes aa high asercent for pulsed oestration andercent in eontrawasax-wavc operation oatheoretical maximum offficiency jpffl

-

Tbe advantage of aaratg an external source of ionizing radiation allow* tbe nadeptndcot control of botb tbe concentration and energy of the electron* ia tbe discharge. This makes possible tbe generation ofvolume dBcfaarrts suiuble for pumping various Isil. such as CO, aaat CO. These lasers arc called combined pumped daxiic-diicharjc lasera fCPEDL)reference to tbe rxaanhinrdf theradiation and the eacexne discharge. *fj|

PersoOAcl aasociaud with one of tbe Soviet EDL effort* published first on combined dischargesurther, the Sowicxa were the first to publish on tbe throe principal combined pumped scfaesraes:neutron beams as ionizingbeams as acaurxstgad LTV radistioa (photoralkaiirirjg radiationalJ

Tbe weapoDiiaiicas of CO, and CO CPEDLs devtt oped in thc early aadt believed to be in tbe bands of the deeitraers st classified defeansedesign bureaus. These designer! publish and- ssi-fiod aspects of their rcastarch ia openecast effort should be exerted to collect leas readily available literature, stscfc at preprints, reprints, aod prooecdinp of institsmrs and internal insmate ptiblt-cn trass. ^

Soviet interest ia atasnagabiic preasurr CO, exambtraed pumped eicanric-daucthtxgst Usees (CPEDLs* assst slroagly evident aa carty1 By tbeoriet literature for tbe assart part discussed0 aa tasant lengths) and CW oatpats-Further, tbe combined eUrcharges were diiicsssaed as aseful for pumping large volume* at higb praaaurcs at energy -density ricocavrtioa ratesW/eraW perarioan fast-flow (labsonic)studies relative to assert were conducted as earlyal

I -Fronde, detail* cm tbe foUowirnj criteria associated with tbe design and operating parameters of the dccsxsc-dsscbarfe lasers' cavity: its dischargecavity-clearing time, turtmlcnce roanaicment,control, gas rmxing and flow coodi-tioning. high-voltage connectors, aconsticbeam quality, and resonator design.

2.What eoJBtary applications are evident using EDLs?

hat types of external sources arc being used to prodace tbe ionization rsdiatioa aacd to excite the User canity:

Fjciastr Lasers

An caeinseroe thatare gas halide as tbe lasiag medium and that is then pumped by one of several types of exciution source* (Secince thebe Soviets have frequently published results of thooretical and experimental work on rare gas baGde lasers. Half of the eight pumping tourers listed inave received moat of the attention:pumped, pbotc-preaornzrd discharges, electron-beam-stabilized disc barge, and electric pho-toUmiraueaa,!

Tbe large srermber of groups working on rare gas halide Users wfll cootinBC to be supported because of tbe diverse requirement* for the rnimerous ponible application* for these Ixien. Tbe amount ofwork reported will probably be considerable and detailed. Emphasis will cootinoe on ragincoring daU relative to these types of Users- Tbe Interest In these Users shorva by minisierial facilities is iradica-tivc of engineering development in responsendustrial and military customer iaiercs*..

Table 2

Scnti Rm Cm

mpta*.

of tba molecule*ioalar manner as the EDL TU* ia thc predominaat rraaefer mccbanian* ia roost nndeipumped lasers, however, tome noclear pumped Lasers relyccorjrJary nwrhamam forir -

The acecaadary ittechanitm. dcarriaaai ia nuclear pumped carbon monotidc Lasers, rcfics onlremferra ticca' energy ta the CO rnedium throoah other excited CO iproc* produced by fm-oo fragments. This i> aa ouernery complex trsnsXcr mecSMuasaB, a* wcQery asieaaal aierhaaiam tor nuckar pumped Lasers, and very brrtic ia known aboat the aiaetics of this transfer

Thc device itself bat three primary aadarystcms; fluid ttppiy lystxm, pin generator, aad optical resonator. Tbe fbajd-supply lyiiem fuoctsccas as the primary rrystcea for niainuining and atoriag thc coolant andaintain, cryogenic asxtrag* (when required! c* thc (anna; medium aad reactor ooceant and converts them ao gases before entering thc gain generate- M

Uta beam wavelength ia dependent on elearoD-bmn energy (for example, high-energy short-wxve-kawith. low-energy tong-weveknarvh) andfacad period (ipatial variebeai) need in tbe FEl_

X-Ray laser*

FWa main approachc*ay lasers arc being considered by the Sovieu in the bxcratarc: eleciron colliiiooal excitation, electron attaKanrieatr, pbotoab-sceptioo, Cortipton acatteriog, and reiaerratic charged panicle cbnnncling. Most of the Soviet effort, at indicated ia the open literature, is concentrated in only two of (be general approaches, those of electron attachment and stimulated cmissaoa from rriBirvistic beamsrystal However, the cflort ia the pho-toabsoTptkm approach may be larger than it appears because developmenteeray lourcc could be directed toward providing the pump source foray laser based on photoabeccprjon. The use of nuclear explosion! bai been proposedethod of creating conditiontay lasers. Therenable lateray program sa tbe USSR. *M

The de-rice operates lunintradiofccelerator (rf linac) except that the electron gives arp energy to (be esecxroxrsagnctic field and ihe rf carvitka arc replacedtatic trsagneiic field- The

i mi ry electron beam is grnerntcd by an acccscraior and xteered into thc laser cavity where it traverses the periodic magnetic Held {sec figwrrenerating and aaxpftfying thc laser beam. The electrons can be forced to radiate coherently (all in phase) at awavelength by cuatioiling the relative

of tbe electrons and the laser pump field. WM

Frre-FJaetrwa LaaarS

Free-eJectroa laacn (FEU operate cm the princrpk of free electrons radiatingeriodic anagserr field rather tana oa induced traMtion* between cmaaiumof bound electronsreriioaaX The primary pnaoipk behind its operation Isaser beam caa be extractedeam of free electron* passingarying ataractic fksd by placing nurrors at each cad The physics o' the deviceaaed oa Ri ma la ted Cornpton seanique aspect of Ms operation it ihat it caa be toned to opcrata from the millimeter-wave region to the ultraviolet rwgioe ef tbe spectrum.

r iKiirr 4

Free Fleetree Lather

Chmkil Lasers

The laser medium pumping mcchenbm of transfer chcmicaJ laser (TCL) depends oo ihe transfer of stored cbcssUcal energy from the products of an txothermic ebemical ruction to some molecule that subsequently Uses The most eornnxxi TCLs use transfer ofotational energy fromnvoteeolea like HF or DF

Thc TCL can opcatcepetitively putted mode, monopulsed mode,e mode.

POOR QUALITY PAGl?

i Keeombiuricai

arof theseiepoecBtul for jex^raia, ihon wavelength Uaerha principle of thbj.,

u ckctjonbeamie reaultn, reaction produce, photon, wtacfc provide Uter radia-

Tbe User nsccfiaan for dyea ornaaac dye dissolvedorrenU v* ponied, or erneayVkdolid (for exanapie,be purmstaagslasruamp or another User, and tbe ootiwi is (unableumber of wsrelenalh raaaoaat betm. Tbe tunabtbty of ssseb devices makea tbeen potentially useful sat rant* find en or Urge! datssspattore^mer-cowanarnwnsure capability Tbe greatest disadvanUga of dyes as User spec sources Is then stTeaitne.

Key raltJigrssra Oaaartiort:

EaaaWvefy Pumped laasen

Ltfiottt pumpingcy* tnwofve cipkding wires,than metal foils, eapeoaively

sonrrces, or direct pumping of the Uaer medium byr by oaiag aa cntptoaivc Uaer sniarare. Eiptoarvciy pumped Uaen are of interest bees use tbe aspanrirairge aaooantnergjary khan time to pump an HEL weapon.H

Kay Intefln^e* QocaaaosE

Whathe current eta las of tbit work?

Wovidc information on which organic dye it being Sttl. tbe kmd of solvent, tht pumpissg nsccatsnrsm, the wavelength taaabilily region, and the cstergy densiiy roqaired for dye

Related TirhaiangWi

Generation of the ban by thee-TeeosuyHep in delrvcrbag tbe required flueeea caamount of energy aJimul

to the target, the beam toon be andiatersad anal focused oa the target. Tborlori. de'cemenfc aawron aaay be aaad to heap orarrcct phasea the beam exit* the ccXacaU resonatorieerad toward the iclcaoopeeries of neering rairrara-ggg)

Al the telescope,assegraln (furjerehe beam strikes the scccasoary mirrorxpanded to fm tbe primary mirror area. The primary aairror then focuses the beam to the desired spot ripe at the target ptaoe. The larger thc mirror, the imailer the spot size and tbe higher tbe energy density on the targes. Several type* ot* apparatus can be used to point the beam at thewe methodoctoatatixed telescope pointedarge flat mirror, fixed about two or mote axes, escd to reflect the beam toward (he target. Another method of pointing tbe beans al the targetisnbnl mounted telescope, which Is physically pointed at tbe target- Bach method he* unique advantages and bmitatiotti; tbe tcieeaacei of one method over arsather depends upon tbe amaoo of the

Bcaaa Ccerrol

To describe the beam cen (roteneric aaodel wiD be identified, which outlines thc general nbays-tern. Although thereumber of variationsii generic system identifies mcatt of the major functions inrorvvd in beam control. The beam control system can be envisionedcries ofloop* that fund ion limulianeously. Thesethe device cleanup loop and the beam train loop.

Mirrwr TeeSuwalogy

The basic types of mirrors used in HEL beam control system* include primary mirrors, secondary mirrors, and neering mirrors, usually the primary andmirrors are concave but the steering mirrors arc usually flatther mirrors are necessarily used within thc laser device toesonator.

Highly rt/iectrve. accurate mirrors are important conrpcoeots of the beam control lystcrn, Tbe mirrors for laser weapons must survive each radiation density for long period* while retaining their high rt"rc -n, snd shape- To sustain tbe high fhn density, thc mirrors maest have reflectivities greaternd have very accurate, smooth sstrfacesn the area of mirror technologyreat uncertainty exists concerning the feasibility of oevesopiog high-laser systems.

Tbe highly reflective mirror blanks may be produced by highly accurate application ofcoatingihe mirror's sncrface Two different types of coatings sre used: metallic coalings *nd dielectricoaimg material depends opoa the operating waveicaagth of theoating may be highly reflective at one wavelength (X) bat poorly reflective at another. Alarninum. cooper, beryllium, stainless steel, silicon, and molybdenum are proved metallic coaling materials. Dielectric coalings coetad be thcigher tecbrxaogy than thc metallic confines- Dielectriccoramtern* ting layers ef material* that have high and kyw indices of refraction. Coatings of either type rery on very-high-purity materials;containing impurities cause damage or sometimes complete destruction of mirrors when tney areto HEL radiation.mt

cleanup loop corrects phase errors the HEL beam oaring beam generation by the Cfevice-H

Laser beam wavefront sensors arc used to exartroi the amount of correction araplieo by thc feedback loops. Tbe bandwidth* of these *en*or* must be iaz range- WM

Toigh-quality laser beam, the ihapc of the mirror aad the surface roughaeas of the mirror must be within fractionsavelength ofoot-mean-square (RMS)urore of merit of ausually

iivf ufraction of (he wavelength. FVoceeding5ery costly and provides oniy slight gains ia beam quality, tan tostar saojar, tad requirements (US) lie inename, The iciual surface quality ucmi toy asfaisction ca* later wavelength; for caampk. the actual sawiecear boo dtoiiae laser minor can beunesbad-as 'i<G Laser aaal still maintain the sameTssl

One of tbe major effects that detracts from eajnjcalhermally induced ei pan can of tbe mirror resulting from irradiance by tbe beans. Large thermal

gTadueata may cause dmtrssctiostirror subs-rate or itsKhsuqsars art; used tofor this: cooled mirrors aad deformable mirrors. Ceased mirrors have cooling ctsasrnel* within tbe mirror blank through which orcniaies coolant to dissipatenor't best. Dt^eenaable mirrors have sctaators behind the mirror facerstatc that ptiysjcally deform tbeby fraetions of acompensate for phase errors of the beam and thermal expansion of the%

POOf? QUALITY PAGE

^itnt^

i

CoclostJBt

i'he

aad secondary motors, le addition, theirmuil

emainingOnewiih ibe mirren is

rr.aency CO-

rcCtXBll) . Wij'r Bauer*

from tbe same atMapbry. Tbsce by tbe large size of typical steering mirrors.!

aad surface figures are (bat majori or tbe accondary mirrorsed to capsed tbe beam halo ibe primaryoncern is thai rarbcurnl ccotact flow can cauaae mirror tur-faces to rfbrate, which ia turn canscsdistortion or ntlcr.

Tbe hears at* the beam control system ae*otvcamirrors to spatially stabilize aad cearrectl the beam These mirrors assent possess ihe

QUALITY PAGE

developmentELs has caused theof new mart fact tiring aad lest methods soposed by HELa caa he

cti. For esemple. materials have ben developed for mirror lubslraics lhat have high therms! liability aa welligh degree of mechanical stiffness Coaung materials have been developedros By dielectricallow very bigb reflectance mirrors to be produced. Diamond cutting and grindinghas been highly developed to mirror lurface* could be formed by using optical lathes havingaccuracy. Techniques and equipment for lesting mirror ibapet. turfiee roughness, andwere developed to near levels ofas us My through laser uterfcrotttctry. To coal the lurfaces of mirrors, large *aCBam chambers arcDeposition techniques basedeem crap-

and iputicrtng were developed to provide tcflcctrvc coelituo that adhere tightly io thc mirror turfi

Acqulsirjou, Tntcxlrrg, and Poltrttag

The acquisition, tracking, and pointing (ATP) system includes the on-board target detection sectors,tracking tensors, and pointer assembly of the high-energy laser. These systems combined pnwsdc thc necessary ureeting and beam coetrol functions needed to identify asd til) the largetl tdesaod |fB>ht

Once targets are identified by tbe surveillaooc tcssors (either on board or offheir location and Rate vector are handed over to the acquisition sensor. Upon receiving the handover signal, tbe acquisition sensor tlewt to the indicated target position and identifies (detects) the target within tbe tensor field of view. Once the target it Identified, its track is established and maipiaJned until handover to the prrsasion track

and maiWfJncd

The precision sensor accepts handover from the coarse tracker and provides pointing error information and image resolution nfficicnt for simpoint selection and borcsigbt errorn addition, the ftae track sensor provides spatial and tpeexral Wcrnufjori to tbe 'system for sail.

Tbe pointing subsystem recti ta ibe pointing error information from tbe tracking lubsyrtcm and tlewi the HEL telescope to the desired position. In addition, boresight error, between the precision track tanttor aod HEL beam, ia received from tbe precision track sensor aad corrected by the tawing mbrystran.tbe jointing system tout osajatala them point based on Inputs from tbe precision tracker. Specific requirements for each of tbejubsys-are Identified in the following sectiortsH H

Aciaititio* Teekmaietj. Thc aoqubition sensorresumed to be,ostassive optical system tba: receives tbe target coordinate and state vector fromsurveillance sensor. Tbe surveillance sensor could be passive optical or laser radar but probably it will beradar system. The acquisition sensor mustotal field of view thst it consistent with the target local ion uncertainty of the surveii-lance sensor. The acqetsitioo sensor most haveand optics that provide the sensitivity necessary for timely handoff of the target to tbe precision trader. Thc acquisition sensor must have sufficient spatial resolution and signal processing toigh probabiliiy of detection and target identifi but with an extremely low false alarm rate, (U)

The nature and capability of the acquisition system necessarily dependsreat extent on the location of the weapon system and tbe engagement scenarios for which thentended. For example, an acquisition tensorround"-based HEL weapon may need toemisphere or coverage against aircraft orpsccbornc system may need to provideariety of other satellites.

etkmeJetT- Tue precision tracking ribrys-tem provides pointing informslioo to the pointing subsystem. Urge! imaging for aim point selection and maintenance, bectsight error detection, and kill as-aessmcat for the fire-control subsytlem. Thc precision tracker receives handover from the acquUtticn sensor. The precision tracker necessarily Is an imaging rystem that images the Urge) with sofficicnt tigoal-to-nobe-rauo (SNR) to perform the above functions aod uses soluble tracking algorithms. |gj

The most important parameter for the precisionhe angle equivalent snr. whichunction of Urge! rangt. background, target signature across the spectral band, detccuviiy of the sensors. and collector aperture. Because of the various urge parameters present in differenthe precision tracking system probably will employ me tuplesensors lo achieve the renewed snr formissions. Thc two primary tensors that probably win be bsco*aal tracking mode are passive ir and active visible tracking Dual tracking allows some redundancyess susceptible to counter-

ratfia* TttkMolatr. Tbe rxaotingsed for pointing and focusing tbe laser beam at targets and thc maintenance of tbe laser beam spot. To achieve the necessary accuracy, thcsystemomber of complex and interrelated subsystems. These indue* beam expander/iekscope. boresigbt alignment and subfliration system, and beam control sytlcm. Thc ran plea tnieractno of these systems may be etrvisioood by outlining tbe operations that occur in pointing thc laser beam The precbioc tracking ays-ton tracks the target and drives the pointers gimbals ao that tbe high-energy laser beam t> placed on tbe selected ainncim of tbe target. Tbe precision tracker generates error signals (based cc the differencetelescope liDe-of-sight and desired aimpoint) tha! arc used to drive the laser beam to the desiredavefront sensor detects beamrron in tbe optical trait and causes the beam

steering mirror* to correct ibc bctun mux ligbe tetococa; gimbals operateollow-up trsode to correct tie til: is the steering mirrors- As the leJe-acopeii towsrd tbe desired tunhe raagnitude of tbe error signal bccrxriei iocrcssingtybe desiredchieved-The process should be seeseedback loop io lhat eoouaooct error inpot* ara prodoord by tbe prccisiori tracker ontQ tbe desired aitrrpoimchieved. ^eaanV

As can be seen by tbe tmeric pointing dbcussion, tbe operation of all threeritical to tbe overall pointinc accuracy, Tbe limitations of each individual itibtyitem degrade tbe overall perfonnance of thc pciniini system. For example, thc primary contributor lo pointiln error from tbe beamb>

be telescope results from device operation, mirror cooDnf, and tervornccbaaism response. The operation of tbe laser device and thc resulting rcuhj-megtwitt beam can eaase vibnlicsts ia tbe beam expander optrcs and sxipporting structure thatbeam Jitter. Jitter it alao is trod teed into the beam by turbulent coolest flow throughhird source of beam Jiticr resell* from rapidlytbe beam pointing telescope ensuring target accnii-i or

: platform It sUtnlixed, tbe inerliil beam must be stabilized relative to tbe pUiforto Itself, through (he Peering mirrors of tbe beam control system. Thus, beam control iniexration Into tbe point-iDs>t the final critical task in achieving tbe desired pouting accuracy. MB

Key UtrJligeoce Question

Provide the following paraasetric data: the Bssjajflatl Jitter (usoaJly expressed iahe iaer-tial referenceU) performance (in teucrors-diaaik the retarget time tadtsdlng slew velocity (cVarres/aecoods) and acrtk time, and the borrsrigbt error (is cokroradiaiciV

t-TV CCTOTIs DiffQMtTaV, Ml at tl*1^

Flaw

Chemical aadser* require large flow rates of the lasant medium to csublbb and sustain the high laser power outpat over the time for which the laser must operate. Thc gas flow system wiD provide for feediog the gaseous components of the lasantombustor (or reactor) where the corsdiiiont ara established to product laser energy. Thc flowisrralvcd ia rrratiag tbe uswtrted popDSataaa af excited parlidc* for Using, hi creating tbe necessary kser cavity conditions, aod b> providing itcady flow through the system (sometimesery abort time) are established withiffusers, and Jet *jUx> tors. For lasers that opera isosedcrersary to ceoride the prtasarc rc-cuired lo cstablbt aadil in circcUlior- Aa rapes-loop type of taser lytttc. lutciru its gaseous cooipc-neau from pressure tanks or bortles and exhaust* tbe used tnediom to the atmosphere orrge um tank or tank farm.

/Varx/rx. Mixing of gaseous compootnu bthe operation of all flowing gas Users. Sinceflow eruantrties art trrvorved, the eraradltacntsare usually estabbsbed by acceleratingto high velocity la norrles arranged loitrtaactrve oontaet ofcs Thby to keep the apparatus small and minim:distsnce required for complete and uniformid: lion to snaring ga tea, tbe nozzle prrrridcarsf awary low

txksoirjow pressure aad subttanusiiy bigbcr

velocity. Tbe high velocity ii required for two rcaacrtt in hiih-poweroigh powerot of launl taut pan through tbe User cavity quickly. Tbe other reason applies to the pumping of

oed to rodoot tbe wckertyas taay that the gas presrorc bs increased. It at applied Lb cases where as increase of pressure at Deeded socb astscr with cavity pressure leas than tbe ambient pressure. Diffuser design varies depending on whether cavity and ambient pressure are very krWu for space-based lasers or whether cavityigh and ambient pressure bat with grrmrd-based bim. PJff,

a ejector pompigb-exlodty primary gas flow toecondary flow (tbe Laser eabaast prod octal The two flow streams, are allowed to mis aad,esult, the discharge pressure eats be tab-tur.tially tigSer than tbe pressure wberc the tecood-ary flow catel an easelatively Large quantity of secondary flowmall increase ka pressure. However,arge pcessairc ratio for the accondaryequired (asbe caseaserhe primary flow required can be several times the mass flow rate of tbe secondary*eing pumped. Mechanical pumps have abn beea ased lo perform tha

CVaWeaV Srraiewr. Ia laser apo&cationa for watch the ethatfsi produaa arcsed to remove the toxic id balance by washingraid that absorb* tbatalance. Tbe liquid with dissolved toxic mateiul may be coDcetcdolding facility and diiposed of appropriately. Scrubcaag can abo be achieved by axing soDd tnaterial that abaorba or reacts with tbe tot It

btnnKpc^

Tbe obvious nail warfare applications of high-energy [asm li la response to thc anuahip reiisik (ASM) threat. Shir-based eaccet/aelfelefeose lasers could provide panefenseil of ship- and aircraft-based missiles sad lasers ue employed is roles that maximize their individual capabilities, ser weapons on amphibious ships could be nsed to attack . ,ffffjaw-

HEL weapons may be employed ia an air- toIa cese-oe-Eaany encconten. acould bsstantsjtcouily attack the enemyat the edge of visual range'mm target to target, the laser

eepipped figbter could attack before air-to-air mnv i.rt launched or stuck any snassflei the eaemy fighlcn were able to laDOcb. Faruaermore, airborne laser weapons permit atucb al Luge angles ofT the oose of thcajor potential advantagetmp.

Space-based laser weapons could be canploycd ta luppreaa or shoot down eaemy bombers or AW ACS.

Target* for Laser Weapon Cottection

and 1'rrdt.rllwi pkso

Thia sectioneneral overview of ibe Soviet weapon development cycle i -Ok specific insiiluita, usdi vidua b, designad lest 'id;.ties thai might be panEL. development- Wg

There ant awatlilry three stage* la ihe Soviet pn'iUM

research.

Experimental deciga/preeotype fabrication/ Oevelopmeai lert

rYcductioB.^

Tbe productionuttidt tat scope of lbii collect ion guide end will not be addressed Scientific teacarcfaJ is the rtaeerca and development pbase and bat tbe following goals:

of ibe feasibility of a

Each step ofeviewed by committee and approved or disapproved. The ia'.ttr may meanof thc programeturn to the KB with instructions for additional work. The in teg ratinglso responsible for the fabricationrototype weapon system and the demonstration ofest facility.nitial phase* of NIR. dealing with fundamental research, are concentrated in Academy of Science*iljues. whereas exploratoryerformed mostly withinof the higher educational and industrial sectors.bis thoseacilities, andlikely to be involved in the research and development of laser

and cottiiroction nf device* to prove thst.the required level of technology mayee accompliibed.

ariety of device* lo determine their advaniages and disadvantages.

Developmentreliminary design with major subsystem trade-offs.

During the Utter phases of NIR. the militarysets forth specifications for the proposed weapon systemocument knownactical Technical Requirement (TTT) for earerimenul design.s approved by the Militaryt thisational-level commitment loeapon is made. The VPK coordiiisics scheduling, iipport, fuoding. andystem Integration design bureau (KB) or scientificassociation (NPO) to oversee experimental deaign (OKR) The OKR is normally performed by aa independent KB,ubordinate to one of the defense industrial ministries, but NPO or research institutes may also be involved. Depending upon the scale and complexity of the weapon system, there mayB for individual subsystems or component*.

fix)

Appendix A

Technological InifUig Indicators

apceodi* describee those uct nolo,fcal area* taat are likely to be investigated at panoviet laaer weapon program. ^

rriinc power ramiii iiuaauaicr wcapoa aaaa rangeew kilowatts ef average power (tor Uctieal rmeeoj) totic*warnrraueii ryucml For taa apace-basedighrwcighi aad compact powermportant. ftinse power aad power ooodiufflimg iadicalon would therefore racrude development of:

Large conventional power sources (turbojet era tors, fuel cent, batteries, and fostile fuel or fission power pbuiUt

Large raagnetohydredyaamic or erutgnetocurnvia-tive generatorv

Gaseoui-oort or high-tempera tore aoiid^ore anscte-arreactces(witi MHD for coavcrsioa to electric

Paaarv. sleetro-opoc target acquiettke.

Poatlble development of high-speed, compact,aputar*,pjJ,

largr opticaJ ra-rron capable cf withstand. depcajuda of energyEX cavity fee aperiod without thermal fail ere aad cooled asirron an otaar techMk^ weapons program,

Tab latt of Uscr-rcUtcdot intended lo be Inclusive; however,xpected that the most visible aspect* of any User weapon effort ln the USSR would be among these areas, bjaaj

(lO-MJ) canceairn. Ladactha, or rotauoatal eeergy stores.

Switching eerUprneet (aigb-powcr opening switches,e&eral high repetition ntte, bgh-powntime swiubcaL

Scrubbers, .team Lnjccion.|

Target vulnerabilityb another major area rjrovidiDg iccbrwtoeical indicalonaser weapon program- Thia wouldnveatigsucec/mflterW irradiation.

Eiplcration ofponlbk eeuatermcaxaree to User effects.

Determine txwk*eii Beaded fortiin eaj

Acqubitioo. pouting aad tracking trstcrm ekvelop-meat also provides iadicalonEL program. For the User system to be an effective weapon, it mast be capable of rapidly acquiring and dbposing of in blended target (foe ODOtrofiRid) cooJd include:'-

of radar acquiaition syitexaa tor brer

lossary

AMP

O HF DF

GDL

CL

Kg/s

W/oa2

W

kt

i

cm

MOPA

YAG

EDL

CPEDL

UV

PRF

at

MW

kW

KB

NPO

OKR

AN

MVL

NPL

Sam

MTC

GOT

lAEb

LOMO

LFTI

IVTAN

ITMP

IXhF

TAO

TsNIRTI

VNIIOFI

TsMTMASH

Biirtao Ampcc

KlicrrMtcj Meier

Carta Mil

Cart- :- - t

Hydrogen flisortde Deo tchum iracndc lodlac Micrometer Gasdynsmjc laacr Cnemscal laser

n per second WatU percea timet er Wattt Kilogram

NaaotraMer

Mailer Oscillator Power AatpUfitr

Yltcrium Aluminum Garnet

Electric Discharge Laser

Combined Pumped Electric Discharge Laser

Ultraviokt

Pulse Rrpitioe Frsoaency

Microsecond

Megan-ait

Kilowatt

Design Bureau

Scientific Production Association Eaperinaental Design Work Acadtm) of ScWrsces Malal Vapor Laser Nuclear Pumped Laacr Surface-to-Air issile Tael Center State Optical Institate

tut* of Atomic Energy Leningrad Optical Mechanical Association Leningrad Pbysico Technical Institute Institute of High Temperatures Institute of Heat aod Mass Transfer Institute of Chemicalnstitute of Aimmpccric Optics

Central Scientific Research of Radio-technical Research

AlV-Urooa Scientific Research Institute of Optical-Physical Measurements

Ceatral Scicnrifsc Research Institute of Machine Bail ding

NFTiTLAN

KfF

FEL

MeV

RF

TCL

LTNAC CW

Hi

RMS

ATP

HEL

SNR

IR

ntu

*>RAD

rn/i

BMD

ASAT

ASM

FEBA

RV

NIR

VPK

ASTROFTZIXA

KOMETA

LUCh

OPTICA

RADUOA

FlAEk

MNUP

SAROVA

NUFXh

MFTl

FIAN

MVTU

Mcaccrw Stats Unrnrsily BE* SO AN

IPFAN lAEk

o

LASTNT

SIOINT

MHD

NltPOLYUS

Scientific Research Uotiinu oforrflaung Materia bU) in port Cbcmicali

Scientific Research Center fee loduitrial Lasers of ibe Academy of Scaeacc*

ILrypton Fluoride

Free Electron Laatr

MSboo FJeetrpo Volt

Radio Frequency

Cht OK* LUO

Linear AecderatorWave Hertz Wavelength Root Mean Square

racking, Pointing High Energy Laaard Infrared

lxemai Reference Umt

Micron diaa Decree Per Second Mcten Per Second Ballistic Mjesik Defense An tita Icllilf ADtishJp Miaslle

Forward Edge of tbe Battle Am

Reentry Vehicle Scientific Researcb Week Tactical Technics] Rnqoircnseot Military Industrial Ccecrnnatco Design Bureau Design Barcas Design Bsrcaa Design Bureau Design Bureau

Braach of the iutitaia of Atoraic Energy

Moscow Sdeciific Research Institute of Incrusiec: Balding

Nuclear Weapons Test andCenter

Sdcatifk Research latdratc of Ptysico Ceeenbrtrt

Moscow Physical Technical Institole

Physics Institoi* of the Acadctay of Science*

Mcaxow Higher Technical ScncnlMGU

Inrjttne of Powerful EJectrorncs of the Siberian Departrneat of Acadctny of Science*

lnrtirate of Apciied Phytic* of the Acaderny of Science.

Inrtiaxu of Atomic Energy

Cccnaaaad, Control, aad Cocnnreaicatjccal

Laser latcIDgeoca

Signal* Ianelhgcace

Magnetnhydrodynamk

AH Union Scientific Research lattlt etc of Eectrical Machine BuDeUeg Soectific Research Inttrtsie TOLYUS"

Original document.

Comment about this article or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA