^ approved for relfca5"i7
RIFUGEE FlIGKT EROM Af-GHArYlSTAfl TO PAKISTAN: COMPELLING CAUSES
Moil ol DM nearly three million Afghan refugee! lo Pakistan flee1 Afghanistan hetauie ef the disruption of the rural economy caused by the mar. Few ef fighting end conscription Into the Afghani Artry were other mmitani rseaant fee choosing tnle Few refugee* however flea because theycan gin up In actual flgtmng About JS nerteet of the refugees are Pathnn leant who live to refugee tempt, umbers of imnlr^rnlriorltlei and refugee! from the tltlei live outside Pie tempi
Ahoutercent el the refugees are peasant larnteri. largely, though aat completely. Puthtuns Irem Ihe provinces ot Afghanistan tnat herder oa the Poorm-WestPtevtace af Pakiitan. They teteinie to live Inillagr mmii la which they livetl ht ether because they have taught out village ot trlhil mrmhrrs in the campi or becaeie whole villages came out together. W
ftrmeri" village] living in me camps in Ihe Nerffl-Wttf Frontier Province of Pakistan. The survey ihmoa* that crop p'nOUcnoe hi their heotllaetd. especially vchnt the major feed staple andturel crop was down 'i perhaps ot much aiercent from the period before fighting ansna. rtnae rofuaaej fendana) memos beconeo lamilihad boon sovtrehr tUsruntesL The collapse et sufesistence Inunng had ^jjeedu^the pestMtny el starvsliaa for most of the rural iipmero*.
Our survey showed thst the whole htfrattrwtture of fernlng had largely ipse! particularly market lag, Mitrlhutio* of attd and ftrtlMier. end. especially iamorlant. watt' lepoftct Thef mi ef ctnali Including the underground genets, are net aelna rnxnulRed. In pan become ol manpower shortages.
Disruption caused tf lighting also was often Bivenaaton for Bit decline in crop production Refugees listed thai cropi wart destroyed end umetlmri fkeldt burned Id reuilitloo for guerrilla raldi lo the aria Others reported that helicopter gumhlpi would samclims* shoot at farmers In their flttiL Mareow laid that the mgjehadian guerrillas would alio steal or destroy ctopi The villagersalso tome to tear tht forttMB tOMcrhJIion campaigns by the Afghan Army. Me- of military ace lord that hot rartgr has bp cone- ouJl? widtJire drafted or fit* to the BountaJns or lo rule In Pakistan.
The presort refugee flew, however. Is alto partovement metbefore tbe preitnt noublts. Peasant far Ben have been Having Afghanistan for the last itrtral decades to loartb for work la other countries, largely ken and Put Arab Golf ell Starts. Mortem because substsuaci faroMg Is as laager viable, peasant farntevs hi Afghanistan bit Sheer brobbcfs Boot p> in dtp Middle last an hurristf their (areas ta seek tmploynaM to ettles Vj
living (ondilioos ht the relugre campt are Mia letter In loony tasas than tondlllons In Afghanistan This pointo doubt communicated widely In Afghanistan ml sVawi out some lofugees who might not otherwise iyevr It will mi*ort ht an, evtntuof repalrlslloa proeftm VJBHJb
Non Pushtun elbstlc groups are composed primarily of Tajiks. Haiarss. ml Turkomon who feel tbey tanoot live In Iht larptly Pushtun-domlosied cmtps. Hhnlc antegonlim kttwren the dominant Puihiuiu and DiehitsLdaaply raoaad i> ha overcomehp hsaraslern rooo enemy. | H
The refugees wbi do net Bro la taraps an oeoasd full relates status pannviariy raiieecs al feed and ether goods. Ihe Pakistani PUjfnfre CoromlssiaMr't Office. In tgrrostret with the UPeMCP, requiresefugee must live IB the tostps lo receive full bewlrts. Both Ihe UfcHCP. sM the Paklitnnl Refugee Cammlislener's Office have largely Ignored the etbafc difference! anting the refugees.
Son* ol Iht non-Puihtun tlhnlc groupt wen tlio present ft mainly Hararei aad Tajiks, ond ltd Afghanistan to. tha aafft me Pushtun lar-srs Other gronpi. especially tht Turkoman, but alio rneny ot tht Kaitrai aad Ta|lfci. wire traditional merchants or [radars. Tht Turioaun. lor fautaoct. traditionally Brought carptU from the aorth ot AfrjhaniitenaAul for mat tel. But bow bring their carpets, to Ptihamar and lilsmMad. tf[ ^
Sow of tht BM-Pwhturi groups live In camps but it general prefer not to da to. They consider raoil tamps to Be nmlnattd By Puihtum ot betted lo undesirable araai out en the hot Indui plain loo (ar fro* the Afghan loriir far their liking.
Another group of relugees who da not Hyp In lha tempi are Ihe urfltn dwelleri prlmrll, from Kabul. Although small la number (prrhapi numbering btrwten fifty to one hundred thou in. SI they are members of the emerging middle clan Thty were largely tlDier bureaucrats working In the large Afghan Govrrnmtnl agrnclei teachtrs. university proloisors. tr mt.ehanu. They will not or cannot live In the camps. In part kacauit thiy no longer have the tribal or village coanectlani around wttltfi tamp Die Ii baiil and because tamp life represents the type of tradHlonal rural lilt from which their recent upward mobility has allowed them to escape Itceusa thty do not live in the camps, they
do not receive retlont. Many lire in substandard homing Those who art able Immigrate to the United Statu or Europe.
In the tumtnaramongfshao urb*>
refugaei living lamajority had led Iccauai
they feared for their llvair the Jim af their laatily. The second most frtgwat cause was the total interiuption or serious eisruptlae of their work. This was especially tree for former Kabul tMverarty prgfessors. Tht third major reason iome had fled wet the 'ear of mlltiary conscription for themirlvti and tipatlatly their tftlldren Stmt Afghan parants. in fact have itayid in Afghaniitan hut sent their children to Pakistan. Many of tht clllts ol Pakistan