Created: 2/1/1984

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Soviet High-Pressure Physics Research and Applications


Soviet High-Pressure Physics Research and Applications '


llatlr aitfimvttaird lit ikii

physics is the study of matter under pressures of thousand* or millions or atmospheres. There are two classes of techniques for generating these highample of material can be placedress thai uses hard anvils to concentrate forcemall area {sececause ihe pressure can be maintained on the sample indefinitely, this technique is termed sialic. Typically, high static pressures range from thousands of atmospheres to jiistillion atmospheres. Properties of matter such as density, crystalnd conductivity changeunder pressure. High static pressures are used to create synlheiic diamond, guperhard boron nitride, and other important induswial match-


pressures can also be achieved byample lo shock waves created by chemical or nuclear explosions or by abrupl impacts of bodies. Shock waves can produce pressuic of many millions of atmospheresew milliseconds, accompanied by temperatures of several thousandCelsius. This class of hicl,-pressure techniques is termed dynamic Dynamic high-pressure physics research is important in the design of chemical and nuclear explosive devices and in the production of weapons to penetrate modern armor systems

We believe Soviet researchdynamic high pressure physics is strong, ahead of Ihe West in many fields Our judgment is formed primarily from analysis of opcn-lttecature publications by Soviet scientists

"TjAmong the Soviet strong points are experimental shock-wave nudtes of material properties, research on materials synthesis using shock waves, and applications of explosive welding, forming, and hardening. Much of the Soviet research is orienicd toward military applications, in particular irmor/antiarmor

The USSR is strong in laboratory research on explosive materialsbul has had difficulty translating research results into industrial application. Quality control problemsack of incentives lor industry to adopt new iiioductioit technologies arc Ihe chief reasons for thishortage of large-scale scientific computers has slowed Soviei piogrcss in theoretical dynamic high-pressure physics. Soviet scientific computing facilities, however, are improving gradually, and Sovietarc taking advantage of Western computer software


Mi'i* lyn*


Intit to .heir strength in dynamic high-pressure physics research, we believe the Soviets' research in static high-pressuie physics lags Western research by several years Inarte Soviet invesiment in rrfassivc caperirrseaial apparatus has not paid olT in terms ol* basic or applied italic high-fit*essure research progress. In recent years, Soviei scientists active in staiic high-pressure research have changed direction and have begun to use Western experimental technology in an atiempl lo catch up. Wc believe lhat tbe Soviets will succeed in narrowing ihe gap in sialic high-pressure research during the next Tew years, given the resources they arc allocating lo (be Held and their progress in using Western experimental' technology.

In both static and dynamic high-pici.sure physics. Soviet scientists arc incieasingly directing Iheir research toward applications. Besides ihe military systems araplieaiic-ns to armor/an liar mot systems. Soviet research-en have produced large quantities ol synthetic supcrhard materials for industrial abrasives and drill bits. The Soviets have also begun to use cxplosive-prctcessing technologies to surface- haidcn metals and lo fabricate meial and ceramic components for civilian industrial uses. Al least five major Soviet centers exist for transit/ring tbef scientific research to industry and for irairurtg industrial scientists and engineers in applied high-pressure technology. Applications of high-pressure physics arean overriding prioiily, superseding consideration! of scientific prestige for mosi Soviet research institutions

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Dynamic High-Picat-ire Phyrici^m>

od Pynarn-c


Induiiria!i ofiyclc.-hriCaotr 5


Tb tore lies I

N" Research

SUlic High-Prcaaurc Pbyika Research


Super tinrd Material' Kci-.iiIi and Induttfiai' _


New Research DirMltoos



High-Pressor? Physics Research and Application*


The USSR hai abask ind ipplicd high-

peCSHi" physics (CSeaich thai il significantly Uteri

than thai ol the United States in many fields The So-ncttdemoted ma-or lesoureei so ibis leteaicbsince at teas! thendublished eitrntiicly in the open literature. Soviet high-pressure physics researchcientificouniry thatmeiviovs emphasis on the seaeetifrC piugicsi tcetuircd for indusirial and military

la tthi repors. we assess So-net basac research in high-picimre physics, emphasnint the implications of high'prcssure research lor u'atcriali science Wc dilcuiih pressure pfcy"

becauseield in -ru-ch ihe Sonetsignificant lead and because dynamic higli-prcsiu'c rcscarch has numerous military applications.ressiire physics as theoretical wort,cineaimenlliiort. and production technologyprciiures of tliouiands or millionsojphcres Pressurehysical quanlitv has dimenMraos of force per unit area. Thioughoul Ibis dtscvuaon. inniuiM will be teferind to in bars Inandaid atmospheres The standard inter national unit of preature, thean

High pressure physics is important in astrophysics and geophysics, nuclear >upons design, modern armor/antiarmor system rJrvdopineni. and maienals lyntheais. The most publicired applicalion in ihr USSK has been in the production of lupcrhard(diamond and boron uttitdc) lor industrialaad machine tools Another maror subject tong studied by Sonet high-pressure researchers it lhc lornnng and shipiog of materials under high esplosivc Lsrcuwrcj In Ihe military field, theoretical research has deaeiibod the pnenomena thai take ptacccne.islar or shaped-charge jetm system In nuclear devices high pleasures arc produced both by conventional eiplonooi (osed toulci ideal fissiOrsabte masi| and by nu-ie ar

Much of Ihe Soviet high-pressure research occurring within live last eaght yean can be directly traced io* decision readied} alongress of the Cornrcuinrst Pany of tbe USSR oat ihef science. In public pesvsouneersenlj during thesome of ihe short-term goals of researchthe necessity of deveaopinE new structural, super-conducting, and other materials and commercially valuable crystals. The development of new tupercoo duct ing and superhard ma Versa Isrial mplications

The large (lumber of open-liteiatuee Soviet scientific papers on high-pressure-physics-relatedJindacau that Ibc bcn-icu have made large investments ofnd person id in high pressure research and areio do so. Several hundred Soviei scieniisisignificant portion of (heir time lo materiali aspects of nigh-pleasure physics, asby their lechnical publications Approiimately one third of these people are (utliime. acinc scieuimid in svperbard mjie misothud art active general irtock-wave physics The majority ol ihese icscaicheri arc concentiaied in inslilulct tuhoidinatc lo Ibe USSR Academy ol Sciences. The Soviet levels of staffing arc probably aboutcs higher than in comparable US latsiiiotes. but -waverseal rompi ns-Mii art made leasby (be differ, ences to ihe definitioneaeaich scientist and by lhc presence of many lesearehcrs in militaiy-relaicd institutes in (he iwocouniriea

Scientists working ir high pressure phis-cs are wellm tbc Academy of bciencetotal ofhysicists who aie academicians oimembers of Ihe Academy of Sciences, we have ideniilicdrelatively targewho arc ac(ive in high pecssuic physics rcscateh Three high'; mvcitijuors have been awarded (be Lcataai Piiir for ScienceTeekno^oer.ward in ihe USSR, and two have been awarded Sute Prires in Science andTbe Soviets have SO facilities active in research

on ih*t""'it of high, presiarcseveral iimc* the number of US centers of km*lil. Six o> the Soviet institutes are devoted primarily high-pressure physics research andarge butvolvement in high-pressure retcsreh

Joint captoratoir or atxiliedicscarclr projects inhieh-piiihUK physic* commonly include Academy of Science rctcareh institutes, institutes subordinate to ibe Min-wry of Higher and Specialized -Secondary Edvu'iOA. and Ihe Slate Committee foe Atomic Energy. We have found very few camples of direct involvemenl by the Ministry of Defense or defense Industrial ministries in Soviet high-pressure physics research. The defense ir.dcstnal ministries, "hose research efforts lieand for the mow part lied to actual design problem solving, apparently have been content to let the Academy of Sciences carry out the major portion of ihe fundamental and exploratory research effort We identified eo institutes subordi-nate to these ministries as per forof basic high-pressure research

In many tubftclds of high -pressure physicsandful of icy scientists acd iheir laboralories arc responsible for almost all of the tacntiftv piogrcas These key individuali operaie almost autonomouily. they drterminc ihe research diiections to be ciplored and the resources devoted to those research avenues, within overall Ulsoritory bo-dgeiom pteie asacssment of basic scientific research in high-pressure physics must, therefore, include coverage ol and comments on the leading researchers, theirfacilities, and their research directions In this assessment we drscins ihese key individuali in the sections covering iheirsc architrei

Dynamic Iligh-Pretsure Pbysica Research

DreamK htgh-presmie ptin.cs rescarcb uses shock waves to create high pressures inhock waveisturbance thai navelsedium when energy is abruptly deposited in one par' of that medium Behind the shock front, the lentpcratuic and deamiy of the material archock it ibusery-high intensity sound wave. Typically, ihocks gcneraicd by chemical eaplosivcs can produce

prcisurct of upt) mcgabsri accompanied b> temperaturesew thousand degrees Celsius,shock cipcnmcatt can reach pressure! ofegabars.hews the tans* of pietsuics achieved by various dynamic and stalk high-presttirc technologies

M ate* ub-Processing Resexrth

/ f rag,welding ii the process of bonding two metal parts by detonatinglosive charge near or in contact with one of the parti As shown in figurewo prates of metal arc separatedmall angularigh-ciplosive sheet in contact with oneetonated, and the moving plate impacts the stationary one pioducing near-inttanlaneous mclllngldmg of the sorfeces in eon tact. Eip'osire formingrwM into -hsch ihe piece to be formed is driven by ihe eiplosive blast. Eatwtttrvc hardening relieshock wave lo disrupt the microcrystaliine structureaterial and Ihcicby change in properties

In terms of lechnc-log-cal level, we believe theboul five toears ahead of Ibe United Mates in ei plosive weldinc. forming, and hardening Ouris based on conversations with US scientitli. on their written astestmcnts,urvey ofSoviet publication C

J Eac-oSive wcHSirtg. torming. and hardening are of great internal lo Soviet industry, where thereigh levelplons-oriented activity. Esplosive lechnitjucs of materials processing can save significant amounts of lime and phvsical resources Esplesive welding and forming can also be used lo fabricate oomposite materials that cannoi be practically manufactured by any other means

The banc research being conducted in the USSRmilitary and eeorsc-TK potentialcapabilities demonstrated by Sovietin eiplotive forming are scveial wiihFor rumple.

Soviet laboratory werenanium Nadeurbine -jxapooenI) that Iheir hosts elaicied had been for mod hyd rod yna mica Ityhock wave in waiei The Soviet scienlisli said thai thit explosive-forming



procedure eliminated four lo five hours ofleft onlyinutes of finishing lo doSoviei laboraioiy chiefs have

about Soviet explosive production oflaminated plates, which wC believe are inicr-ded for light armor use. Other explosively clad products shown by Soviet scientists include steel-aluminum conductors (for electrolysisleel-bms hearings, and melal-coated spheres of Sieel and glass Escepi for txcasional uses in lhc shaping of very laige metal parts. Western materials laboraloiics have done relatively lillle work in esplosive forming since

Soviet researchers also have decnonstralcd lo foreign visitors their achievements in esplosive hardening Explosive surface- treatment processes developed bv the Soviets can more thanaterial'sand wear resistance Some applications thai have

been discussed by Soviet laboratory chiefs include the manufacture of railway frogs (switch components, and ihe toughening of teelh on large shovels and other mining machinery. We believe thai esplosivemay also be applied by ibe Soviets to armor materials, where it could significantlylate's resistance to penetration

The Soviei caplonvc materials processing technologies discussed above are still laboratory developments, but lhc Soviets are making vigorous efforts lo gel Ihe technology refined and standardised so that it can be pul to practical application Those eflorisater section of this report

Among ihr key Soviet center} of basic research into explosive welding, forming, and hardening are the


l-afirni'yc Instituteof llydendynaniics'lGlm Sovn-tibink and ihe Institute of Chemical Phys-cs (IKht'i incoioth art Academy of Sciences institutestensive experimental facilities foi ciplotive firing. At tbe Id work on nploiirc materialst centered in theDesign Office of High-Rote Hydretfynsmica In Novottbirtk. directed by A. A. Dcribas. Dcribaseading researcher in ihe field of eiplesiveand riplotivc material* prracrstint Q

< the iKhl it led by A. N. Dtcmin't Laboiaiory of the Detonation of Mich Dynamic Prettuiei. IKbP eetearcheri, in-cludine colleagues and lubotdinatct of Die-run. hare been bakedhe So-net nuclear -ejcoci peogrirn. IG ictcarebels harether utsirlutcs working on armor penetration mechanics Wehai Ihrt close interaction between key Academy research inttl-lutes and military systemt utcrtixn thatmaterial! processingtate priority for applies lion to practical ends

Skttk.Wmrt Symtktu, iiicifretii is the foron ofeompoufidi. metallic alloys, or Other compos-tr materia It under the influence of high, short dot at (on pressures Dyn-unic powder metallurgy it (heand/or sintering (partial melting) of pondered metals into coherent solids by rate ca* caploscr com prcsiron Ihe importance ol Shock-wave synthesis for the Sov-tia is lhatineijemrre. large stale produclion ol some nev- and valuablein alloys, ceramics, and composites. Some rnatciiaii lhai Soviei scientists have been working wiih have excepttonilly high strengths, high toughnesses, or high melting points These mater sab have possible applieasuii'i asnd armor pcoclralort. The So-nicUoresearching shock-wave prcduci-on sccr-nol ogict for industrial ablatives and grinding/cutting/ machining materia Is

We believe that Ihe level of activity and ihe qualityresearch in the USSK in shock-wive synthesisarc hagb compared 10

that in ihe West Some Western patentt have been granted for. symbcsis icehi .nt: the Soviet researchers who got Ihe patents are proud of

!lie international rctof miion ol iheirhistechnologyh-vc sitited Soviet

laboratories, talkedoovicl tcicniisit. and read Soviet publications also confirm ihe high activity and Quality ol research rn thock-wavc synthesis hi ihe USSR.

We believe, however, that sons* rcecM So-vet ia ihock-wave synthesis and dyaamic powder sttetsl-Isrgy are eiaggerated. Al ihe Powder Mciallsigy Conference in Italy in1 and at international materials science con fee cocci in1 and early 'WO. Soviet scientists boatied of iheir ability to lorm Urgeeter-square) crack-free tamplet of boron nitride, aluminum nitride, and aluminum osidc. The Soviets claimed to have achieved dcnstiy near Ihetimurii density in plates as large aseter wideew centimeters deep Such plates would have immediate use in armored vehicles, where ihey would give greatly enhanced protection against current penciraioresi

> who -nwied Soviet Ubcxatoricsowever, concluded ai lhat time thai ibcSeyncu could not explosively compact boron nitride Or aluoni num otide without severe cracking problems Other visitors to ihe same laboraioriei in1 also did mx observe any physical evidence lo support the Soviet claims We conclude that most probably the Soviei claims were premaiure

The key Soviet centers for research inioowder metallurgy include Dicmin't laboratory at the Cheinogolovka branch of the IKH. mentioned aboveocus for explosive welding, forming, andThe Institute of Pioblems of Materials Science in Kiev, subordinate to the Ukrainian SSR Academy ofoviet research leader in forming hard alloys for irarjwsliial and miliary uses The Powdrr MeralUargy Imlitalc (PMI) in Minsk, welder the Belo-lavsiaa Ministry of Higher and Seeo/seaty Speeialijed Ed-cat-oa.ey Soviet oa gam tattoo for devclop-mcnt of ciplosivc powder metallurgy tcch-sc-logy. at as ihe Volgograd Polytechnic Institute

IniitHritl Appttatteru ol- Watt lithnologf. We believe thai ihe Soviet Academy of Sciences and Other state orgsons are beginning inactive

ne it liiltkectin.n Soviet induslrv n ol ikn

- iiniuirn have jiWiiiiI *nacwaajaper* aod technicalioni

.Special leaching-oriented

have been otab'i'hcd in inrnt al lac ion

Sov>CI milClrall bbOISIiXiUn 'managcri Mid

technicians; fimti indumy In explosiveThe Syvir is have alsoicelollaboraiioaid

have intpecicd bothmaterials and nariialty Tin iihrd products lo* uir In eiptosivc Soviet scienti-i-

he obviously (and results of recent Soviet iCK.'Ch indicate thaindustrial applications of shock-wave technologyill coniinu*liac ate

Although the Saa-iei laboratory research into short-wave matenalil high Quality, applying ihat research lo industrialim Thcie are several icavons lot this difficulty, reasonsrt COnvnoo loai of So- id science and lechnok>gi Sovieimaaageri have liiilc personal meemive lo risk trying new produclion technologies If the new piocedurc succeeds, they gel small (cards and higher quotas to erect, if t! fails. Ihe peeatiies are soere The lack of economic compe iiiion renso-res mosi of the pressures on managers and planners to economic icsouices. If eonvemronaltechniques canobost of more watted material, thai is lessroblem lhan it would bened enterprise

Most critical among ihe fariors hindering Soviet application of dynamic high-pressure icchrsology. however, is POOr quality cool rot Plants IO produce raw material) such as powdess for powdcrmetnllurgi cal products frequently lack adequate metal-culling machine tools, small presses, and essential milhe USSR ibot tnrc ssowderi Irom ihe Untied Stales. Weil Germany, and Sweden When pure powders are noi available, lhc results of eiplosive compaction are poor Some surprisingly Irani complaints about low duality and product inlydynamic high-preisute techrseuogy have appeared in the internal Soviei press

Notwithstanding Smiclith bureaus'* it liend poor quality control, we sec martuflarge and increasing effort by lhcniifi< establishment to apply dynamncphyMts in industry. We have not yet seen many specific examples of successful Soviet practicaland an assessment of those application* is outside Ibe scope of ihis paper. We cipectee modes! Soaiet progress within (he neil five year* on manual uses ol shock-wave technology. Most of this progress appeals likely to come 'torn three key Soviet centers for technology transferwatoi> to industry These ihree centers are Ihe PMI in Minsk, the Special Design Office of High-Rateinbirsk, andi i Laboratoiy of Ihe Detonation of High Dynamic Pressures in Chctnogo-lo'ka

Jihe PMI has long been id -el) eolratingScwstt industry in an alternate io get the results of scientific research into practical apftlreaiiomv Dirccior of lhc PMI.oman, alsoduccis lhc Bclortissian Republic Research ind Production Association for Powdercceatt, founded ccntei thai serves en*erprises ia tVlorussu regardless of then ministerial subordination. An emphasis on practical uses of research ettendt io luteins! projects at the PMI The institute uses explosive compactionm lubes and plates, probably foruses as filters, to form boron miradc into simple shapes, and to weld aluminum capJoitvcly to steel and copper, probably for industrial use as electrodes or brake padi

The Special Design Office of High-Rateforms ihe viial interlace fortransfer lo industry Ii was started inconsists of several hundred people,re staff seicntim and technicians fromSeveral uptoii-cs firing chambersacquncd by Ihe PMI from Novosibirsk,ihe Special Ocugn Office

also suggests ihai0 the Office's director Dcribat saraptied scientists from his research group (before hissigo Offne ensicd) to form new


of (iftloiivt tecbriologi at'iniy throughout

have reported lhat ihe Special Design Office hiinio an international parinerthipC

J? Dcribas provided irnrtC ii'i'rfvfc with Jesigns foi blaii chamber)ill nam 3scientists in metal cladding and bonding techmqun using cipSourca

Probably ihe nsostork done br ihe Special Office it lea chine cjplosive materials processing andwelding. The Special Design Office haaarge number of individuals in applications of exptoime welding Deeibai has de scribed hn work on eaploiiit tmlace hardening of necla in open literature and a( inieinailonalC

3 in ipiie of ibe high level of Soviei activity in explosive cladding ihe quality of Ihe products is Hill low Dcribas baa staled that large Quantities of clad metal parti0 be imported from Japan and Sweden foi appliesequiring leige crack-free platet

The third significant leiearch center that it attempt-ing to move high-pressure icsullt from iht laboiaiory to industry it within the group headed by A. N. Dtemin at the IKhF.? Dremin headed thi> group of aboul BO scientists. M. alto actively worts wiih visitors from more applied institutes Scientistsil's group have mentioned lhat he frequently hat sueh outsiders work in hb gioup for one io two yeais. The piodiaction technologies that Dremin's group ts attempting lo transferrtdtasiry include riplotivc lynihcsis of industrial abiastvet

Armor-Related Research

I iftiimenimle believe that much Soviei dynamic high-pressure resraich tsby armor spastica lions. In publications andSoviet scientist! have not meniioned armoiotivation for their work, but many of ihe thoek wave experimental setups they have dewcientific papers and discussedC

3lose re.temblance toesi-cm aimoi designs. Many of ihe lopics Soviet re seaithen artn irrimediaie appwcalicui lUantasW pencil alion These Mffgi include shock

waves in ceramics and other ha id materials isuch nt boronypcrveloeily impact dynamics, at^ explosive surface hardening. At least one of the leading Soviet laboratories involved in arrnot-related rcteareb, Ihe IKhF. has close ties to the Sarova nuclear weapons development center: because of simi lartties between armor-pcactration mechanics and implosion physics, the work under way on nuclear tescarch probably will enhance the quality o( Soviet armor work. .

We believe that within the Academy of Sciences fundamental research with it mental armor appli cations it concentrated in the IKhF and in ihe IG. At the iKbK, Dranin'i subordinates are active in many areas of the experimental physics of high eardosrves. areas of relevance lo armor penetration. At the IG. suboidinites of Deribas, possibly led by A. M. Staves. arc investigating the fabrication of ceramic plates and of multilayer racial plaies. which may have appitca-tJOtss to Soviet Ughi arassors. Hard cciarmc materials such at alumina, some carbides, and boron niiiide are the mosi attractive candidates for this purpose The Soviet scientists ate exceedingly hesitant to discuss cirxrimenial activities ktiag boron rtiiride tZ


believe Hut relicencc It probably due to theof this work to armor

We believe thai othci work at the IG also it eon inio ihe institutearmor effort Theavrcnl'yev. for whom the IG is named, dsd some of Ihe pioneering Soviet work onieoomera. IG scientists contmoe to be active in shaped-charge testa tch. as shown by their articles in open literature publications. Scientists al the IG also arc investigating nwibods of producing hypervelcoty impacts. Other IG research into ciplo sive sulfate hardening of maicnali has significant potential application to the treatment of armor steell

TI.fout.tal Ruearth. We believe lhat Sovietresearchers in armor appltcaiiont Of dynamic hieh-pfessure physics lag their Westernheir capabilities to model complei modern aimor sysiems and peneiraiors. This lag is noi dueack

ol undernandmcundamental laws of penetration mechanics, in -Inch Ihe USSR it strong, at shown by iheir open scientific

3 Rather, Ihehcrt arc handicapped by poor scientificfnctlilks. In spile of Ihit handicap,researchers hair iht ability lontensions! arritor-peiwtmionThe Soviei fcicnfliu have taken Westerncodes (In f- limulaiion programs)maller, slower Soviei computeralso have evidenceihai the

computet facilitiea are Heine upgraded ai me two leading Soviet theoretical armor analysis centers, the IKhF aod ihe Instiiuic of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITIPM) at Nenreuibinh. These cr lanced compute' facilities will enable the Soviets la develop lighter, more efficient armor systems in lest time andower ratal ia watted eaeenmenul tests than they would otherwise have to speed The new computeri probably wiu enable the Sovieu to begin to perform fulleneirationapability thai US researchers tuvcordy had for the last lew yean

Soviei iheoreircal armor researchers arcphysics, highei plosive phenomena, andproptities ol materials (failure ofmeiati. spall, penetration mechanics,at least one Soviet

hf- under the direction of V. Ye.investigated the theory of penetration mechanics In boron nitride. According to its Soviet leader, that group also has studied the theoretical use of uranium rodt it penetrators. We believe that the Sovleii are investigating the use of uranium and other uliradente penetralot materials because the potential of Ihese niatenals to defeal Western aimers

One of the lifts of: thcorctrcalactivity that we believe to be significantrecent separation of an armor ifieory groupmayor eaecrimental armor research center atThite yeanihe

penetration mechanaci work ofthu Soviet group asand unlikely lo lead loany breakthroughs, he believed the Soneti masg not allying enough resources to the researth to produce ugeificiarulit Weuatson has changed The

theory gruup leader,as been workingon reikiration problenu for yean, but iheomputen available to him haveevere handicap.0 Fonov said thai his groups efforts were shifting from manual analytic solutions (of highly simplified lilualiont) lo digitalwhich can be much more detailed and realiitrc.esearcher in Foriov's group

2 foe help in obtaining copies ofS papen on penetration and fracture mechanics C

7 most of the tequestedhowever, could be obtained openly. The reports discuss computational tools for penetrationlight armors, and ceramic irmort

The cornerstone of Soviet armor research work has been the uitrttive adaptation and use of Western fcydrudynamics computer cedes Two codes, named HEMP and Paruele-iaCell. frequenil, have been men Ironed by Soviet scientist- g

3 Both cedes -ere dcvciopea at tne ua Lawrence civcrmore National Uborator* and have been widely diiiribuied and discussed in the open scientific bteraiurc.en claim to have Successfully adapted and modified HEMP and Parti. ck-in-Cell to run cfTiciently on their old. slow, tela-lively small computers We believe lhat the modified programs art probably both accuiaic and reasonably fast- they thus art valuable research tooli for Soviei armor inveatigaton. because the programsot of time in designing new armor tyiiems. by reducing the number of experimental letts leouiied to optimire system pcrformaocr

Very advanced aimor systems designt are being mod eled by Soviet tltcorttical armor reieaicben- These armor detigns contain arrays of materials in the form of solid plates arranged at an angle relative to Ihe penetraiot's anticipated direction The plate materials studied by the Soviets and described by Ihempapers and technical convertaiions have included steel, aluminum, copper, fiberglass, and pUtiics. in variousith an gap* in between Such systems give greatly enhanced protect mm- against both kinetic energy and Itigheaplosire antitank weapons. possiMy rtarsre than twice as good as simple sltcl armor plate of the tamehl Modeling Such

' .

plica id configurations, hov-mi. requirescompilations! equipment. Accurate modern armor calculi lions require hours of computer linte on ihe faitctt macnincvavailablc in ihe We*i. Because cf the lack or computer facilities. Soviet researchers have had io simplify and restrict (heir models

The Soviei armor modeling compuier facilities were significantly impioved1 when Ihe ITiPMandvanced scientific compuier. Theineeleni machine roughly er,uivakni0 J i'y enhances ihe ability of Soviei armor researchers io design and model complei armor systems accurately. Depending on the specificihes ai lean an order offaster and has an order of magnitude moie useful memory spacehe standard Soviet sdcntifVc computer of. New compuier systems frequently take many months to gei working, however, and the Elbrus scries has been plagued with reliability problem There are alto lime delays, tever-al months aidapting working software in runew machine Therefore,elieve that the upgraded Soviet computer facilities are unlikely lo be very utelul for penetration mechanics calculations Distil well into

Seveial leading Soviet researcher* in advanced armor theory appear to be outside of the IKhF and the ITiPM groups In particular.ukudihanov and V.ortdaurov have published exceedingly high-quality research Their papers cite US limeand ihe Soviets" work has cleat relevance to advanced modern armor design


New research directions incluJe arcat ofphytict that are of fundamental niipoiiaitcc bui lhat are not closely lied lo near-term applications On the basit of open-literature scientific publieanonC

lodge the Souls to be very activeethods of generating ultrahigh dynamic pressuics. Shock-wave chemistry rs another subrect that has beco studied eitensivcly in the USSR, far moar lhan in the United Slates. While applications of advanced Soviet high pressure research ate not immediate, the

basic research contributes to Sinicin then nuclear program, arnvor/antinrmttr research, and studies ofeapon, effcvi-

Exotic thock-generaiion systems producee< by means other than the direct application of chcnu-cal or nuclear explosions.hows ihe general range of pressures reached by exoticn comparison with other high-pressure technologies. There are several ways to deposit large amounts of energyystemhort time, including lasers, panicle beams, and high-speed flyer plateu advantage of these sysiems is thai they arc precise and reproducible in the laboratory. Thc> also can explore temperatures and densities lhat are difficult lo reach using explosive thock-generation technique* Disadvantages are the small tiie of the samples being shocked. Ihe relatively high expense of the system, and the technological difficulty in gelling an cmiic system operational

We have considerable evidenci Q

J from Sonet scientific puolicationx lhai Soviet laooratorics arc actively exploring the use of high-energy lasers aod high-current electron beams for shock production. The key research centers for this work include the IKhF, the Lcbedcv Physics Institute, and the Kuichatov Institute ol Atomic Energy. Both later-induced and panicle-beam-induced shock wave experiments are on the frontiers of Soviet dynamic high-pressure physics research. Except for possible use in controlled thermonuclear lusioo. however, these Iwodirected-energy high-pressure techniques appear lo be far removed from practical applications' We ihereforc believe lhat Soviet research and develop-merit work on laser and on particle beam methods of shock-wave physics will remain confined to the basic research centers for many years to conn

Another method of laboratory shock-wave generation is the useun iomall mass in high speeds (several kilomeiers per second) This mass can thenrecisely defined shock whenest sample Guns to accelerate projectilesery high velocities fall inio two main categories light gas guns (possiblv multisiaged) andguns (rail puns:


gases vuch ii hydrogen or helium have high Speeds of sound propagation and can therefore be used effectively tomall manew grams)peeds of as muck itilometers pet second (km/sL Multisiaieuse onemass aspiston to torn press rapidly the light gaseservoir and thus lomaller man losi' IIelocity The. Soviets have recognized (he advantage! cf precise, reproduiibtchey have made frequent efforts to karri more about Western light gas gun lecastactergy.

We have seen few esamples of successful light gas gun systems at key Soviet dynamic highprrssuie research centers. At the IKhF, Fortov and F. I. Duboviiskiy have stated that ihey arcwo-stage light gas gun io use forOS) studies. Also at the IKhJ. Dremia hat spoken of his uie ol gas guns and flyer plates foi organic chemislry tcseatch. specifically for work onand ptopcilantt. The othei focal point for Soviei light gas gun research is ailadimii Titty, deputy director of the IG. has repeatedly discussed hisgan with visiters: appartrlly. he mace little progress with that system6 and IW1.


A rail gun system consists of an ekcirical energyhannel madearallel condiaciing rails.rojeetikaassdaetor to bridge Ihe rails The gen converts eleeliiCal energy io projectile mortirniuin in the same way that an electrical motor works. It is potsiblemall mats (several grami) to overaing modern rail guns

Active Soviei research efforts are under way at ihe Institute of High Temperature (Moscow) and at thehe results of Soviet rail gun devclopmenl lo date have been poor, but Ihe level of effort has ittcrcased continually in the past (our years, and weo continue io grow Although Soviet interest in US rail gun technologyigh, the iccently reported Soviet rail gun projectile velocities fall thorl of the US tiate-of-thc-art figutt ol mote thanm/i

Dai! gum and other eleeiramaincite launchers vill be important research lools for Savin high-pressure physicists when guns thai operate regularlyigh

projectile vrl.ieiilesa'e developed On ihe basis of current Sovietn the field and tbe level of effort being appliedelieve ibat Soviet development of useful rail guns will occur by the late IttOs

In addition to uie in high-pressure physicsbelieve the. Soviets will use rail gun technologyled icsesich in such areas at airpenetration, nuclear weapons design, andfunoo undies The connections of Fortovkey rail gan researchers with the Sovietand with armor peateuaiion researchrtpeaiedly confirmed

believe Fortov. whoonsultant to Ihr InstituteTemperaluie. will direct or will pankipatcgun ritxr intents at Ihe institute that havemilitary applications. Fortov alto hashisavlovskiy, a

pram, neKt scientist associated with nuclear and ditected-energy -capons research, haa worked oo rail gun cipcrimtnit la adchiton. ihe IG, where rail gun research is under way. has close cenncciuins wiih ihe Soviei armor/amiarmor community

Shock-inducedstudy ofin substances under the influence ofm temnarature aad pressure -etlesptc of high pressure research inThen ts rriairvcry littlehisey Soviethe IKhF. whereundci Study includes shock-inducedihe lynthcsit of compoundt fiom elemenlsdiflcrcnt melting pom is. and the usewaves io aciivaie catalysts the Sovieiin shock-wave chemislry. however,produced lew ute'vi results, and we believe itdown pr evenave 3from Soviei technical

papers thai ley Soviet scientists arc leaving the field or dccmphatifing the ihock-ehemisiiy is pet is of iheir work

On the basts olSonet

seieniific pubUcaiions. we believe the Sonets lead ihe rest of ihe world in many areas of equal ion-of-t'lie (COS) research The COSaterial describesthai subsianct changes its density and slruciuie under


Jo *MIm il. dmnd ivti.ii,dM

Sv-iiM .nitt. ibw

conditions of temperature andypical EOS; the figure caption capltiru Iheubstance goes through at ihe nreasure on it met Theollect io* of critical infer tu lionubstance KnowledgeOS under ultrahighit important in gcO ohyiact. istrophytiei. and nuclear weaponi design Al lower preutirct. then inr-ai io studies of

armor penetration,ariety of materials science mvtatigaiions. Sovieiis particularly itiong in ihe experimental as-peels of measuring EOSs al ultrahigh pressures. Some results reponed by Ihe Soviets moreecade ago liave only leotnily been confirmed by Western

pnno nimi itv pflgt:

experimenters. Besides applralions io directed-energyltd nuclear weapons. EOS studies of explosive deto-naiions have importance in understandingexplosives. The Soviet lead in experimental EOS studies has compensated,arge exlenl, (or their lag in computational facilities '

A Significant activity among Soviet researchers in highphysics is the study of the EOS of materials at temperatures and pressures far from the usual (hock-produced regions. Ordinary shock-ware technique! for studying the EOS of materials arc capable only of investigating hot, dense, high-oressure regions of Ihe possible states of matter. Otherregions include Jones where the pressure and temperature are high bat where theow.tate is called hot expanded mailer or. ai higher temperaartially spoiled dense plasma (see regions indicated on figurehese slates of matter have great importance in understanding directed-cnergy weapons effects on targets and in studying reentry vehick vulnerability. Km expanded matter and partially Ionized dense plasmas areIc model theoretically, as Ihey fall in Ihe compli-caled region between ordinary, well-understood mat-ter and ultra hoi, locally ionized, simple plasmas

To study the behavior or matter when it is partially ionized, hoi. and yet not too dense, Soviet scienlisis have taken porous oi foamy metal samples andihcm to intense shock loading. Much of ibc Soviet work is nuclear related; Foriov mentioned (inlans for al least Ibree ouclcar-driven EOS experiments. Other Soviet scienlisis have done work on generaling hyperveloeily jets ol hydrogen, which can be useful in EOS Studies of cold compressed metals and powders

Sialic High-Prmurc Physics Research

Static high-pressure physics involves the application of pressure for limes long comparedhe lime necessary for soundravelaterial. In contrast, dynamic high-pressure physics involves shock waves and rapid pressure changes. Typically, high stalk pressures range from kilobars io moreegabar. as shown in figurender ihesematerial properties change significantly. Fot

praeiicil purposes, ihe most important ehaages aie ihose thai persist (at tea it lo some dcgreei -henigh pressures are no longer being applied. Unlike dynamic high pressures. Static pressures canample slowly, at tow temperatures, and thus can more easily produce important newmaterial*

Experimental Technology

oviet experiments in generaling very high static pressures followed the "bigger is belter" philosophy and used Urge, massive presses. In ihe most outstanding example of Ihe Sovie, ,pp,cach. the Instilule of High-Pressure Physics <IFVD>igantic press,eters high, capable ofout force0 metric ionsest auplc This huee press was under construction5 thioughNo good photographs oflon press arc available; figure I. however,S.OOOion press that was built by tbe same NovokramatOtsk Machine Works that made the IFVO press. The two presses appear to follow (he same design and look almost ideniical

We believe that throughoutoviet scientists at the IFVOeliberate effort io mislead outsiders at Io the actual stale of their big press and to Ihe research lhal was being Conducted wilh it. Experimental results from other devices were crediied to the SO.OOQ-lon press, and foreign scienlifVc visitors to the IFVO were kept away from the press except for brief lourisi-Iikc showings. We believe that some of Ihis deceptive activity was aimed ai Soviei bureau-ciais; ihai ts. because the press wasig inveslmenl, the Soviets would not admit to anyusing il

2 open Soviei literature indicaied lhal the press was not actually operational at ultrahigh pressures. IFVD scientists are si ill working on lhc design and consiiociioo of the inner an*ils to concentrate the press's forcemall area. The quoted lareeihiee-slagc anvil arrangement is loilobars5 and eventually toega-bars. These pressures are to existolumeobic centimeter, very large by Western Standards. In lhc. IFVO scienlisis claimed to have

achieved pressure* in ihe rangecgsbari. Their claims nfuliiahigh pressures were neverand are generally not believed by scientist* outside ihe USSR.hovix Soviet claim* and vu (rent pLmt

Wc have obicived that the beat Soviet scientists in the sialic high-pressure (Veld have begun to push fje development in new experimental directions. Two highly criticalicies in Soviei scientific journals conclude that relatively little has beenby past Soviet experimental aprstoaehes and suggestuch more productivetechnique exists: that is, the use of gcm-qualiiy diamond anvils to compressubicor less) samples In an observable, highly controlled environment. Western scientists are using thisin their laboratories lor current siatc-of-lhc-art research

We believe that the adaptation of diamond-anvil technology by Soviei static high-pressure experimenters will take place soon and thai the new technology will enable ihe Soviets lo catch up with Western research in ihis field. Diamond-anvil cells arc small, but they permit precise control and observation of the sample under pressure. Diamond anvils have almost no relevance to production of materials because of their tiny working volumes: we judge Ihis lack of production capability probably has made thetechnology hsidcr for Soviet scientists lo justify to theii funding agencies. But for fundamental research into achieving Ihe highest possible pressures in small samples, no oiher static technique approaches the diamond anvil method

Superhard Mater lab Research and Industrial Applications

As earlyhe firsi Soviet syntheticproduced by Vereshchagin and others at

process was probably cBpied directly from the Ceneial Electric diamond synthesis method developed and patentedS5 Artificial diamondsoviet need, and (he technology rapidly went from the IFVD laboratories lo the Kiev Institute of Superhard Materialshich further developed it and pasted il alonn to several newly founded production association.

I nlh<umg ihe dcvchsnmcni of diamond foductinn icehmatogy. the Soviets quickly oeveloped mciliouSsynthesizing superhard forms of boron nitride Stipee-

oion nitrideompound closely analogous in dbmond in crystal structure, physical properties, iiptl method of synthesis, llardness slightlyhan thai of diamond, but hat the advantage that ii can be used at higher temperaiuics or in ccrrcervc cnviroomcnit that would degrade diamond touts. With industrial armJiciiions in mind. Sovieiwent on toarge variety of composite superhard materials, made up of many tiny crystalsuperhard substance held togethertrong matrix

The Soviets have developed at composites for industry and export. The superhard materials developed by Soviet researchers have been vigorously promoted as abrasives or grinding/cutting materials in Ibe Soviet export journals. The Soviets atso have made great claims in iheir open press of the economic value of superhard composites in their machining and mining industries

3*uggesi. bowevcr.thai there remain many problems of quality control in ihe production of superhard materials in the USSR. We believe that Soviet synthetic superhard materials have probably been most valuable in low-prioriiywhere high toughness and long lifetime arc not critical. In the highest priority or most demanding applications, such as deep oil well drilling, we believe lhat natural diamonds remain the Soviet superhard material of choice because of their superior quality.

Soviet synthesis ol viper hard materials lakes place in doiens or produclion plants. The production plants receive technical guidance and troubleshooting help from research institutes, chiefly the ISM. The ISM (and its predecessor organization) has been anbetween the research centers of italic high-pressure physics and the manufacturing planu since ihe. Sincehe ISM has received considerable praise in Ihe open Soviet picas for its successful joint projects with the produclion planu: ihe Soviei press treatment of the ISMit is being heavily supported by Ihe state

scien nl i. bureaucracy and is being used at an exam* pie toiscientific research organirations to

Metallic Hydrogen

Accordingheoretical calculations, hydrogen will transitionighly conductive, metallic state under pressures estimated to be in the rangecgabais. Metallic hydrogenigh energyaboutimes the energy per gram stored in TNT. It thus wouldowerful explosiveigh-energy fuel, depending on the controllability of its transition back to ordinary hydrogen. Metallicisotopes (deuterium and tritium] would befor nuclear fusion applications. Metallicmight alsouperconductor at room temperatures, which would give it extraordinaryuses. Recent theoretical work by both USoviet researchers, however, casts doubt on lhcof metallic hydrogen's high-temperalure supei-conductivity

During most of. Soviet static bigb-preisuie physicists concentrated on the attempt to produce metallic hydrogen. Thai attempt is generallyby both Western and Soviet scienlisis. to have ended in failure. Three factors contributed to this failure: early iheorciicafrostimates of the pressures needed to produce the metallic phase were too low; Soviet experimenters overestimated Ibe pressures they were capable of achieving in their presses; andsuggestion! that metallic hydrogen would be metastabtc and persist ai low pressures were probably wrong

oviet designigh-pressure apparatus used in the attempt to create metallic hydiogen. At moderately high pressures Ihe thin sample probably will be squceied out from between the anvil surfaces, allowing the anvils to sborl-ciicult the resistivity measurements of Ihe sample. Critics of the Soviet experiment suggest thatqueezing out explains ihe results that the Soviets interpreted as the produclion of melallic hyorogcri

The Western diamond-anvil cellignificantly different design, shown in figure i. The carbonado diamonds used in the Soviet apparatus are composed of many small diamond crystalsetallic matrix.


bttfxiht(til. Hk innnKKt iKtOtihO-VBHHi iKtiwiiraaiifi|l(id Us'nut luA an bt intaaMoS tott>Ui IU Sr-kil Hnih- ii--iili. - 1


The carbonados are thus electrical conductors, quiie opaque to light. They do not allow for tbe precise observation and control of the test sample that Ihe gem-quality diamonds of the Western diamond-anvil cell allow

We believe that the failure ol the Soviets to produce metallic hydrogen resulted in at least two significant lasting effects on Soviet static high-pressure physics. First, lhc failuic hasew generation of Soviet physicistsritical reexamination of theirprogram. The result we have observed, in

i s

Sovki scientific writing [7

t lhai tipciimcmai nigh-pressure work ti. uk uSSR ii belatedly turning to the Western approach Scoorid. atVD. we tec research into high'pressure phenomena moving in new. much pice applied directions

New Research Directions

We believe thai Soviet high-pressure physicsbeen redirected toward applied aspects. In

have rcportco mat tnc irvu, ihe key Sovietinstitute, has responded topressures and noticeably increased its tiesGeophysical research at the IFVD inwith the Institute of Earth Physicswas reported two years ago1 in open Soviei literature.was mentionedotivation.involvement in this geophysical tcseaichmentionec1although we do

not place high credence inlthough static high-pressure experiments have applications tostudies of conditions deep in the Earth, most geological phenomena of direct military interest (such as signatures of underground nuclear tests or silo vulnerability studies) are dynamic and would be better studied withxrlmcnis than with large presses.

We believe Ihe IFVD hat deemphatiied many areas of basic research, but we have evidence

J lhat it has grown stiongcr inore practical subfietds of high-pressure physics. Fiom ihe viewpoint of C

J thit redirection may give the appearance ofulling the pieces together, though, indicates thai the institute's chief lYakovlcv)ery sucoessfel leader, doing precisely what is necessary for the IFVD to recover from iu metallic hydrogen failure. His move towardre .search fits In wiih the general,driven trends In Soviet high-pressure physks today.

research work reported under way at the IFVD?) includes Storage of hydrogen under pressure in metals; development of new magnetic and thermionic materials, sludiea of artificial polycrystal-line diamonds lor Industrial uie; and syntheses ol new materials using powder-metallurgical techniques We believe that hydrogen storage could be for Soviet industrial or other energy consumer use, or il could be related to nuclear weapons design work We believe the other IFVD projects alleasonable chance ol yielding practical, near-term applications

Original document.

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