SINO-SOVIET EXCHANGES, 1969-84 (EA 84-10069)

Created: 4/1/1984

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_lmpaci ofjlicSino-Sovjci -

The Si no-Soviei Border9

Vict Foreign Minister98

oft Other Dordci



Polemic- -

ChtOBotogyof Sino-Sovjcichanges.


Key Eventt in Sino-Soiiei Exchanges


confrontation sets store for in-creased Sino-Soviet tensions9

offer proposals to easesions:some troops from border: accept maindelineate frontier along border rivers,act, and pact prohibiting the useoffer to treat China on basis of fivePeaceful Coexistence: also propose revivedtrade, technical, scientific. Sports, and

China agrees to improve diplomatic and tradebut limits other progress until USSR agrees to withdraw forces from disputed areas along border

No progress In border salks. no significant Soviet proposal

Chinese policies exacerbate Sino-Soviet

Mao dies. Soviets renew proposals for Improvedby China. Border talks become mart bunt


China compromises: proposes tatkt without precondi* tion of Soviet withdrawal from disputed arras on border

Soviets respond cautiously

Talks open but moke no progress; suspended after Soviei invasion of AfghanSstar


Moscow renews overtures Omid Sino-VS friction over Taiwan ond other issuer

Beijing responds -Ilh unprrcrdenied willingness to increase Sino-Soviei political, economic, scientific. Sports, and cultural exchanges

No reported progress on fundamental "obstacles" to Sino-Soviet normalisation concerning Soviet military involvement in Afghanistan. Vietnam, and Mongolia, and along China's borde-

moves closer to the United States. Japan, and other Western nation


of ibc Slno-So<iri Dispute

Theispute emergedias relations iteadi.'y deteriorated fromkcring to aimed dashes along lhe contested frv -I'--Si no-Soviet exchanges timeearly rjowapliu bah:

) both sides had retailed iheir ambassadors, diplomatic relations "ere feeing conducted br charges d'affaires

Dunns the periodrganised demonstrations repeatedly besieged the oiher side's embassy

6 China bioke parly tics

) media from both sades had teased reporting on leaderi'd recefioii on rational holiday*

' cultural. scientific,nd other such eichaniei ceased

TiadeHill earned on, bat ihe level fell rapidiy No irade talks were held?

. 11 mailers, iuch as the maintaining of Mviga-lion markeiund dredging of border risers were alto ^affected. China refused loelegation to an annual border-river navigation fuelinga)

Typifying liteof"changes. Chinese lead-ri refused to lalk wiih Premier Kosygm when h< phoned onresumably io discuss the Sj no-Soviet border dashes. Perhaps the only channel of communication that worked well at thai lime was lhe propaganda machines in Moscow and Beijing, which turned owl lengthy daily dia lubes

Jhe bordei clashes9ajor turning poinl in Ibe worsening dispute Each powersaw the otherajor security problem and strengthened long-term diplomatic and defense stiatc-Eies accordingly Thc Soviei Union continued to eipand and modernize its form alone the Srrto Soviet border and lo adopt diplomatic iniiultvo- -sometimes backed with offers ofnd mJnary aid-designed io isolate China and curl ussia

China ndTonly reoriented inbulasic gfO[oli!icai realignment toward the Wenap* eounierweigM to Soviet power, ihe United Slates has loomedf Chinese and US interest* tr checking the eipansion of Soviet power. Oveilapping strategic concerns remain ai ihc core of ibc Sine-US roconciliatioc cctncnied by1 Shanghai CorrmuniQue and1 Joint Cwmnui-niquc establishing diplomatic iclaiiont

Although China and th* So-sei Union agreed in9 to reduce the chances (or military conflict along thc in .me. to stall talks on border problems, and ioodicum ol governnterchange.did little to temper lhe strategic and political rivalry Throughout. China's firm demandull hack of Sonet forces fiomalled disputedf thc bordei impeded any significantin ihe rclalionshir-J

Triangula: Politic.

Whatever acearnmodaltoni have taken place over the past IS years haveeflected ihc determination Or* both sides lo avoid mililary conflict, and loeach country's tactical posiiion wiihin the US-Sc-iei -Chinese triangli

The Sovki Union has ounstsienily piomoied increased exchanges, largely lo undercut perceived advantage* the United States has derived fiom the Sino-Soviei

' nm"a all UMB| SV.M* clumi

iH! Husiii ouvavad bepxal Ike bmndary linea ki bv lhetih-emiviyiriaiio Tin territory iieitlfliittd ai abon

JODOO Htnart IIn ilw.i HundredwrfwiMa

mn iHma-iWiu*nd ISrUdBaaari lilin-SllargetamfWcncr ol iVa Uw and tjalunw do li I, oppoulr IW iiratcgic So-irtof Kh*aaio*i> lire tl< foSSiui maw foCo-me: tkr mna leu'

and ioccept the territorial jnd military status quo in Asia. To retard Si nori againsi ihem. lhc-r.heo modify their territorial claims atooj thc bo-der, to sign tvoniggrcSsion pacts and/ori; prohibiting the use of fotce. to base Sinc-Soviei relations on the five principles of peaceful coemtenee and to restore high-bevel official contact,tics, in the iatercst of common opposition so tbr Uniled Slsies

China largely if rored these offets0 to restore ambassadorial relations and to resimc normal trade talks, but Otherwise rebuffed Soviet overturn on the ground* that they did not rncei Beijing's demandoviei withdrawal fromborder areas China fecuted instead on grcaicr defense preparedness, diploma i* initiatives, andtics with ibc United Slates

Weary of Chinese intransigence. Soviet leaders had cicoded1 to await tbe death ofnemesis Mao Zedong, then in declining health, before making nev overtures to improve relations with China. When Mao died inoscow followed Quickly with several gestures:

media stopped eriticiiirg China fo> four months.


Brcihncvoviet party (CPSU) message of condolence oo Mao'sfirst Soviei patiy measige sent lo China inPSU message in October congratulating Hun Coofeni on his appointment as trie new Chinese party chairman

Soviet media gave unusually prominent aticnlion io China's National Day celsbrationsctober

late November thc Soviets sent their chiefDeputy Foreign Minister llvthev, back io China to resume thc border talksiatus of


the Sonets ofttrcJ to assist China in rebuilding factories destroyed In the massive North China earthquaker

China again rebuffed the Soviess. Ir.fl. Beijing added ne* public demands, calling for Soviet military withdrawal from Mongolia and the reduction of Soviet iorcei in the Fa' East. In June the border talks were suspended. In addition, China's leaders continued to seek closer political and eronooaicaiesthe United Suite. Japan, and other Western countiies, calledhifed from against "Sovietnd normalized relaiions with ihc Uniled States Beijing accelerated the improvement of its relations with the United Statesn effcxi to temper thc Soviet icaction to China's invasion of Vietnam.'

During the same period, the USSR stepped upactivity around China's peripheiy:

Inrczhae* and Defense Minister Ustinov toured the Soviet Far Easi aodoviet miliiary exercise not far from China's border.

Moscow increased support for Vietnam,riendship treaty ing and giving large amounts of aid in

Just before the Chinese invasion of Vietnam, it became clear lhat tbe USSR hadew Far Fast command, the first

During China's action againsi Vietnam, Sonetforces went oo alert in an apparent efforl lo intimidate lhc Chinese.

Finally, shortly after Chinese forces withdrew fiom Vietnam inoscowahead ofthe Chinese claimed was the largest military caercise ever held near the Chinese border. Two Soviei divisions, transferred to Mongolia for the exercise stayed on after its oonclu-sie*

To deflect Sovici military pressure. China dropped us demands that Soviet troops withdraw from diaputed border areasrecondition for improved relations ind called for unconditional talks lo better Sino-Sovict tics. Suspecting Chim was trying to use the

talkst<<c< between ih< USSR andresponded cjuimusty Only one mi* was held in9 before China iupended ihe talk* following Hie Soviet invanon of Afghaniilan in9 /

fteeerttly lacrcawd Eicaangrs

Ai Sino USrnd

lecmcrgcd, however,i neve leaderslo reassess iheu foreign policy strategy. Hoping la icduce tensions with the Sowc's and increase China's loom for maneuver in the strategic triangle. Bciiing proclaimed anoreign policy and agreed!pen "consultative lalks" with Mosco* Subfiouenilr, China hat acceptedimitedumber of longstanding Soviei offer* for more bilateral eicr.inen. especially in spottt. cultural, and economic areas. Soviet leaders, anduch lesser degree Chinese officials, have highlighted these eichangesin theigns of improving relation.


The rivalry between the two powets has not abated, however. Neither aide gives any signillingness to compromise on basic issues affecting their security and political mterttrt in Asia Moscow hasejectedonditimi that call fen- the So>iei Union in

Withdraw fiom Afghanistan.

Stop supportingccupation of Kampuchea

Reduce Its forces along the Suso-Sow- border

Withdraw its troops from Mongols J

Inhe Chinese added thai Sovietissiles deptoyecl in ihe eastern USSR be included any reductioniei forces along the botdei

We do not anticipate that the recent increase! in Stnc-Soviet trade and other eicbinges will developroader detente. There arc,umber o(

' ByieO'lni ind htown. had eiinblUhedfor urn it ihc level ofrerdgr. minister lo deallelit-oM tnd "fh*ir inuo. Via

eondKied -ilka at Sino-Soiei borda auMlons. bui ihou mis hive notrijiag ind Mao.hiH nlti

Cil Made, bordci-irv.ihtm. bordir iraje.

elehange,m,wmiiii. widens.


developmentswould loo* fot JS signals forasic change in Sino-Soviet relations:

regularly scheduled summit meetings

eooperaCivc parly Ires.

Chinese acceptance of Soviei proposals for nonute of force, nonaggrcuion, or Stiviei terryoiial claims along the border.

Soviei withdrawal of several divisions fromor along Sino Soviet bordei. or proportiooatcly large cutbacks in military support for Vifinim or Afghanistan.

Soviet provision of large amounts (several bandied million dollars) of technical and economic aid to Chinese cccncnuc cevesoprnent

led Chinese operusttiots io obvious signs o' Snvio e< pant ton abroad or direct Chinese polilical colli ho ration with the USSR against US policic-

Ihr Sino-Soriet Rneder

ThcSoviet borderheld at the ckp*t> foreign ministerthc main channel of official coniact between the Soviet Union and China for nine years, until they were suspendedvc'oprr.cnts in tht talks fall into three distinct phases- -each dernoostrating strikinglyChinese and Soviei objectives

Soviet Proposals and ChineseIS. The border lalks were an outgrowth of the escalating frontier clashes ia Ihe spring aad summer9ull-scale conflict, boih sides agreed to Start the talks in order to ease tensions In doing so, tbc Sonet Union backed away from nt initial contention that, since the existing border irta-lies werenly "consultatioas" were needed te delineate some "ill defined" sectors of tbe frontier The Chinese, in turn, dropped several preconditions (or ne.collations only to table them again at demands when thc talks began inhc Chinese wanted:

- Soviet aekrsowkdgmcni that ihe border was based

on "unequal" (italics forced on China by cunst Russia.


KeykiSi-O'Soviti Boeder9

Soviet-Chinese tona clash along th* border from Monk through August. Border talki Sett* as Ccto-ktr-tog down almostveremand lhal Moscow withdraw/orcel from Chinese-drfinrd dlspuitd areas along

Moscow proposes nonaggression poet, differentiation of disputed and nondlspuled sectors of border, and improved diplomaiie. irade. and other exchanges. "1

Moscow states Its *iUiagness io accept main .hannel as boundary lime along border rivets Sovietstroops from some border-rtver Islands M

Soviets moke at least two offers for nonagg-ession

pact. "'I

Sodtts propose agreement prohibiting the use of force: reaffirm willingness to accept main channel as boundary line, and indicate willingness loew agreement covering entire

grees ta base Sino-Soviet reltlians on lhe Chinese imitated five principle* af peaceful cor till-

emre. -'

Soviets offer long-term trade agreement, ia resume deliveries of full sets of industrial eauiement. and lo renew scientific, technical, and cultural rtchanges.

Sovieis reiterate offer on mam ehanmet as rivetarker Againonaggression pad


No progress In lalkp. Soviet negotiator only infre-Quenlly in Brljing Last meeting lag

Sovieis call for revived border talks, propose "confi-dener-bwildtnglong the border, and show willingness toe> mutual troop withdrawals '

he reiurn "in principle" of nearly all disputed territory to China.

The withdrawal of So-iet forces from all disputed lerritory.1'

Thc agreement to Hart the Ullu waa reached. meeting in the drab halls of the oldon9 bel-cen CkneaeZhou Enlai and Sonet Premier Kejayiin. *on bis way home Imm Ho Chi Mind1*Kosygin pro-

wai tnaics regulate oorQtr irnsMnv bccin frontierrc ambassadorial lies, and resume talks on bilateral trade i

-.Ki-,Jowe, is, kaaathn tmakt

According to Chinese accounts, later dented by the USSR. Zhou and Kosygin reached an "underitind-ina"ithdraw forces from disputed arcai alonf Ihe frontier Since the areas were then under Soviet control. Ihe reported accord amounted toagreeingpibteral Soviei troop withdrawalemand lhat Ihe Souses Uitoon implement the ZbouKosygut undeitundtng and -rtbdra- iu troops from dnpulcd areas, and the Sennet refusal lo do so. subsequently not only blocked progieas in the border negotiation* bul also servedrake on any lignifi-cant improvement in Sino-Sos-iet relations over the0 year* "

J. Chinese and Soviet negoiia-lors met frequently Inoviet deputy foreign minisief spent ii month* at lhe talks in Beijing. Amicus to show forward movement in iclaiiom.oth China and ihc United State*ime of perceived Soviet disadvantage in the USrelationship. Moscoweries ofdesigned to promote an accommodation Several were limed to coincide with high-level Chineseations on foreign policy or Soviei negotiations with the United Slates on SALT and othei

The most significant Soviet initiatives dating this period include:

posed to limit forward paiioliing and propaganda exchanges along thc frontier According (oonc account, the USSR look several of these Mcna in9 and the Chinese reciprocated Both Side*.

Avoided forward pairoUieg thai would dispute lhe lines of control Ihcn mamiained by Soviet and Chinese border guards.

Consulted on frontier Hsuei iniuad of resortingorce lo resolve them.

Too* into accouai tbe interests of lb* civilian population living along thc border (for cjamplc. by allowing herdersollow iheir flocU across the border in seasonal migrations)

Slopped propaganda exchanges wilhalong the frontier.

troop* were withdrawn from some deputed bordei iiver island* such as Zhen Bao (Datnanskyl Island, site of the bloody claihes ofhcat reportedave laken place by.

> The Soviet Uniowillingness

in0 av accept tne mam channel, the Thalwegs lhe boundary marker along the Amur and Ussuri Riven. Moscow reiterated this position inI and again in) The Soviet* had contended9 lhat the border should run along ihc Chinese bank of these riven,

Th* new Soviei posiiion, in effect, .'ccogni'edclaim to Zhen Bao (Damanskyl and other disputed islands, wiih the notable exception of th< strategically located Heiataii (Big Ussuri)opctmie thc Soviet city of Khabarovsk

Sonetucks on China were cut back in9 and0

The Soviet Union reportedly offered loonage, real ion pact wilh China Inof thit proposal were offered onebruarynd in

According lo eports from Bcning lhal

were laterand Chinese public

statements. Ibe USSRorms* of force agreement with China oa IJham refused on (he grounds that such an accord would duplicate lhe0 Sino-Soviet treat* of alliance Moscow then countered wuh an offer torotocol0 trealy. commilling both side* lo ibe nonuse of force and noninterference in border regions. China again refused, but offcicd on* of il* rareprovisions on nonui* of forceew accord on maintaining ihc status quo along the border. The (wo tides thenutually acceptable teat only to have ihc *hok cacrcasc founder over China's insistence that lb* article oa noouse be tied to Sonetof lhe Chines* concept of "disputed areas"

Soviet L'nion offered several lime* during the first foui yeais of the border talks lomprove trade relationt-(he sale of whole Sovietnd to resume scientific, technical, sporu, and cultural eichange* (Ambassadorial relations and annual tradewere rciumed

The USSR offered to base Siao-Soviet relation, on the Fiveo pica of Peacefulni concession made public by Breihncv in1 Inhina hidthai these principles should govern relations between all statu, in sharp contrast to lhe Soviet

i lui relations between scculiti slates Should be based onfKirjtcriileiananccording io (he Brcfhncvnine. Sennetol laietaiiioeallto included ihe nghi and obligationhe affairsraternal.' ihai ma red too far Iraen the socialist path Tbc Chinese neincipln o> peaceful cociistcnct. however, emphaticallyird wch iMc'c'taee.

The Soviet Union proposed summit )oini Sirto-Soneiupport of Vieinam against ihc Uniicd Slates, and the rcstoiation of Sinn-Soviet paly ties:

be USSR prvvposed ttimtnn level ia'ks isiaft accord on mutual nonag fret lion that wouldan on using nuclearom

Ini') andublicly disclosed Soviet intcreii in renewed Sino Soviet parry net and cooperation afainit tha United Stales.

Duringoviet officiib made ptirate overtures foe cooperation with China ajlinst ihe United Siaiei in Vie man

China responded pcxinxly toew of these Soviet offers and nude ao occasional tenure on iia


Il reciprocated Soviet effort* to reduce ihe chance of conflict by border

Il aglecd0 to reitoie ambassadorial relations and resume trade negotiations.

It retainedhc border-rive* navigation talksut nothing wat accomplished

It matched Moscow'sew week* inf

During the fust two yean of the border lalks. Moscow asked that Ihe sessions alternate between Moscow and Beijicg or that ihey bc downgraded to thclevel The Soviets may have hopedse the veiled threat of downgrading the talks to promo* China to bc mc -Concerned aboui losing this "safety valhina took steps to assure lhat Ihe borderinted as before Most notably'. Mao

are personal imitative0 hi. Soviett the in Mc.jing -hen the head of Ihc Soviet negotiaiing ic.m

IT'"U'ne lhtk'

ud been in recess for ieveral week- amid

reports of Sovici dissahsfaciion with ihc lack of

Jul, I* "JAfter irei.nintrntileatheetings became much less frequent and shorter. China's defensesuccessful dipiomeuc offensive, andof ties with thc Uniicd Stales by thc timr rfmat in*set Sovici military and pevilical pressure In Asia. Under these circurnsuncet. China presumably judged lhat il had little need to accommodate Ihe USSR Seeing ihe futility of further gestures toward China at ihis lime. Moscow decided to wait uaiil its principal nemesis. Mao Zedong, left tbc scene, hoping new Chinese leaders would be more responsiveovici overtures.

Thc chief Soviet negotiator. Deputy Foreign Minuter llichev. weni back tuaying that he would returneijing for only short period* unless (here wast change China's folicy China did not budge. Thc Chinese National Day message to thc USSR4 said

Im neeeiio'vfliu of allonclude ai agreement oa mutual nonagt'eltion tar nonmse offeree oguimr one anothe'. oa maintaining the ttatui quo on the border,ring armed eonfltcll. and on ihe departure of the armed foeeei of both %idn fromai. and ihen to proceed toward the solution of the bardrr questionhale by the woy of telki

BrerjTicv replied onovember lhatreliminary agreement was:


frothing more no* leuemandithdrawal of Sonel Frontier Guardseries of areas of oar territory to whteh the Chineseow dended to lay claim and hare conieeuently begun to call 'disputed areas

M'ri If*

3 China hid limited iis demandithdrawal of Soviet troops toilometers from lite border, bul Ihii wassiilJ unacceptable toSR. At Ihc same time Sovietaid flatly that the border talks -ere "deadlocked "

t. Afiet Mao'sdcalh. Mos-cow sent lliehev back to Beijing on6ay of three months. He reileraicd So-ici mlcrcsionaggression or nonusc of force treaty and in improved bilateralhc ulks ad. joorned in7 wiih lliehev complaining aboul China's demands on the "uncoual" Ireatics and lhe wnhdrawal of Sovietear later. Chinese Premier Hua Guofeng publicly reaffirmed's tniisierKc on Soviei withdrawal from disputed areas. Heew pohlic demand Ihai lhe USSR also withdraw iis troops from Mongolia and reduce its forces along the Siiw-Soviei border to ihc'levcl of Khrushchev's time. Amid ihcse bleat signs, lliehev once again relumed to Beijing onn May. Chinese Embassy officers in Moscow/;

J saw niche's returnilatr lure, lliehev left fcrC hat the lalta were "uncle**" j

Keewir Otnlopmeais. Althoughave beentalks sincehc USSR from limehas shown inieresi in reviving them 'mued in2 said ihai SovietGromyko. meeting Chinese ForeignHiia aiuneral in Novembera Soviet willingness lo withdrawfrom along the Sino-Sonct bordct. while

onet troopossible duiing the near future^iifidence-build inguchmE prior notification and sending observers torciscs in ihe border regions, were also raised by ihc USSR, mosi recently inh Vice Foreign Minuter Qui, Oichen during talks in Bciiing inJ. dn.ina <tfit*

-at9 di^t, fee,,.

l>llliMiw ,

Vie* Foreign Minister9 and

A> Sino-Soviet mililary tension* rciched Iheir hnWoi POim inears followingnvasion ofnam ineijing move* to cam lhe situation by calling for uncondilional Sino-Soviethc Chines* overtui* cameuck handed way-contained in9 formal announce incnt Of China's inieniion lo allow ihc Sino-Sovici treaty of allianceps*nce the lulk. got under way in lateeijing hewedough line, insisting that the USSR removeto improved relations. Thc Chinese specific-alls demanded lhat Moscow:

Reduce Soviet forces along Ihc Chines* border lo lhe level of the.

Withdraw Soviet iroops from Mongolia.

Cease Soviet support for Vietnam's occupaiion uf Kampuchea.

- Work to resolve Ihc Sino-Soviet boidei dispute

Moscowthe Chinese conditions, emphasising thai progress in Ihc talk* would depend on China jnd thai improvemeni in Sino-Soviet relatrnns would not occur atense of third countries. Thc Sovieis also reportedlyoint statement ofton end io Sino-Soviet polemics', regular Sirvn-Soviei meetings, including summit meet-ings.and expanded Irade. technical, nnd cultural "changes. Throe months laier. inhina officially suspended the talks because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

Byowever. China changed lackthis limeuch more flexible attitude toward vice-mi nisi trial talks wjih Moscow. And,Beijing's previous Uriel insistence on 'eslriclin; Sino-Soviel "changes, lhe Chinese aureed to eipand contacts in such areas as trade. Cultural, and sports exchange! while coniinuing to mutt that normaliring

relations wouldoviet concessions in Ihe security sphere


Key frtmn in I'iie foreign Ministei Talk'9

China w" unttmditianalimoeonmi

Simo-Scw 'elation: September9

'Uno-Sovtel lit' *ite foreign mini nr' fesr'in Moscoh (Vo piugiess reported at China insists Sovi-clt address "obitaeles" to improved irlaiiom eon-eermng Mongolia ond Vietnam. Seen refute to mrmahteelations at eipente of third romntriei


Beijing impends Sino Soviet talksf Soviet invasion of Afghanistan


"Discussions" >etween Viet Fort'ign Miniuers.Qian end lliche* on narmalning Sino-Sovitt relations held

Beijing. China stresses threewithdrawal of Soviet fonel from

and Sino-Mongollan borders, end of Soviei suppori

for Vietnam in Komputheo. withdrawal of Soviet

troops from Afghanistan

.Vivieneal with ihirdcount't Issues


tm efG+on-llieheveut*

'nnu it carding' "oop< ig^AS'O but no orrord lemhed. Agreements leoibedon ineieosed trade, revered itudem eithonce


Sino-Soviei discussions on "Intrrnaiional Itsuel"eijing between Viee foreigni pan* Kaftsa Little of subuoaee accomplished etreni thai Qian agrees to continue the talks later in Morrow


Pound thiee of Qion-llichev talks. Sowers offer Ciinfidrnee-buildingrlalong ihet'll latsmgto foreign mtmsier level, promote JJ specific stieiuifit orpanded bartei trade along the border is discussed. Agree thm ihe lalks will resume in4

adjustment paralleledew emphasis onndependent" foreignattempt lo iely las.n tbe Umioi Slatestrategicio Sc">e: power ant! more on diplomacyool lo counter Soviet tbieaia so China's security. It wn moie latlical lhan iliiiegic in nature,tbe Influence of several factots:

China had become incresnngt* dissatisfied with US policies, especially regarding Taiwan, andjudged thai reopening Sino-Soviet talks would prompt US leaders to pay mote attention to Chinese interests.

China also saw thc Soviet Union bogged down with serious foreign aad docnesticlea de tibialeissporarily reduced the likelihoodoviet attack and possibly increased chanm for Soviet concessions

DeijinE had decided to give more priority tocci miliiary modcrniration.esult, Chinainclined to emphatic polilical negotia lions, in tandemlow but steady military buildup, to deal wiih the Soviet threat

Close association wiih the Uniled Slate* wasChina's ability to increase its influence wiih Third World countries and so-called progressive political parties thai are traditionally suspicious of thc United Slate;

Aniious ton opprxtcnity toedge between Beijing andhe USSR offered to reopen nlks and reduced criticism of Chinese poticj

To date. renewed discussions have occurredracks 1

Qiin-lllchet Talks

Tbe fi/st involveshineseice Foreign Mi ii iter Qi'n Qvebea and Sovieicieiao of ihrorder mlks and Slno-Sovlcl talksheonndin Beijing inollowedounds in Meocow iand in Hcijmc ihr follow-ine

The Chinese have :- loan"corn alia lion; At best we can determine, ihey have Fi/mly reiterated iheir precondition*rmaliring Si no Soviet relations:

Withdraw Sonet foroei Iron* along ibe Sino-Soviet bender and Moneolia.hrs hai 'i.iudcd Sovietissiles in Alia.

End Soviei support for Vieinatrli occupation of Kampaxbea.

Withdraw Soviet force* fiom Afghanistan

The Sovieis. in turn, have reiterated their icfuial io discuss ma ti en involving th.rd countries Moscow hat tried to cncoaiage forwardfaiproposalsonaggression pact, mutual force reductions along lhe border, anded con fide rice-building measai'Ct involving prior notificaiiori of mililary eacrctsea and Hoop movements near the fiontrer. '

Theachedesell ofeetings have beenm political areas. For caamptc. both side* agreed in principle during lliclks lo increase bilateral trade4 and to increase student, sports, and oltairal eichange* In addition, the Chineseoviei offer to send icchKicuni to helpew Soviet equipped industrial in China

Qian lalkt

In} Soviet Vice Foreign Mtniitcreading Sonet China ssecialisi. paid aa cfTHial visit so Beijing to try toeparate channel for talks on "internationaletli.ips in order to accornmodateemand that issues regarding Monro*-a. Indochina, and Afghanistan fce discustcd He mei twice wuhForeign Minisirr

Qinn Qichcn and onceI'lrrign Minnie. Vl'u Xucqian. reportedly tote nm* on ramioV hast. Centralibc Indian Ocean. Indochina, and on diurniamein. including the drploymcnl o'n Asia. Me ,ind the Chinese also discussed capanding ir^dc andcacha-nget

Kapilia hid been trying to get an official inviiatlon tu China for ihrc* years but had only been able to travel2guest* of ihc Soviei Embassy.) visit had been scheduled originally foi May. but was rcpoiicdly canceled bv China in Aprilf sharp Sana-So*media caehanges regardingnar> Clashes at thai lime. The Chinese finallyn July io allow Kaput* to come, this time as an "olticul

Pcrhnpt ih* meat significant result of th* September [rip *as China's agreement lu tend 'Jun lofoUo-vp talksater date- C

ming on the tveecretary of Defease Weinberger's visit lo Bciamg. both the Sovteis and th* Chinese apparently Hopeds* this agiccmcni to their advantage in jockeying for posiiion within ih* great power

C> changes on Other Border Issue*

Since9 ihe Soviets and Chincae havemeasures lo prevent clashes by hoitlcr patrol*esult, there have been no major claihes andew publicised trKideiiis over Ihc pan IS years

Thc most dramatic incident occurred ina when th* Chinese arrested and detainedoviet helicopter crew thai'oreed landing in Xinjiang (sec figureheelease Ihe crew and ihc helicopter untilonths later 1


EventsIke Citkaagtt aa Other Barter Issaei lnnelH9.

China atreeieiwn lo lU-dn-Hire/ Navigation laHs.afte' absence ol two lean: tajks make no progress oi China intuit on 'ailing territorial Ismei ^hich the USSR holdi at Inappropriate for these



Sino-Soviet meaiurei adopted which reduce chance of conflict by border guardt


So'iet heheonteeaptnredand detained after making forced landing in western


Protocol on Somei-Chinese-Mongolian-NonhVieinameie border railway shippingsuch agreement noted


China releases Soviet helicopter crew7

China, in border Navigation Talks, reaches under-tiandinx wiih VSSK on transit near Kkabaron'


oiet border incursion along Utiari lli*er


Railway Commission morn, fails toag'trmem on t

Military tensions lite at time of Sino-Vielnomese lonf'i'ntaiian tn Indochina


Sino-So*iet incident along wtnern border1

ailway Commission reaches agreement fr-firsi timei


Sine Sen tri protocol on frontlet nodetime IVbO:


Chi.tese foreign Ministry publicly states lhatissiles in Alia will be raisedon normaliiint Sino-Semei relationshad

raised the nine ei ikeS meeting

uiom for detaining iht ere. to km,ben suddenly releasing themystery. Because Ihe rclcaie came shortly aflci what was Irom China's perspective an unproductive visit by President Ford to China, tome observers have speculated that China wanted implicitly to warn the Uniicd Stiles that itoviet option if the United States remained unresponnve to Chinese concerns overand other issue

Another mayor poMiotcd border laodcni occurred in1 when So-vet Frontier Chares crossed the

Utsun Bi*er inio Chinese territory, allegedly in pur. tun of an armed Soviet criminal. According toaeeoun;i. ihr Soviets rued at and wounded several Chinese In icsponsehinese note erf protest, the Soviets claimed iheit guards thought they wereoviet iiland,reak wiih ilt past practice espeetsed regie) and promised to punish those responsible. The Chinese subseouenHv reiectcd the Soviet explanation as disingenuau

Wr er-

Figure I

Sino-Suvici Border Incidents. IV .'i>:

a .

military tensions continued lo build between tin iwo sides8 andnothci incident occurred in9 along the Xinjiang and Ka-iakhstan frontier. Sovici forces captured andhinese veterinarian. Seven months later, the USSRhe JOlh anniversary of thc signing of the Sino-Soviet alliance. Beijing responded negatively,ally in Xinjiang to protest the border incident. An inctdenl also took place along thc Soviet border with Inner Mongolia in0

Subsequently. China held well-publi<iled military exercises12 in regions fairly near ihe frontier. These ewiciscs were designer! loChinese military preparedness. OT

did not puhlici'c


eijing was planning an evenr-ciseoviet allaclc in the norlhcast. but "officially" the training will not be basedpecific adversary

The Soviet response to Chinese concerns along the frontier has been lo propose confidence-building measures, such as providing prior notification and sending observersach other's military CMCciscs in areas near the Sino-Soviet border. Beijingas not responded positively to these overtures Navigation Talks The Sino-Soviet agreement on the Navigation and Construction of the Boundary Waterways, signed in Harbinino-Soviet Joint Navi-cation Commission lo deal with technical questions

comcrning liver traffic The commission hat met meat yean. I'llcrnslcly in China and Ihc USSR 1

The Sino-Soviet dispute began to affect navigation cooperation. At earlyhe USSR began requiring Chinese hosts in gel approval from Soviet authorities before going to the confluence of lhe Ax ut and Ussuri Rivers (seenhc Chinese implemented regulations prohibiting Soviet vesseli from loading or unloading people and goods without an inspection Onhina adopted farther measures, givingofficials Ihc right to board Soviet ships In Chinesendumber of newon Soviet vessels.

Thc Soviets7 closed lhe Amur-Ussur"to Chinese bonis, forcing China lo use tin Kaiafcevich Channel instead, which the USSR claimed marked lhe border line The channelmore shallow than thc confluence and froze earlier in thc fall.

Duringh annual meeting of ihe Navigation Talks inhina raited territorial oucs-Uoat. but ihe Soviet delegate protested and the Chinese delegation walked out China did not tend ato ihe erst meeting of lhe commission, scheduled fornd broke off informal consultations between local Chinese and Soviet officials on changes in Ihc course of ibe riven and other navigational mailers.

China agreed lo resume thc Navigation Talks in9wo-year hiatut. but China con::need to raise territorial quest tona, which the USSR judged inappropriate. Thc cocnmitaaoti did not meet)eanwhile, the Kstakevxh Channel begaa io sih Bp4 The Soviets accused China of Mocking Soviet dredging operations. In4 the USSR offered to allow ihe Chinese access again to lhe confluence of the Amur and Ussuri. provided thai China respected Ihe Soviets' "sovereignhe USSR also suggested the creationoint Sino-Soviet project io dredge Ihc Knrakcvtch Channel. Chin' accused Moscow of "blackmail" and rejected the Sonet proposals

he Chinese calledesumptiontalks, andh annual sessionulyhinesefor the firsi lime sinceagreements were reached


understanding hadinu. allowing cnincsc boats io use (be confluence when the Kaiakcvich Channel was unnavigable. provided Sovic( auihoritics"informed."

Complaints aboul minor navigational infractions and incidents have persisted in recent years, bui exchanges between the iwo sides have become more cordial. Terse Chinese Announcements of lhe annualCommission meetings have also been mote posj. live in tone, stating without further explanationlarger" area of agreement has been reached than in lhe past.

Bordei Railway Development]

Inhinese and Soviet negotiators mei at Moscow's initiativeain effort io sci an agenda Tor renewed meetings of lhe Sino-Soviet JoinlCommission, moribund since the. Three years later. Beijing announced in1 thc signingrotocol on railway transit, which Chinese official) 7uld coveredore important railwaywas reached as pari of2 Sino-Soviet trade talks, allowing coniaincritcd Chinese goods to travel to ciiaikcis in Europe and the Middle East via the Trans-Siberianhinese accord on rail transhipment with Mongolia was reached in

Border Trad*

Revived Sino-Soviet interest in border trade surfaced in2 when Beijing reported lhal it had etc hanged notes on fromier irade with ihe USSR. Moscow reported in November that informal border irade talks had been held in Khabarovsk and thai state bank officials of ihe iwo sides had reached agreement in December on procedures for Killing border trade accounts, lnrotocol was figneil after the tirsi formal mcciing on Sino-Soviet


Key Events in the Summit Meetings end Interchanges Between High-level Oj/lclalt

Chineseujf Pifmierfforteach then by phone. "'


7hou-Kosvgin meeting ot Belling

Sino-Swnet "hotline" reportedly0

Soviets propose high-level talksroposed non-aggression3

Soviets again propose high-level lathson-aggression pact. ""


Soviets reportedly consider asking YugoslavTito toessage to China


Soviets call for higher level talks totairment of principles to governet"


Soviets call for Sino-Soviet talk, at xiee foreign minister level concermng the normaUtatian of Stno-Sottel relations to be upgraded lo the level id foreign miinuter.'


Chinese Foreign Miiatter meets with Sterlet leadt" at B'rihnev'i funeral ia Moscow


Chinese Vice Premier meet* uUh Soviet leaders atuneral in Mas

trade sincey July, five cross-borderoints hadhe Mancburias frontier and two along the northv>est-ern Meetings tad lataecbassget Bet-ee* High-el Officials

No lop Soviet leader bat visited Beinug since Premier Kosyg'n'i impromptulh Zhou Enlai at the Beijing airport inor has any top Chinese party or government leader visited Moscow since Zhou traveled these inndeed, thc only senior Chinese officials to pay an official visit to the Soviet Union in recent years were foreign Minister Huang Hua In3 foruneral and Vice Premier Wan Li in Februaryfor Andropov'sfirst suchloel visits by Chinese officials in almosleirs.

Over the past decadealf, Soviei and Chinese leaders have communicated wiih each other mainly by public speeches, pabliciiednd through diplomatic channels

articular was inclined to use public speeches to eipress Soviei concerns and to mate overture* for improved relations Andrensov alto used an interview io1 to outline his position on lomc issues in Sino-Soviet relations. Chineae leaders were reticent io the past, but Deng Xiaoping, Hu Yaobang. and Zhao Ziyang have eachstance on Sino-Soviet issues publiely in recent yean '

Is known about specific efforts of cither sideintermediaries lo convey messages betweenand idicaieiUSSR ai the time wantedtoe'sage to China during his visitheCommunistsunder teims of Ho Chi Minh'Sto being lhe USSR andgeiheeof ihe war against thetales:President Ceausescu has maintained goodChina and the Soviei Union, providing aal eommunicalion; and Beijing hasrelations wiih Soviet Bloc officialsof pro-Soviet Communistcould also serveonduit between lheChina.

Trade Reunions, and People-lo-Peoplr and Other Exchanges

Sino-Soviet liadc dropped sharply in value duringigh pomt ofillion9owiUion0 No Sino-Sovic; tradewere signedsee labk;

ew Sino-Soviet trade agreement wasinrade rose to SIM million ihe followine year. Since then, annual trade agreements have been negotiated. The value of trade has flucioat-cd.i millionul decliningB millionino-Soviet Irade rose again loillion2

Trade doubled3 and is scheduled to increaseevel of SIillionven with recenl inereases. China's trade with the Soviei Union4 will represent onlyercent of China's lotal Irade.uch smaller share of Soviei Irade. Indeed, China transacts about as much Irade with Romania as it does withUSSi

The bulk of Soviei deliveries have been machinery and lianspoil equipment, wilh steel products and timber making up much of the remainder. InChina has supplied minerals, nonferrousores (including lungsien andeuiles. and foodstuffs for the Soviet Far East

Key Events ia Trade Relations, and People-to-People and Oihtt Exchanges


Sotitls disctost Sino-Soviet agreement on restoring ambassadorial relations


Annual Sino-Soviet trade eeeord tigned. first0


Zhou Enlai holds lengthy private meeting vith Soviet Ambassador and head of Soviet border talks delego-tlo-


Five Soviet diplomats in Beijing arrested andfor spying


V,ee Foreign Minister Kapitsa makes first of three annual "private" trips to Chino

Exchanges of sports seams, economists, tourism groups noted. Student exchanges resumed on small scale. Moscow proposeseparate exchanges in cultural and scientific areas. Sino-SovietS million1rojectedillion4

Soviei aircraft, electrical generating equipment, and trucks were major eipoit items during. The USSR also provided general machinery and spare parls for China's Soviet-designed industry. Thewere primarily tuiboprop medium transporis and helicopters. China imported long-rangeeis12 but was unhappy with (heirFor longer range jet aircraft andibe Chinese turned to the United States and West European suppliers. Beginninghe Chinese importedown-ilowatt steam turbine generators. Soviet technicians installed ihcse uniis. one of the few

instances of Soviet technical preiertcc in China lioce ibc break iaace lo Own*0J. lhc Sovici Union aod China agreed Ihji Soviet cupcris would Havel to China to Studyew Chinese factories containing equipment supplied by Ibe USSR in.

From theniil the,wltural. educaiional. and social exchange*arity. But, over the past sis years and etneaally sincehen Beijing decided to broaden itswith McajCOw. such etching es hare expanded

The Sovieti. of course, have long advocated these kinds of coo lac la. ostensibly because ibey help to improve thein the reljltonihip. But the Chinese refused to respond to these overtures until after Mao's death. Tbc Chinese Foreign Minister, fen eiampk. attended Ihe Soviet National Day reception in Beijing7 for ihe first lime inears, and8 the Chinese Sinofo*iet Friendship Society sent its first National Day greetings to ihe USSR

Sports aod cultural eichaoges have picked upover thc past few years'

Chinese gymnasts in Moscow for an international meet in1 were noted for the Tint lime in overears being feted By thc Sine-Soviet Friendship Society

Inravdaoviet track team visited China.

ourism delegations representing the Chinese ind Soviet Friendship Association!visits, and China pariicipated for the first lime In Ihc Moscowir and Film Festival


esult of lhc Sino-Sovietalks, an agreement wa* reachedJ lo resume ttudent exchanges involving anin all Tbe Sovietsctesoscdichangc progranu in cultural and scientific areas in the3 round

Party Relations and Proletarian Internationa

Key Events in Pany Relations andiernatioaatiim


Bmhnev publicly calls Zhou Enlattenure noi seen6 when the Culturalbegan and Slno-Soviet party tlfi broken


Breihnev talis foe Sino-Soviet unity tgninsiuggestseiiorint pa'ty


Soviets privatety propose foini efforts against the Vniied States in Indochina -


Breihnev reaffirms new of Chinasoeialisi" country. He reiterated this several times until his death


Brethne* sends paty menage of condolence on



relations will be restored Moscow is ready to accommodate Beijing on one of its key security demands. Similarly, ibe Chinese haveeaf ear to Soviet appeals for cooperation againstn accord with the Marxist-Leninist principles of "proielBiian

Thc Sovieti. especially Breihnev. hinted strongly in speeches90 that Moscow wasin restoring pany-lo-party lug* as well as norma lir-ing state-ic-ttate relations Brerhnev affinncd this interest by sending two party messages following

Sino-Soviet pany ties have been moribund0 when Mao severed them because of the deepening ideological dispuie. There is lilile likelihood th,


iiroth. rerun Minister (iiomyko moilroposed lestored Sino-Soviet party i[

J id the Chinese Atnbnisador Invaj.

Similarly, ibe Sovietstrong piich io Chinaihem on ibe basis ol "proletarianm support ol lhe Vietnamese, followingincursions Into Cambodia and Lacs in Morehe Soviets have tried toin China er-er ike US military buildup inand closer political and possible sccsirityamong thc Unitedapan, andimplying thailliance" is aimed atweft as ihc USSR



The Chinese have been much mote flcilble intheir relations ovei the past few years wilh other Communist pat tin once consideredevision ist" orruling panics in Eastern Eu.'Ope In an interview with correspondentsFrench party chief Marchaishina inommunist Parly General ^Secretary Hu Yaobang defined Beijing's newapproach to party-to-party relitions. He said China was ready so eaiabauh friendly iclatioats with "any party,orkers' party. Communist parly, or nataonaltsts long asil abides by the cardinal principle of noninterference in other parties* interna) affairs

Chinese leaders alao moved to ciplorr possibleparty lies wiih Soviet hnations. Inremier Zhao Ziyang publicly affirmed thai Chins views them athe impediment now seems io rest more wilh the East Europeans, who are reluctant to gci oui In front of the USSR and who insist that China first restore parly lies with Moscow. - .|

Polemic Restraint T

The Soviet Union al limes has coupled iis diplomatic overturesutback in Soviei media criticism of

Kty Events Regarding Polemic

Sovietstart af Bei/lng border lalki by halnne media attack on China, until March IV7Q. China reciprocates until she end

Soviets followeathutback in medio criticism of China, untilhinasaf USSR is moderatee* *veks in'

Soviets begin clandestine radiobroadcasts crliteal id China via Radio Ba i'l. -"

Soviet media cut back propaganda attatks oa China. China cuts back criticism of Soviei domesiiihile continuing sharp attacks on Soviet foreign policies.


Soviet media briefly attacks China for supporting Untiedtriggered in pari Aj Premier Zhao's visit to Washington. ""

China. Beijing media have only briefly reciprocated on two occasions during the past IS years,

Moscow media muffled criticism of China for sis months following the start of Ibe Sino-Soviet border talks in9 Chinese media reciprocatedew week! bul Quickly resumed at the turn of (he year by launching scathing attacks on Brezhnev by name. Thc Soviets showed longer forebcarance, nol renewing high-level attacks on China until'

Chinese media attacks on ihc Soviets becamevirulent4ecausehinese domestic political campaign against former Defense Minister Lin Biao and his alleged "illicit" relations with the USSR, and strong Chinese opposition lo


Western dclcntcihc USSR. The Soviets wen pO'tra' in link terms at "nunivety aimed- o'.rcriven by unslakable thiol lot global cipansion that posed in imminent danger of world war."

After ibe death ol Mao, Sonet rartu muled anti-Chinese polemics for tenwil months China also toned flown tit anti-Soviet diairibetew weeks, until Chinese Vice Premie* Li Xiaoaiin revived Chinese attacks by accusing ibc USSR of trying tolt* impression" of relasttion in Sino-Soviet

Thc start of Sinc^Sovtct negotiations9 on normalizing rclaiinns did not result in anyducnon in polemics by either side. Moscow's Isilurceduce media attacks was particularly noteworthy, given the Soviets" pervious efforts to improve th* atmosphere in Sino-Soviet relations at the start of the botdtr talksfter Mao's deathnd during the Si no-So-net discussionsy ii*mng down their pro,iaganda Motcow waswary of China's intentions in9 talks, coining as they did in the wake of Brijmg's announced decision io terminate Ih* Sino Sere! alliance and China't military incursion into Vietnam

More recently. Moscow followed Breihnev's call in2 for improved re la tons wiih Chinaalt in most aulhoritaiive Soviet statements critical of China. When Sino-Soviet discussions tesumedoviet media cut back sharply onof China. And tbey have remained restrained on this subject, although occasional polemic exchanges marked Sino-Soviet coverage al the time of Premierenc'i mil to tbe United Stales iaoscow has continued to be ct ureal of China through the Soviel-based clandestine radio. Ba Yi First heardhe radio claims lo reflect Iheof Chines* nuliury personnel critical of Ihc more pro-Weal orientation of recent Chinese policies China, for Ut pari, has continued cmkism of Soviet foreign policy, although pail attention lo Sovietinternal pceloca hai all but diwppcaicd since China's own economic policies hav* been significantly changed after Mao's deatl


inology of Sino-Soviet

II May, China agree*ovkl proposal lothe Sinp-Soviei Commission on border-river navigation. The commission, which was supposedeet annually, did not meel.9 meeting took place from June to August.

eptember. Soviet Premier Kosygin and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai meel for several hours in Beijing airport to discuss border problems and bilateral' *

October. The Soviet Union and China adopt measures lo reduce the chance of further clashes by border guards.

7 October. China agrees officially lo Soviet proposal to Start talks at the vice foreign minister level on Sino-Soviet border

ctober. Thc Sino-Soviet border talks open in Beijing. The sessions bog down over China's demand lhal the USSR withdraw forces from Chinese-defined "disputed areas" along ihe border.

During Ihe first series of meetings, the USSR reporl. edlyonaggression pact with China,of disputed and nondisputed sectors of ilw border, and improved diplomatic, trade, and other exchanges *

Soviei and Chinese media begin muting polemics against one another.

ctober, flre'hncvonciliatory speech to ease Sino-Soviet tensions. He calls Zhou flnlaifraternal gesture suggesting Soviet interest in revived party ties wiih China ""

cember. Thc chief Soviet ncsotiator at the Beijing border lalks departs the sessions for Moscow amid press reports lhal no progress was made in the border discussions. The talks will icsumc in January

I January. China issues its first aulhorilalisc media atiack on Breihnev since the suit of the Beijing border

February. Sovietsutual nonaggicssion puci with China."'

Soviets also reportedly arc willing to accept the main Channel of boeder rivers as the boundary line along most of lhc eastern frontier. "*

Soviet* also reportedly have withdrawn troops from some disputed border territory, including border-river islands like Zben Baoite of thc9 armed clashes.'-

arch. Pravda commentary attacks China's policy toward USSR,evival of authoritative Soviet polemics against China.

April. Soviet chief negotiator departs Seying bordei talksewoviets are reported interested in moving ihe talks to Moscow or downgrading ihc talks to the ambassadorial level. '-

I May. Mao ark* Soviet diplomat in Beijing when the USSR intends to resume the border lalks in Beijing.

ane. Soviei Premier Kosygin publicly blames China for ihc lack of progress in thc border talks '

If Jane. Zhou tinlaionciliatory message to Kosygm over recent floods ir. Ihe USSR.

Ill June. Thc cV.ef Soviet negotiator is officially withdrawn from th: border talks, reportedly forf health '

Summer. Low-level Sino-Soviel barterrc held beiween local Chinese and Soviet economic unit* in Ihc Par fcast

Children of Soviet diplomals leiurb to Beijingn absence of several years

8 July. Soviet officials susscsiigh-level Sinc-Soviei meeting laoint declaration on rsonaggrcssion that would ban using nuclear -cap ons. war preparations, and warlike propaganda against one another

S Augutt. Premier Kosygin discloses thai anhas been reached on an eichange ol Sino-Sovtel ambassadors

IS Aagutt. Vice Foreign Minuter lliehev, the new chier Soviei representative to the Sino-Soviel border talks, arrives in Beijing

2SAuguit. Breahnev,peech, is conciliatory toward China, calls for forward movement in the border lalks. and indicates Soviet interest in bioader accommodation withincluding possibleof party lies

October. Tolstikov. (he newly appointed Sovietto China, arrives in Beijing n

November, China'* newly appointed Ambassadorin Moscow

ovember. The annual Sino-Soviet irade accord is signed for ihc first time6

February. Soviet officials reportedly approach China to join in "combined efforts'" to support theCommunists against the United Slates inChina refuses ihe proposal "

erth. Zhou EhTai receives ihc chief Soviet ncgOtiJior in the border talks andenglhy private discussion. Subjectsinclude bordei blues and Soviet icquest for joini action in support of Norlh Vietnam '

IS July. President Niton announces he will visit China

September. Chinese Defense Minister Lin Biao and mueh of Ihe Chinese high command disappear from public view

November. Sino-Soviet trade negotiationsnvolve Ihe sale of Soviet jet transports and helicopters to Chin:

December. The Indo-Pakistani conflict in South Asia brings Sino-Soviet polemics to their highest level9

The Sovieis are reportedly still attempting io move the Sino-Soviet talks lo Moscow or to lower tbem lo ihe ambassadorial level

anuary. Chinaew Soviet soldiers who strayed on ihc Chinese side of the border wiih Mongolia. Thc event is not reported in Sino-Sovicl mcdi;

January. Soviet Union offersraft accord on mutual nonuse of fore*

Sovietseneral willingness to accept the ain channel of bord" -ivers as ihe boundary line of the eastern (rontie

They alsoillingness eventually toew agreement covering delineation of the entire borde

February. President Nixon visits China, signing the Shanghai Communique

February. Thc Soviet Union proposes thai long-term economic contracts be concluded and Sino-Soviet border Hade be resumed

arch. Brcihncv publicly siaies Soviet willingness to improve relations with China and to establish relations with China on the basis of thc five principles of peaceful cociistencc


By ihi' lime, ihc USSR is repofied io hive ulicicoong icim trade agreement, relumed ilrciof lulll industrial equipment, and irsumed ,cieniific. technical, and culiural cschnngiK

Match. Stnici negotiator lliclie- iciuinihc Bei >ing bolder talks afici an absence of several months Me -ill stay until July

May.thc US miamc of Haiphong harbor, the USSR asks China for permuaaon u> unload inapt, then wndcr way. in China. Thc Sonet thipt carry cargo destined for Vietnam China refuses on ihc giOunds Ihai in pons ar- already



6 March. The Sovietseview ol the eastern Iron Her. generally accepting lhal lhe mam channel of border rivers would mark Ibe boundarj

une. The Sovietsial: treaty on mutual itooa egression. They alsoummit meeting to discuss ihc Heal

mly. China and ibc USSRivil air protocol which inaugurates direct Beijing-Moscow fligh-

w, Soviet media report Ihc departure of Vice Foreign Musrsser lliehev front Beijing (He wiH ae-rctarn io ihe border lalks lor almost on* year

H. Brelboev publicly kUnrs China far lb*

impasse intalk'

mgau. Zhou Enlai publicly castigatescnegarle drone"eport to China's party congress

aMaary. China reporit that five Sovietere ripellcd from Ctnna for ii

arch. China captures a'Sovin hrlieopier nnd

crew thai had landed in China

une. Soviet negotiator lliehev returns in ihc Beijing talks after an absence of atmon one jcr

II Amjpnt lliehev departsfor

7 Sepre-be- China, the USSR. Mongoha. North Korea, and North Vtciaaoiroiocni icgarding railway shippingnn is in* fuu tush accord noted since

/oviet message onationalrr(ersoviet offer toonaggression pactChina

6hinese message on Soviei National Day notes Chinese insistence thai ihc USSR agree to withdraw troops from disputed border areas

ovember.ublic address. BrcthMV cm id res China's demandoviet withdrawal fromborder regions

2 February Soviet negotiator lliehev returns to the Beijing bordei talks after an absence of va months

May. lltchcv departs Ihc Beijing border

Jume. Sovtct commentator Bonn says ihat ihe Sinc-Soviet border talks arc deadlocked and ihcrc it no way out in sight

ecember. China releases the Soviet helicotKciaptured in4

September.ublic address, flrr/line. pledges 6

iothc Sino-Snvkl border issue free from threat. September. Mao dies. Soviet media mute criticism of

China (or lour monlhs. Brcthnevoviei parti message ofOn Mao's dealh It is rtbuflfd Kosygin publicly demands ihai China by Chin;

reply ic Soviet proposals fnr improved relation*


lleiobrr. Soviets reooetedly uffei to rebuildChinese lactones destroyed injrlhqunke in North Chin*

Brerhnevan, message con*'alulatmiCuoftng oo hit, selection at Chinese pany chairmanebuffed by Cbwu -

mbti. Vice tamier Li Xssnnian publittv rebukes (he USSR <brfalse impression' of re Illation in Sino-Sovici relations '

avrmber. Sovici negotiator Ilichcv returns loihe Bcipng border talks afici an absence of over one yea' He reaffirms Soviet offers of nonaggresxon. nonutc ofind ecoftomx and technical eschanges

anuary. Fraplt'i Dotly cairici China's firstcriticism of the USSR over tbc border issue in two years It leaflirms China':hal no progress has been achieved because Ibe USSR refuses to withdraw lis troops from disputed border regions

lerrilorial claims to ihe Scn-icl-occupiedit-pule over ihe isl.ind had blocked Chinese navigationii for many years.

oreign Miaisiei attend* ihc Sov-el National tva) reception in Heii'g IC* The I'M lime6 '

bit.ii-1 The Presidium oi the Supreme Soviei sendsmcssBgc to China proposing high-levelon reaching an agreement concerning principles governing Si no-Sovici relations

Id rtbiaury. Chinese Premier Hua liuoleng publicly links progresso-Soviet relations with Sovietto withdraw from disputed bcadci regions, withdraw forces from Mongolia, and reduce thelevel of its lorces near Ckina so the level of ibe

Btc'hnev and Defense Minister Ustinov tourr Fast

lunuary. Iliclrev meets with China's Foreign Mm-liter. The meeting is rot reported in Soviet or Chinese media

ravuary, Ilichcv departs tbc Beijing border talks Soviei media resume attacks against China

ay. USSR privately prccsis China's "ilindcr-out" treatment of USSP

I July. China requests resumption of border-rlvcr navigation lalks with Moscow The usually annual meetings had not been beld16

Aaguii. Sovieis reportedly attempt to use Tito tooviet messagehina

6 "iocVi Theer navigation talks cad with Chinese media rvoting for the firstight rears that agree meal is reached on issues discussed

Latei, Chinese officials indicate that anwas reached that allowed Chinese boalt to puss norlbof Hig UstU'iiHcuiaii' Island,oppositewithout jeopardiring conflicling Sino-Soviet

I April. Pravda authoritatively refutes China'son an alleged understanding reached between

Zhou Enlai and Kosygin at Beijing airporthat requiredSoviei pull backg ions

pril. Soviei border negotiator llicbev returns lo Beijing after in absence ufear

May, Chinaernei border incursion along the east err fiom tee. Meaeow officially apologizes for Ihc "modem

Jane. Soviet Ambassador Tolslikov departs Beijing at thc official end of his eight-year tour

une. Soviet negotiator Ilichcv departs the Beijing border talks lor the la si nme. Soviet oTic<*ls privately characterize the sessions as "useless.


Aagau. At Soviet initiative. Soviet and ChineseIry but (ml to formulate an agendaelumed teuton of the Si no Soviei toeni ra'lw.yThe meetings of the Commission -ere tu; pended unccthe.

Otioitr. Thc'newly appointed Soviet AmbtiSSndoT is ofnciaily received in Beijing

ffawtmbtr. China and Ihe USSR quietly exchange prisoners evidently capiurcd during earlier border incidents

7 November. China's Sino-Soviet Friendship Society send, at first reported greeting message to its Soviei counlerpari since ai5

Latiino-Soviet militaryai ihc time oi Stno-Vieinamese confrontation

February.March. Sino-Soviei talks on aviation reach an agreement to end preferential tariffs for Soviei Bloc countriesflights between China and thc USSR.

i April. Although notifying the USSR of its intention to end the Sino-Soviet alliance inh the tentTs or th- trcaiy. China proposes negotiations with the USSR On improving Sino-Soviei relations.

uly. China protests to (he USSRorder Incident along the western front'ci

uly. The USSR prcieits lu China nw bofdei incideni along ihc western troniiei

The Soviets tcportedly make an offer callingtatement in opposition lon end to Sine-Soviet polemics, the rjnducting'of regularovieisummil meetings, and espanding uade. technical, and cultural eichangcs.

Jaauary. China suspends talks on improving Sino-Soviet relations because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

February. Sovietshinese capiurcdhe border incident of July li79.

t March.oviet Foreien Ministry China specialist, makes the lirsi of threesits lo Chinauest or the Soviet Embassy

3 April. An authoritative Prevda article calls on China to reopen talks on Sino-Soviet border issues nr on improving Sino-Soviei relations.

pril. China's new Ambassador to the USSR departs China for Moscow,ost left vacant since lhe previous fall.

April. Soviet officials

3 tell ihe Chinese that Ihe USSR iivjcid be willing io lake certain steps to improve Sino-Soviet relations, including:Admitting er-ors in previous Soviei policy toward China

Render ing assistancehinese industrial project* begun wiih Soviet helpin.

Reducing Soviet forees along ihe Sino-Soviei bar-

Sinrj-Soviet laiks .mhe vice-fo sign rnimsteiconcen ing improviSield us Mascot* S'o iwi' i%

' : refuses- lhat Ihe USSR reduce Soviei troop; along

suppori for Vietnam's ocaijMtioiiKampuchea

I" .1 lelmfii.mprTjred

relations, citing Sino-Soviei differencestnam. Afghanistan. Mongolia, and lhe St no-Soviet boidei

ublicized Chinese rally if herd in Xinjiang io proies: the St no-Soviet Border incideni of ihc ivrvious July


July. Truce people iarmed at tcaes (or ike USSR ire lenicoced in Ch:ro

Bcijioe. pew em ihe alleged Sonei jnof Chinese diptceniu u> ibc-

Jrader incident itone Soviet border -iih Inner Mongolia

IS rturaary. Breihnev speaks it the CPSUit. he ii generally conciliatory regardingh China

10April. ASino-Soviel Railway protocol isthe first1

Beijing protests that the conclusion ofborder treaty impinges oninterests

/fagair. An article in the Sovtei journal Kommuam complains thai China has "OcaCtacked" the talks on .he nor ma ligation of Sinc-Sovie: relations and on Ike border issues, aod that Beijingno desire to resume them '

lOAatatl. USSR officially tvocoies to the Chinese Foreign Ministry the adoption of -confidencemeasures'" in the Far East

/a" Sapumher. China pe-vtcsts tlleced Sovietof Chinese diplomais in ihe USSR

JS Stpitmbrt. The Soviets privately propose that Chinato resume the Sine-Soviet border talks.


JS*ino-Soviet agreement on bootwt akd '

atawry. "The Soviets againcsuaipiroa of Ihei-

The Soviets propose eichamei oftlodents and teachers with Chin.-

hinese ambassadors to USSR and Eastern fcurope arc reportedly recalled to discuss upcoming Chinese policy in the region.

J Mertk. Chinese economists are reported visiting the USSR

9 Mareh. Chinese media notelarger area of agreement" is reached in the annual meeting of the border-river navigation commission

arrk. Chinese gymnasts ire reported visiting the USSR

Breahnevpeech in TashkentconrcUiaiory io-ird China. He confirm thethai ChinaseeiauH system,-the Strto-Soviet border talks, andfor the first time Sc-iet interest inmeasures- regardingfrontier

Following the speech, authoritative Soviet statements generally avoid direcs ciiiicism of Chinese polieies on occasions that in the past would have required such slatemcnU

Chinese gymnasts performing in Ihe USSR are feted by the Sino-Soviet Friendshipfirst such reported festivities inecade

Tbe Soviets privately prcposescientific aad technical ciciianges with Cfctav

li Drermbrr. Beijing repeatedly agrees ia principle to reiume regular scientific and technical eathangca -iih the USSR

pril. At ihe conclusion of the annual Sino-Soviet trade talks, ii is noted that the two sides "eschanged notes on fiooiier Iradc '

It laat. Pravda reporti on atratk learn visiting China This is the firsthe Soviet central press to such revived eicbanger

r Va Hongliacg. Chinese Fc-eian Mvmlry Soviet specialist, vnits Moscow


September. Soviet media cot back sharply orof China '

eptember. China participates in ihc Moscow book fair for

Brcihncv speaks al Baku, istoward Chine, and claims that theis normalization and gradual

in Sino-Soviet

Oeioter. The first round of Sino-Soviet discussions on brlaleral relations is held al the vice foreign minisieri-al level in Beijing. Little agreemeni is noted except io meet again in March.

Chinese party leader Hu Yaobsngis ready io establish relations wilh olherparlies, provided ihey do nol interfere ininternal

November.ies. Chinese send their Foreign Minister to the funeral andonciliatorymessage. '

March. The second round of Sino-Soviei discussions on bilateral relations is held ingreement is reportedly reached on expanding trade and student exchanges. No agreemeni is reached in reported discussion of differences over Soviet deploymentssia. '

ino-Soviet protocol on border irade isfirst such accord noted in overears.

7 iVfuy. Beijing media authoritatively express China's concern over deployment of Sovietissiles in Asia

1 June. China protests the expulsion of Chinese citizens from Mongolia.

eptember. Soviei Vice Foreign Minister Ka-piisa makes his first official visit to China for lalks wiih his Chinese counterpart on Sino-Soviei views rcgaiding "iniernational" Questions. China agrees in continue lhe lalks later In Moscow, ihereby settingew channel of communication al the vice foreign minister level in Moscow.Beijing relations

eptember. People's Daily identifies Soviet SS-Mt in Asia as pan of ihe -obstacles" China says must be removed before Sino-Soviei relations ean be

October. Thc third round of Sino-Soviet talks on bilateral relations is held in Beijing. Agreements are reportedly reached on increasing trade and onof Soviet experts to study possible rehabilitationew Chinese factories. The Soviets also propose overpecific scientific and cultural exchanges wiih China, and they mention Soviet interest In possible "confidence-building measures" along the Sino-Soviei border. No movement is seen in Sino-Soviet disputes regarding Afghanistan. Mongolia, and Indochina. China also reporiedly raises the issue of Sovietn Asia as part of lhe obstacles to improved Sioo-Soviet relations.

December. Moscow briefly loos-ens polemic restraint lo attack Chinese foreign policy on the eve of Premier Zhao's visit to the United Slates

Frbruary. Andropov dies. Chinaenior vice premier to lhe funeral.

u.emi Soviei party leader Andropov publicly calls for improved relations with


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