Soviets in the UN System
CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS SANITIZED vl999
and Pcacckecpinc Bodies
and Social Council
Economic and Social Programs
p H tpIf* t
International Trusteeship Council
Court of Justice
of Soviet and East Euiopean Staff
Soviets in the UN System
participation in international organizations has grown from membershipew technical bodies ino active involvemeni in nearly lhe full range of mtensaiiooal organuations today. Becauseack of up-to-date information about the nature and client of Moscow's involvement in multilateralwe prepared this Reference Aid. which provides basic data on:
membership in international organizationsSoviet and East European stiffing of ihe JJniied
Nations and related agencies.
literature sources on Soviet participation in international organizalions.
History of Soviet Participation
Soviet participation in international organisations spans sii decades. In Ihehe USSR joined Ihc Universal Postal Union (UPU) and theTelecommunications Union (ITU)in technical and scientific organizations continued ihrough the postwar years when Moscow sainedrld Meteorological Organization (WMOl and the International Aiomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Along with providing key international services in such fields as communicalions and transportation, organitaiions of this type have given the Soviet Union accesside langc of economic, technical, and regional information.
Participation in technical bodies, however, did link to ease initial Soviet wariness of lhe more political-oriented international organiialions.example, accordingcademic literature. Ihe Sovieisthc League of Natrons as an insnumeni of imperialist powers from itt founding0hen ihey joined the league in an effort to gain allies against expansionist Germany and lapan. Thc League, however, did not provide the support Moscow wanted.9 Mctxowonaeg'cvsion paa with thc Third Reich and invatict' Finland, for which it was expelled from the organization.
Soviet involvement in international politicalshifted markedly after World War II. The Soviet Unionajor rote in the founding of the Untcd Nations5 and immediately became aa active participant on ihe Security Council. Since ihcn Moscow has continued its high level ofin Security Council affairs except for theoperations, which il has rarely supported.
Moscow's involvement in ihc UN General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) has also changed over ihe course of lime. The Soviet Union initiallyow profile and defensive posture in these bodies. However, as thc West began io lose us wotting majoriiy in lhe UN with lhe arrival of newly independent Third World countries. Soviei involvement in economic and social organizations began io increase substantially. According toliterature, lhe change in Soviet response to these organisations was calculated in win ihe favor of Third World countries as well as lo protect Moscow from unwclcocnc UN initiatives More specifically, through their active participation in ihc General Assembly and ECOSOC. lhe Soviets have been able io:
Develop contacts in areas of the world whereinfluence had been minimal.
Promote Communisi nlcoogy
Secure access to information about the needs of individual countries for lhe purpose of cxtendinc bilateral offers of assistance.
Discredit Western aid programs.
Protect the Soviet Union from criticism and from Third World demands 'or ltd.
Despite their interest in cultivating Third World support, thc Soviets are very selective in their pnrttci-paiion in multilateral aid organizations, tor example, the Soviet Union isember of the World Ba.iV Group and provides only minimal contributions to UN aid organizalions. According lo academicthe principal Soviet rationale for not panic par. ing in aid-giving organizations it thai Third World
poverty is the result of Western colonialism and is pcrpetuatecrby ncocediMalism. The Sovieis argvc"that thc USSR isolonist posrer and is therefore not responsible for Third World poverty or obligated lo provide aid.
Review of UN conferences and publications indicates that even though Moscow contributes littleassistance, it takes virtually every opportunity te suppori Third World demands for additional nid from theecent eiamplc is3 UN Confer--nce on Trade and Developmenteld in Belgrade, where the Sovieis supported Third World proposals for more aid on easier terms from Ihe World Bank. Moreover. Moscow uses UN organizations and publications to highlight its own aid programs,using well-placed Soviet staff personnel to write Ihe documents The UNCTAD staff report)hich served as the UNCTAD V| document on international financialonetary issues,ood eiamplc of Moscow's use of forum and staff io tout its coniribuiiorsa and attack the West.
The Sovieis havekeen interest in joininglhal exchange information and conduct studies onThis is reflected in their active involven tbe UN-related economic conferences, commissions, and research organizations, such as the UNCTAD and the Economic Commission foros well as various organizations andthat deal with commodities and resourcesin such groups not onlyource of potentially useful infcemition butorum for portraying Communisi economic philosophy in its most favorable light and pointing oul any perceived inequity in the Western systems. While Moscow is willing to tap into these types of orgsnirations, it avoids organizalions such as thc General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or the Irtlcrnitional Monetary Fund, where bargaining and reciprocity count lot more than polemics.
In addtiion io the ectxtomk and technical arenas, ihe Soviet Union has been very active in arms control and disarmament forums such as thc General Assembly's Firsl Committee and the Conference onBy sending large delegations to thesebodies. Ihe Kremlin has been able to introduce arms control initiatives it knows will go nowhere but
which portray the Soviet Union as taking the bigh ground in disarmament discussioos. Participation in these bodies also provides the Soviet Union with opportunities to deflecf issues away from areas where
il is vulnerable and toward areas of precerved Western ncakrtcss. Feebc abortive ydhyw rainoviet tn thc UN Secretarial used his influence to sidetrack the investigation.
Overall. Soviet participation in internaiionalreflccit basic Sovici foreign policy interests. Through (heir participation in such internationally representative and highly visible political forums as ihe Seeuriiy Council, the General Assembly, and ECOSOC, the Soviet* can attack their enemies,their Third World friends, and defend their interests ia debate and in staff studies. By being selective in its participation in track and aidMoscow can choose those organizations in which itirect interestroducer or consumer and stay away from those (hai require resource commitments and infcemalion il considers sensilive-
So'irt and East European Placement
As Soviei interesi in international organizations has increased. Moscow has pul more emphasis on placirn-Soviets on ihe staffs. During (he firstears of paritcrpaiton in the UN. Moscow permi(ted fee- of ils citizens lo work on UN staffs. It did, rrowever. attempt to place Soviei personnel in somerons where ihey couldrl'.rmpi to sauencc UN actions, meat notablyurityFor esample. soon after (he UN wasas appointed Under Secretary General in theof Political and Seeuriiy Council Affairs, an office [hai lhc Soviets have continued to dominate. According to academic literature, their influence on the Seeuriiy Council through this depariment hat nevertheless been effectively neutralized as other members have created alternate staff components io bypass thc Sovieis.
Since Khrushchev's shoe pounding speechhe USSR hasoncerted effort toeapand its
in (he UN Secretarial by building anwithin the Secretariat capable of influencing the UN and promoting Soviet objectives.oviet and East European citizens are now employed by theenfold increaseloc citizens now work in virtually all parts of the UN system and at every grade level. According to UN experts, the vast majority of Soviet citizens employed by international organizations arc officials of the Soviei Government on loan to thcDespite UN rules prohibiting receipt offrom thc home government, Soviet employees respond directly to orders from Moscow and consider their tour in the Secretariat as an integral pari of Iheir careers as Soviei Government employees.
One area of obvious Soviet concentration In the Secretariat is lite personnel system itself. For years lhe Sovieis have effectively controlled ihe UNoffice in Geneva, and sis Soviets work in the New York Office of Personnel Services, including Victor Elissejcv. ihc Director of Policy Coordination. In ihese positions, it is possible for lhe Soviets to direct ,and influence UN hiring and promotion decisions; to help place other Sovieis and friendly persons in offices (hat deal with issues of Soviet interest such asthc Middle Easl and apartheid: and to use their access Io UN personnel records and applicants* files in recruiting intelligence assets.
Soviet personnel placement patterns also indicate Moscow's interest in lhe UN's potential as amechanism.3 the staff of the UN Department of Public Information includedloc citizens, including Analoly Mkrtchyan. ibe Director of the External Relations Division. This department is responsible for media relations and maintainsnformation centers around the world thatinformation aboul Ihe UN. Employment in the Department provides Soviei staff the opportunity to make valuable contacts among media representatives from many countries and to travel freely as UN officials.
Among the specialized agencies, lhe Soviets lend lo congregate where they have access lo sophisiicaled Western technology. Forlocincludingoviets, are on lhe staff of the IAEA, which is responsible for drawing up and implementing the safeguards agreements provided for
injhe Nuclear NoruPrtslifr^ioVi Treaty as well as for developing siting, safely, snd reliability standards for nuclear power siaTlons. IAEA staff has accessensitive nuclear-re la led informationNot only is the Soviei IAEA contingent large, representingercent of all Soviets employed by ihe UN Secretariat, it is also high level, including the IAEA Deputy Director General, Boris Semenov. and two execulive-level personnel, Vitaliy Frotov and Lev Issaev.
Moscow's low interest in the aid and humanitarian organizations isactor in the Soviet staffing paitern. No Sovieis or East European nationals work for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, the Food and Agricullural Organization. International Fund for Agricultural Development, or the World Bank Group. Only two Soviets wort for UNICEF and six for the UN Development Program, the two key UN aid agencies.
Tbe Reference Aid
Because of the extent of the Soviet Union'sin the UN. this Reference Aid is presenied in three parts. The first section lists UN and related organizations in which the Soviet Union does and does not participate. The second section provides aof Soviet and East European staff employed by ihe UN and relaied organizations. The staff is listed by component, and the responsibilities of eachare explained briefly. The organizational chart of lire UN and related bodies at lhe end of the Reference Aid is keyed to tbe text by corresponding number and includes lhe size of lhe Soviei contingent and the names of senior Soviet personnel employed in each component. Soviet and East European staffingwas taken from lists published by the UN and related agencies3escriptions of ihe stated purpose of each UN component came from UN documents as well as fiom open literature. The third section of this Reference Aidibtiography of selected books and periodicalsSoviet participation in lhe UN0hc principal finding of our review of this literature is that most systematic studies of Soviet behavior in the UN were done nearlyears 8go.
This section lists UN and related international organi-z* lions ihc Soviet Union has joined ashose organizations it has notor the purposes of this Reference Aid, international organiiations arc organization* open to the membership ofOrganiralions, such as (he International Olympic Commitlec. which are ai least nominally composed of pri vale citizens, and the EuropeanCommunity, whose membership is restricted by region, arc not included.
The lists of organizations arc presented in six(he five main organs of (he UN and Ihe specialized agericies. In additionisting (herief description of their purpose, as staled in charters or other official documents, is provided along with information concerning location, size, and (he dale ihe Sovieis joined, if applicable.
1 Scnuiolic* ol Ihrrtdiciird by
Heodt/uorters: Membership; Soviets Join-
initiate studies and makenternational political cooperation,of international law, realisation of human rights, and international collaboration on economic, social, cultural, educational, and health mailers.
Mate recommendations and consider reports from any other UN organ wiihin scope of charter or lhat affect their powers and functions.
Authorize action (including usi of armed force as specifiedin "uniting for peace"in cases where therehrtai lo peace, breach of peace, or aci of aggression and lhe Securitylacking unanimity, has failed lo act.
Approve ihe budget of lhe organization andthe expenses among Member Slates.
Elect rtonpermaneni members of Security Council. Economic and Social Council, and those members of Trusteeship Council that are elected; elect in conjunction with Security Council Judges toCourt of Justice; and on retomntendalio': of Security Council, appoint Secretary General.
Main Subsidiary Bodlti
International law CommKsiori
Uniled Nations Center Against Apartheid
Uniled Nations Council for Namibia
Uniled Notions Commission on International Trade
Uniled Nations Scientific Advisory Commlllee
Uniled Nations Scientific Commlllee on the Effecis of
Atomic Radialion (UNSCEAR)
Committee on tbe Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
Special Commlllee on the Implementation of theof Decolonisation
Joint Inspection Unit
Committee on Conferences
Human Rights Committee
Committee on Information
Special Committee on the Charter of Ihe United
Nation and on the Strengthening of thc Role of the
International Ctrl! Service Commission (ICSO Committee on the Oi mi nation of Racial Diicrirnina-lion (CERD)
Committeestrmnmcnt Disarmament Commission Intergovernmental Bureau or Informatics (IBI) United Nations Relief and Works Agency forRefugees in the Near Fas- (UNRWAI
Encourage thc progressive development oflaw and its codification.
Uniled Nations Center Against
Oversee thc United Nations Trust fund (orAgainst Apartheid and the United Nationsand TrainingPrograiD-for Southern Africa.
UN Council for Namlb!
s UN Council for South-West8 changed name New York 31
Serve as the legal administering authority for Namibia.
Mobilize international support against Southattempts to perpetuate its presence there.
Oversee the activities of the Institute for Namibia, an institute meant to provide Namibians wiih thc education and training necessary to (heir future independence.
ion on International Trade laws
progressive harmonization and unification of International Trade Law.
Uniled Nations Scientific Advisory
and assist Secretary General on all mailers relating to ihc peaceful uses nf atomic energy with which thc United Nations might be concerned.
Review all aspects of South Africa's policies of apartheid and the international repercussions of those policies.
Nat loni Scientific Committee on thc Effects of
Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)
Staled purpose: . _
finances of thcTfnited Nations and its specialized agencies to ensure that activitiesby lhc organizations of the UN system are carried out in thc most economical manner and that the optimum use is made of thc resources available.
assemble, and report on informationeffects of radiation on man and his environment.
Commiltfc on (he Peaceful Uses of Ouier Space (COPUOS)
Resiew thc scope of international cooperation in the pea-rcful uses of outer space.
rograms in this field which can beby the UN.
Encourage further research on outer space.
legal problems arising from exploration of outer space.
Special Committee on the Implementation of theon Decolonization (Committee nf
Examine thc application of the Declaration on thc Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.
Make suggestions and recommendations on thc progress and extent of the implementation of thc declaration to the General Assembly.
Joint Inspection Unit (JIU)
Committee on Conferences
Propose the pattern and the annual calendar of conferences for the General Assembly.
Makeorn on the meat effective use of conference resources and nays nt* crsrxdinatingwithin Ihc UN system.
Human Rights Coutralllc*
reports on measures adopted and progress made in achieving ihe observance of the rights enshrined in the Covenant on Human Rights.
Commit rev on Information
and report on the policies and activities of the public information services of theicm.
Special Committee on thc Charter of Ihe United Nations and on the Si re net hen ing of the Role of the Organization
Founded: Headquarters: Membership: Soviet* join:
the charter of tbe United Nations arrcf make proposal* on ho* the role of the United Natiorts mi|ht be tirenGtberted with regard to the maintenance of international peace, theof interonal cooperation, and thcof international law in relations between statcs-
InttT&atiortal Gill Set-rice Conunlsilon (I
recommendations to the General Assembty for the regulation and coordination of conditions of service within the UN. tbe specialired agencies, and other international rwgaruraiioni related to the UN system.
Committee on the Wnneation of Racial fcscrirriMn-
suggestions andto the Gee-eral Assembly concerning its findings on racial discrimination throughout the world
Committee on Disarmament
Headquarters: Membership: Soviets join:
replace the Conference of theon Disarmament (CCD) whicheneva8
Founded: Headquarters: Membership: Soviets joined:
rnd make recommendations to lhcAssembly on various problems in the field of disarmament.
Intergovernmental Bureau for In for ma ires (IBI)
hy General Assem-
bly to succeed iheComputing(ICC)
research, education, and the utilization of informatics atvcrnmenial level.
United Nations Relief and Works Agency forRefugees in lhc Near East (UNRWA)
Bei-ui (temporarilyto Amman and Vienna)
assisted by Advisory Commission ofad stafTeople fromifferent countries.
Provide relief, heallh. educaiion. and welfarefor Palestine refugees in thc Near East.
Serve as lhc main multilateral negrniating forum oo disarmament issues.
Uniled Nation* Institute for Training and Research lUNfTAR)
Offler of lhe Uniled Nallont Disaster Rdkf(UNDRO)
Uniled Nations Institute Tot Disarmament Research (UNIDR)
United Natlou Institute for Training nnd Research (UNITAR,
paid employees from
Enhanceectire*iess of UN effonsromote peace, leceritv, and scooeconorriic progrcis byfacilities for high-priority training andresearch projects tn these areas.
SO paid employees fromountries
OTnee nf the United Nntioas Disaster Relief Cc^rdanstlnr (UNDRO)
Peacemaking and Peacekeerrtog Bodies
Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations
Pracr Observation Commission
and retort on the situation in any area where there exists international lension thaindanger international peace and security if not Slopped.
Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations
comprehensive review of thc whole question of peacekeeping rperations and studyrelated to facilities, servket. and personnel which member states might provide for UNoperaliont.
Mobilize, direct, and coordinate the reliefactivities of the various organisations within the UN system in responseequest for disaster assistancetricken state.
Coordinate UN assistance with assistance given by intergovernmental and nongovernmentalsuch as thc Red Cross.
United Natrons Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDR)
Council of 17
Carry out research and work closely with theDepanmcni of Disarmament Affairs for the purpose of assitling ncgnii.iiions on disarmament and arms limitation.
United Nations Dcvtlopmenf Program IUNDP)
Headquarters: Membership: Soviets join:
ith the merging of (he Expanded Program of Teehnieal Assistance (EPTA) and (he Special Fund
EPTA3 and UNDP6
and coordinate the technical assistance programs rovided to developing countries by (he UN Capital Development Fund, the UN volunteers, thc UN Revolving Fund for Natural Resources Exploitation. Ihe UN Trust Fund for Colonialthe UN Fund for Population Aciiviiiesnd lhc program of technical assisianee financed from thc UN regular budget
United Nations Environment Program
significant changes in the environment and encourage as well as coordinate sound enviionmen-(ai practices
World Food Council
oordinating body which reporis io the General Assembly, through ECOSOC. on policies concerning produciion. nutrition, food scnrcily. trade in lood. and food aid.
- Monitor the world food situation.
support and strivensure coherence of overall efforts of governmcnls and agenciesolve world food problems.
International Narcotics Conlrol Boardhy lhc Single Con-
veniion on Narcolic
the implementation of (he Single" Narcoric Drugs.
United Nallons Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAO
Expand (he research and information facilities of Ihe UN drug control bodies.
Plan and implement programs of technical assist-ince through pilot projects.
Train government personnel in drug control admin-islratian, law enforcement, laboratory services. iTSUcrnt. and rehabilitation of addicls.
UN High Commissioner for Refugees
international protection for refugees and seek permaneni solutions to their problems.
World Food Program
by ECOSOC andy
economic and social developmcni through
food aid and emergency relief.
United Nations Research lnstiiuie for
Conduct research into the problems and policies of social and economic development during different phases of economic growth.
Staff Committee Founded: Headquarters: Membership:
Substantia Bodies Mililary SlalT Committee
Chiefs of Staff of thcmembers of the Security Council or their5
Assbt Security Council on all questions relating to the Council's military requirements for maintaining international peace and security, the employment and command of forces placed at its disposal, regulation of armaments, and possible disarmament.
. Peacemaking and Peacekeeping
UN Truce SurxrvisioaUNTSO)
UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIIII |
UN beekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYPi
United Nations Operation in ihc Congo (UNOC)
Unified Command in Korea (UCK)
Military Armistice Commission in Korea (MACK)
UN Military Observer Croup in India and Pakistan
UN Truce Supervision Orgaoiiation (UNTSO)
mililary observers fromountries
Implement, observe, and supervise Ihc Armistice Agreement8 in Palestine.
Cooper are with and assist UNDOF and UNIFIL.
United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)
initial pciiod of
si* months following cease-fire agreementSyria and Israel. Mandate since extended by successive resolution* in Security Council.
observers from four(Austria. Canada. Poland, and Finland)
Man 3tca of separation between Israel and Syria.
out inspections of areas of limited armaments and forces.
its best efforts to maintain the cease-fire.
.Untied Nation* Interim Force in Lebanonfor sii-month peri-
ex-tended hy siKcessive rrs-oluttont in Security Cocnol.
men fromountries (Fiji. Frarsce, Ireland.Finland.Nigeria. Norvray. Senegal. Ghana, and Sweden).
Confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces.
Restore international peace.
Assist the govern ment of Lebanon to ensure the return of its effective authority in southern Letorron.
United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYPl
by successive res-
olutions in Security Council.
men from seven countries (Austria. Canada.Finland. Iceland. Sweden, and Br nam)
the peace between the Greek and Turkish Cvptiot communitiesesolution ofissues between them.
Help maintain law and order.
eiurn to normal conditions
Help ihc Congolese Goverrfmctit restore anathe political independence and 'erriloriilof the'Congtr
Help the govcramcnt establish order throughoul the conatry.
Put intoide and long-term program of training ,nd technical assistance.
Uniried Command in Korea (UCK|
units from 16
stales during the war anil seven states afterward.
the Republic of Korea repel thc armed attack by North Korean and Chinese furces.
interriatsonal peace and security io theArrrustrcc Commission in Korea
the implemenlalion of3 Armistice agreement and settle ant, violations of the agreement
UN Miliiary Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)
servers from nine
cease-fire in Kashmir and observe an> subsCQucni miliiary activity in the area.
Nations Operation in (he Congoforces withdrawn
iu peak strength
en and officers recruited primarily front other African slates and Asia.
r* ic 1
Humanitarian, Technical Aid, and Other UN Bodies'
Statistical Commission Population Commission
i foi Social DcclOpmtnl
Commission on Homaa Rights
'on tbe Status of Women
Commission on Narcotic Drugs
Funded: Headquarters; Membership; Sovim join:
Achieve an integrated system in tbe collection, data processing, and dissemination of internationalby (he or eons and agencies of the UN system wiih special regardhc requirements of reviewing; and appraising economic and social progress.
- Study and advise ECOSOC on population changes, including migration, and their effect on socaoeco-aomici
Commission on Hnman Rizbls_ - a
complaints of human rights violations and. if itonsistent pattern uf grossof human rights, to report its findings to the Economic and Social Council.
Coaunrauen on the Status of Wcaswn
reports and make recommendations to ECOSOC on how-to promote women's rights in political, economic, social, and educational Fields
Commission on Na.cotic
ECOSOC and draft internationalon all matters related to the control of narcotic drugs.
for Social Dorloprivnt
Advise ECOSOC on social palicieseneral character, and in particular on all matters in the social field not covered by the specialized intcigov. ern mental agencies.
Committee nn None, ovrrn mental Organizations Commission on Human Settlementsn Program and Coordinationn Natural Resources Committc* on Science and Tfchuologr 'or Dcielopmcnl
Commission on Transnational Corporations
n Nnngoveru menial
Report on thc consultative relationship between ECOSOC and international nongovernmenul or gam rat ion*
Help centers and regions solve ihe housing problems of low-income rscrtplc in their area and encourage greater international support for their efforts. The commission supervise* the operation of the United Nations Habitat and lhc Human Settlementswhich provides "seed capital" and technical assistance to human settlement programs.
or Program and Coordination
name changed in
Review the programi of the UN conduced under thc auspices of the Economic and Social Council and the General Assembly.
peroritv among programs "Develop evaluation procedures
two*nman*Utions on work programs proposed br lhc Secretarial.
Assist ECOSOC in its coordination funeiions
Commlltc* on Natural Resources
Assist ECOSOC in (he planning, implementation, and coordination of :ctivines in (he UN system for (he development of natural resources.
Establish guidelines for the provision of advisor, services to member states.
Analyze resoiutioni and reports on UN activities in ihc natural resource* fit-M.
Produce recommendations to governments and<such as UNDP)ran Ihe apprsspnaie pereiriiies, program emphasis, and other matter* concerning ibe csploralion and etplrniation of natural resceirccs.
Committc* em Science andor Dcvtlri-proroi
policy guidance and make rrcommendalions on the application of science and (ochnology lo
Commission nn Tranwiariona! Corporations
Aciorum for (he comprehensive consideration of issues relating io transnational corporations.
Promote the exchange of views among governments, intergovernmental organizations, irade unions,comumcr. and other relevant groups.
Assist ECOSOC to create the basisode of conduct for international TOrporaiions.
omprehensive information system on the activities of transnational corporations
Regional Economic Commissions
UN Economic Conratssjon forEurope (ECE)
UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
UN Economic Commission for Africa (EGA)
UN Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)
UN Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA)
UN Economic Commission for Europe
ihc economic and technological problems of the region and recommend courses of action.
UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
measures leading to the economic and social development of the region.
UN Economic Commission for Africa*
Africa's economic development.
UN Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA)
Coordinate policies for lhc promotion of economic development in Latin America.
UN Lconomic Commission for Western Alia (ECWA)
Foil her iccioecocomic develoc-menl of region.
Related Economic and
United Nations Children* Fund (UNICEF) United Nations Conference on Tiadc and Doelopw
United Nation* De-eloper*atUNDP)
Uniled N'tiion* Fmiionmrtil Program (tJNEP)
World Food Cooacil (WFC)
International Narcotic* ControlCB)
United Nalioari Fund forane Control
United Natioru High Ce-mmissioncr for Refugees (UNHCR)
World Food Program (WFP)
Uniled Nations Research Institute for Social
Uniled Nations Children's Fund
ihc emergency needs of children throughoat the world, particularly inountries.
Coated Nations Conferencr on Trade and De-elopm-mr
Encourage the restructuring of traditionalof iniernaiional trade so that developing countries canreater role in world commerce.
Prcenotc international tradeiew toihe Third World's economicIniawag
Review and facilitate the coordination of aciiviiies by other UN institution* concerned witn trade and devc
Initiate action for ihe negotiation and adoption of multilateral agreements in thc field of trade.
Be availableenter for harmonizing the trade and related development policies of governments and regional economic grouping*.
is Ii red Agencies
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) International Labor Organization (ILO) Inlernallooal Ms ti lime Org anizaiion (IMO) United Nations FaValional. Scientific, and Cultural Organization fUNESCO)
International Telecommunications Union (FTU) Unliersal Postal Union (UPU) World Health Oreani ration (WHO) World Meteorological Organization (WMO) World Intellectual Properly Organization (WIPO) United Nations Industrial Oetelopment Organization (UNIDO)
International Atomic Energy Agency, (IAEA) World Tourbra Organization (WTO) International Bank for Reconstruction and(IBRD)
International Development Association (IDA) International Finance Corporation (IFQ International Monetary Fund (IMF) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) International Fund (or Agriculiure DevelopmentAD)
'General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
International Civil Aviation Organization
Develop the principles and techniques ofair navigation and foster the planning and development of international air transport so asnsure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the world.
Founded: Headquarters; Membership: Soviets join:
Stated purpose: _
Improve working-arid living conditions through the adopttoaof international labor conventions and recommendations setting minimum standards in such fields as wages, hours of work, conditions of employment, and social security.
Conduct res catch and technical cooperation activi-tics, including vocational training and management development.
International Maritime Organization (IMO)
name changed to IMO in
Headquarters: Membership; Soviets join;
Ensure lhal thc highest possible standards of safely and navigation are achieved at sea.
Conirol pollution caused by ships operating inenvironment.
Encourage removal of hindrances io international shipping services.
Provide technical assistance on maritime matters io developing countries.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural
international peace and advance thcwell-being of mankind by encouragingio collaborate in tbe fields of education,and culture.
International Teic-communrcations Union (ITU)
s Ihe International
Telegraph Union, present
CoorfHte efforts to eliminaie harmful inicrfe between radio sutiorts of different counirir.*
encourage intem.lional coc-perauon in the delivery of technical assistance to developing countries
Coordinate effort) io barroonite the development of ickrommunicaironi faciliiies, notably those using space techniques.
Promote international cooperation for the improve-mem and rational use of
Unlmsnl Postal Union (UP1J)
Ensure the organization and development of postal services.
Promote the devetapenjtii of communicationpeoples by tbe efficient operation of postal
World Health Organirsriou
Act as Ihc directing and coordinating authority on international health work.
Upon request, help governments strengthen their health services by providing information, couniel-ing. and technical assistance in thc field of health
Stimulate advance work lo eradicate or control diseases and epidemics.
Promote and conduct research in ihe field of health
establish, andprcroie inioriat-onal(or food and pharmaceutical producis.
Improve the eichange of weather infdrVtution and us application by encouragingn in tit niabirshmcntetwork of mctcoroiockalstations.
Promote the development of systems for the rapid eichange of information on ihe subject.
Enco-irage the application of me'eoroJogy toshipping, agriculture, and other human activities.
World Intellectual Property Organization
thcf intellectual property.Further creative mtellectual activity.
thc transfer of techneilogy to devrJoping countries-
itrial Development Orgirurniioo
United Nations Indi (UNIOO) Founded Headquariers: Membership-Soviets join-
Encourage the mobilization of national andresources to promote and accelerate theof thc developing world, particularly in ihe manufacturing sector.
International Atomic Energy Agency
Mcmber'tiif Soviets join:
Foster, rr.eoc.tage. and give advice on ihcof lhe peaceful use ot" aiomic energ-the world.
Tourism Orgmiiation (WTQj Founded
interMtronal monetary coo-wraiiGn
radliute. the expansion and balanced growth of international trade.
Prornote ttabilily in foreign exchange.
and develop tourismiew locomrib-uling to economic espansion. internationaland world peace.
International Rank for Recon timet ion and Develop-men, (IBRD)
themic development of memberby making loirs on reasonable terms toproductive investrnenis where private capita! is not available
International fJcvelccaenent Association
capital to the poorer developing countries on more flrtibk terms lhan ihosc offered by IBRD
International Finance Corporation
the growth of productive privatein member countries, particularly in thc less developed areas
Inlernatronal Monetary Fund
Food and Agriculture Organisation 11
separate and collective action amongstales for purposes of raising standards of living, securing improvements in Ihe produciion andof all agricultural products, and coniributing toward thc expansion of the world economy.
Interruiiortat Fund for Agricultural DevelopmentAD)
lesourccs lo improveductionand ihe nutritional level of lhc poor in Ihe developing world.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
ramewoik within which negotiations can be held for Ihe reduction of tariffs and othero trade.
tructure for embodying Ihe results of ihe negotiationsegal instrument
Nations De>elopirien( Program (UNDP)
Headquarters: Membership: Soviets, join:
ith the merging of Ibc Exploded Program of Technical Assistance (EPTA) and lhe Special Fund NewB
EPTA3 and UNDP6
Administer and coordinate Ihe technical assistanceovided to developing countries by the UN Capital Development Fund, the UN volunteers, lhe UN Revolving Fund for Natural Roourres Faploilation. the UN Trust Fund for Colonial Ter-ritoties. thc UN Fund for Population Activitiesnd the program of technical assistance financed from the UN regular budget
United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control (UNFDAO
Expand the research and information facjlilies of the UN drug control bodies.
Plan and implement programs of technicalIhrough pilot projects.
Train government personnel in drug controllaw en force men i. laboratory services.and rehabilitation of addicts.
United Nation* Founded Headquarters. Membership Soviets join:*
significant changes in the environment and encourage as well as coordinate soundpractices.
World Food Council
Actoordinating body which reports to the General .Assembly, ihrough ECOSOC. on policies concerning production, nutrition, food scarcity, trade in food, and food aid.
Monitor the world food sit nation
Mobilize support and strive to ensure coherence of overall efforts of governments and agencies to solve world food problems.
International Narcotics Control Boardby the Single Con-
vention on Narcotic Drugs
for1 Geneva 41
international protrction for refugees and trek permrneni solutions to their problems.
World Food Program
by ECOSOC and IS by
economic and social development through food aid and emergency relief.
United Nations Research Institute for
research into the problerns and policies of social and economic development during different phases of economic growth.
Directory of Soviet undEuropean Staff
Thin sec Ironin of Sovieis and East Fa-oceans efrplcyed by lhc Uniicd Nations'principal fnnciron is to service ihe other main organs of the United Naltons and administer the programs and policies laid down by ihem. liveof each component within the Secretarial accompany the staff list and correspond to the chart inducted in lhc Referenceist erf Soviets and East Europeans employed by the Secretariats nf other
organizations in thc UN system lhal the Soviet Union has joined also is included in :he Directory and chart.
Specialiied agencies are quasi-independent bodies
within the UN family of wgae;raiie>ns.
Sole- See/ueniiol numberint in ihii section corn;.- Ac lisiinf on ihe chart.
The Secretary General it the chief administrative officer of ihe Uniicd Nations. The appointment it made by lhci Assembly upon thc ncommen-dation of the Security Council. According to thc Charter, the Secretary General mutt appoint (be staff accordingental ions established by (he General Assembly, whichegard for the competence and iniegrhy of thc individual as aa international civil servant and (he importance of recruitn aseographic basis as possible.
In addition lo (he administrative duties, the Secretary General is called on by (he Charter to perform such "other functions" ni are entrusted by ihe Security Courcil, General Assembly, and other main organs; io bring to (he attention of Ihe Security Council "any matter which in his opinion may threaten theof international peace and seeuriiy" as well as "make eiiher oral or written statements lo theAssembly concerning any question underby it."
The work of the Secretary General and staff include fotmci mediation in resc-Mng inlet national disputes: administering peacekeeping carxraiiorts. surveys of worldrends and problems, studies in fields such as human rights and natural resources;international conferences; compiling statistics; githering information oa the cstenihich deei-siorri of thc Seeuriiy Council and other bodies arc being carried cut. inlerprciing speeches; translating documents; and servicing (he world's communicationsh information about Ihe Uniled Nations.
Number of Soviets/East Europeans: 0
VN/US Rank and Salary Eauitatents
The UN posi cUssificaiioni eompate to the folkm-iii; US Civil Service classifications'
Under Secretary General (USG)
Secretary General (ASG)
UN rank and salary classifications are roughly tguivalent to those in the US Civil Service. UN salaries for particular posts may beoercent higher than their equivalent In the UService whin dependency allowances and difftrrntiot ad/uslmenls for tht location of employment at included. UN officials In Vienna and Geneva ore. for example, paid more than officials of the same rank in New fork. In addition, top UN officials receive allowances for entertainment, housing, andIl should be noted that in addition lo lhe UN positions noted above, theremall numberositions held by Bloc personnel. These posts 'consist exclusively of medical officers, scientists, or special fellows. In this text these personnel wereanking for expositional simplicity.
ffice of ihc Director General for Detclapmtnl and International Economic Cooperation
The Office for Dc*ctocirncrit ind InternationalCooperation wat created1 by IhcGeneral in response lo the General7 corrpiehcfiiivc7 calling for rcsficiioni on thc economic and social sectors of ihe UN system. Il is headedirector Generalppointed by ihe Secreiary General. The Director General is charged with ensuring ihe coherence, coordination, and efficient management of thcuratierisken by the United Nations in the ecnraortt-ic and scrcial fields.
Number of Sovieis/Easi Europeans: 2
Office of (he Director General for Deielopmenl and International Economic Cooperation
ilier of the Under Secretaries General for Sisxial Political Affairs
The Office for Special Political Affairs asiisis the General Assembly's Special Political Con.rruitee, uhich was created6 to alleviate the task of the Firs' Committee. This Committee oversees the work done by the UN Scientific Committee on the EITc;ts of Atomic Radiation and the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in tbe Near East. Il also reviews thc activities of some of the peacekeeping operations.
In tlte past, the Under Sccteuiies for Special Political Affairs look charge of such matters as thc preparation and operation of the Atoms-for-Peace Conferences> and the day-to-day management of thc UntiedEmergency Force and operation in Ihe Congo. Their assignments were predominantly political in nature and cut across Ilw competence of several departments.
Number ol Sovicis/Eas!
Office of the Under Sccrciiry for Special Polilic.il Affair"
fficec-f Under Secretory General for Political sne) General Assembly Affairs As rcpresen:i'.ives of ihe Secretary General,his office follow the activities of the General Assembly in its plenary sessions and smallerbodies During ihe plenary sessions of the General Assembly. Ihis office consults with the Secretary General on tlic political trends being developed and advises delegates on procedures and legs' questions.
In other organs and Committees, it mayirect influence on lhc ryalicymafcing process through lhc assistance il gives delegates in drafting resolutions, proposing amendmenU. and writingS citirca has always servedigh-levelhis office
Total staff: 31
Number of Soviets/East Europeans; I
Office of Ihc Under Secrctarj General for Political and-Gcneral Assembly Affairs
"ffice ofAffairs) The Office of Legal Affair, is tekponsible for assisting the Secretariat and several organs of the Uniled Nations on general legal matters. Il serves the Sixth Main Committee of thc General Assembly, theLaw Commission, the UN Commission on Inlcnuttooal Trade Law, the Committee on Host Cocniry Relations, and the Special Committee on the Charier of thc United Nation and Strengthening the Role of the Organization. The Director of theDivision hasoviet
Number of Soviets/East Europeans: It
Office of Legal Affairs
epartment of Administration -ml Management (includes offices ofGeneral, and Administrative Mauagrmcul Services as "ell as the Internal Audit ond Rleetronic Data Pi<ves5.ir.fi DivrsaonsJ
The Depariment of Administration and Management assists io the Secretary Genet-Is managerial rcspon-sibiliiies and relationships with the Fifth Mainof the General Assembly, which deab wiih administrative, budgetary, and personnel questions Within the Secretariat, this department oversees the -or. done by ihe Offices of financial. Personnel. General, and Administrative Management Services as well as the Internal Audit and Electronic DataDivisions.
The Office of Financial Services is responsible for formulating and keeping track of thc UN' budget, ihe Internal Audit Division for cramming and verifying tbc Seervtariai'i financial accounts, and tbc Election-ic Data Processing and Informal ton Division for giving computer suppcei and espert technicalto thc administrative and substantive areas of thc Secretarial
Th? Office of Personnel Services (OPS| is responsible for lhc recruitment, placement, and training of (hetaff, and foi Ilic development ofpolicies and staff regulations Legally, il is only an
advisory bodyen the Secretary General and the substantive departmentsoffices. However, incases of nen appointments. OPS caneto unless thc secretary General cscrciies bis auihority and acts against its advice In mailers of promotion orOPS can only advise, warn, orcannot refuse thc opinion of (he department concerned. Along wiih OPS. Ihe Appointments and Prcenotions Board and Commiiiee also eiercises authority in cases of appointments and promotions Thc Assistant Secretary General in charge of OPS hat come from the Third World
The Office of Geneial Services supervisesservices, provides security services, mainiair; archives, provides ironsporlalion and custodialand ditecis purchase and supply functions for UN buildings throughout ihe world. The Assistant Secretary General in charge of this office hascome from the United Siates.
Tbena cement Service (AMS)reated1 to do manpower unheal ion studies, comprehensive management surveys, andtudies as well as io review administrative procedures and to devc'op techniques io aid the career development of ihc Secretariat staff.
Office of Financial Services
epartment of Confcicoce Set tier* (includesmcrslgnld Library Staff) The Department of Conference Services provides language, stenographic, and publishing andservices for meeting* held under UN auspices. Initially, most of thc UN interpreters and translators in thc Russian language section of this department were expatriate "White Russians" orowever, the UN and ihc Soviet Union came to an agreement whereby a" translators and interpreters in Russian must be trained ai theInstitute for Foreign Languages in Moscow. Since the, most of Ihe people in Ibc Russian language sectioneen gtizens of ihe Soviet Union. The post of under secretary general in
the Department has been occupied by an liastnational
Asa gift of the Ford Fcjundation. the Dag Mam-merskjold Library is used by the permanent missions' staffs and (he Secretariat in thc course of their daily work. It also contributes to the preparatory work of conferences hy assembling data, answering specific rruestions. and preparing special bibliographies. Thc director of ihc library hasoviet citizen frr many years.
Number of Soviets/East
Department of Conference Services
Department ol PolilicslSecurity Council -Affairs
Thc Departmeni of Political ind Security Council Affairs is responsible for assisting the Secretaryia allith the Security Council, and ihc General Assembly's Finl Main Committee, which dealt primarily with srmwclatcd matters.
According to Trgyve lie, who became Secretary Generalhe five big powers in the Security Council "agreed among themselves io ask me toational of each of them is an Assistant
-Secretaryhey also agreed thai the top post in ihc political department should be heldoviet national. Tbe derartinoai's Under Secretary General has alwaysitiicn of thc Soviet Union. According to icadrmk literature however. Soviet dominance is nominal because the department i> bypassed on matters of importance to theof international peace and security.
Number of Soviets/Fast Europeans: 22
Department of Political and Security Council Affairs
Department o( Inltmational Economic aadSocial Affair*
Thc Departmeni of International Economic andAffaits is Ihc ECC-SOO Secretariat anil. Its responsibilities include: prcparint various reportsby th; Council, drawing up thc agenda, making propositi lor internal organization, and scnerl-iling meetings during Council sessions.
When the Council is in sessran. members of lhe department serve as parliamentary advisershe chairmen, keep tabs on the progress of tbe meetings, and make sure (hat documents become available oo time and at lhe proper place. Following thc session, the department oversees the preparation of theannual report to the General Assembly and implements those Council dedstons spedfieallylo the Secretary General,
When thc Secretary General is-*ot ableTb address the Council at the opening^of ill plenary meetings, thc Under Secretary General fotTThe Department of International Economic ltd Social Affairs either reads the speech orersonal statement. The Under Secretary General also eiereitest lo intervene any time during lhe consideration ofissues to clarify misunderstandings and lo facilitate operational agreement)
Number of Soviets/Fast Europeans: 21
Department of International Economic and Social Affairs
nited Nation* Office ar Geneva (UNOG) In Irrmi of importance and man power. UNOG is ihc rxincipal UN office oui'idc New York. Originally set up io serveeeting and service center for UN conferences, it has over ibc years become ihc rcti-dene* for the following substantive division* and or jam of ihe Secretariat: the United Nationson Trade and DeveVorymeni. United Nation* Disaster Relief Coordinator, United Nation* Hich Commissioner for Refugees. European Office of ihe Uniled Nations Development Program. Committee on Disarmament. Center for Human Righls, and the Economic Commission for Europe.
Director General represents The*Scereiary General In relations with permanent missions to thc UN and the spccialiicd agencies located in Geneva, bui docs not have clearly defined authority over the subsianiivc divisions and organs of thc Secretarial in Geneva. Theoretically, lhc UN organirations in Geneva ukc orders from New York, but the distance and ihe lack of supervision from UNOG give them substantial independence and make them susceptible to cecoming Ihe prescricariicubr country or group of cou nines.
is composed of the OlTicc of lhc Director Generalumber of divisions dedicated to ihe provision of conference and language services,maintenance, and lhc upkeep of Ihe library. The
United Nations Office at Genera
niled Nations Office at Vienna Although smaller than thc office in Geneva. Ihe United Nations Office in Vienna has much ihc same function ss the office in Geneva and also has become the abode of several substantive divisions and organs of the Secretariat. Thc following bodies are located in Vienna: International Narcotics Control Board, the '; United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control. Uniicd Nations Ind us! rial Development Organization. UN Center for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs. Uniled Natrons Relief and Works Agency for Patcstine Refugees in thc Near Cast, and thc United Nations Conference for the Promotion of [ntcnuiion* aln the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy.
Number ofsi Europeans: *
I'nifcd Nations Office ai Vienna
eer*tariai of the Uniled Nations ranironmcnl ProgramUNEP was creaied2 to monitor sijnifieani changes in the environment (pollution levels in panic* ulaOand to encouracc at well as coordinate sound environmental practices. Ilroduct of Ihc UN Conference on Ibe Human Environ ttrentrcanirod alone mgch thc same lines as UNIDO and UNCTAD. UNEPt ec-crmnc council reports to lhe General Atsembly ihroueli lheand Social Council, and tl is assisted by iis own sccre.arat.wiihin the UN Secretariat. Alone with crovidine support for theouncil.ecretariai aKo coordinates all urograms eoncertted wilh the envitemmeni andund that partially finances thc initiative
Numer ofst Europeans- 13
Secretariat of thc United Nations Entirontncnt Program
ecretariat cf Ibe Uniled Nations Conference "on Trade arid DeieloprnentUNCTAD wu founded4 tos of Iradcllow developingreater role. It alto facilitates the coordinalion of activities by ihe other in-Uluiions wiihin thc UN system in the field of international trade anddevelopment. UNCTAD ispecialized agencypecial program under ECOSOC.uasi-irtdersrjvdcnl organ of Ihe General Assembly lhat reports to the Assembly ihrough ECOSOC. Il has its own secretarial and secretary general.
Number of Soviets/East Europeans: 19
Secretarial o( Ihe United Nations Conference on T'tdc and Detdoprocnl
Commissiorn (Genoa. Bangkok,Addis Ababa. BaiMadl - There arc five regional economic eoeriraiss'ioos (he Eceaoomic Commission fo* Europe (tCEj. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and lhe Pacificconomic Commiuion for Latin Americaconomic Commission for Africand thc Economic Commiuion for Western Aliahey were established to foster economic acirviiy in their respective regions and lo improve the economic rcUtioni between the countries in their regions and other eottntriet. The cor.uniuiom report annually to the Secretary General andit' their respective executive secretaries.ihdr secretariat, are formally pari of the UN Secretariat, they tend io be indepcndenieiult of resolutions, passed in the General Assembly and FCOSOC during, aimed at decentralizing UN economic and social fa net torn.
According to academic literature, ECE is thc most technically advanced and sophisticated of theIt operates through branch committees and deals wilh comples technological questions such as the steel committee, chemical indastry committee, and the gas committee. In terms of membership and Staff. Bloc representation in ECE is proprartn^rutety higher than in any other US organ.
he USSR was thc only Communist state represented oncalled the Economic Commission for Asia and (he Far Eastl tried but failed to gain some form of representation on the commission for North Korea. Vietnam. Mongolia, and China. However, when these stales were admittedhe United Natrons, except for Novth Korea, they automatically became members of ESCAP.
Unlike the commissions for Europe and the Pacific, neither the United Stales nor the Soviet Union is allowed to hold rnerpbership-liltut in ECA Both stalesaccorded observer status, which entitles ihem to attend sessions ss nonvoting participants Neither the Soviet Union nor any of lhe countries in Eastern Europe belong to or hold obscrrcr status in ECLA or ECWA.
Seere(arUt of (he United Nations '" '
Industrial Development Orgtmialroo (UNIDO)
UNIDO wis founded7 to promote and acwJer-aie the iradusiruliration of the developsng world and coordinate all UN efforts toward (his end. It is an organ of ihe General Assembly and functions as an "autonomous organization" within (he UN. Thepolicymaking body of UN IDOmember lndos(rial Development Board, which is elected every three years by (he General Assembly. The board
reportshe General Assembly-through (he Social Council. Ii is assisted by its own seerclariat within lh*-UN Secretariat, which isby an eaecuiive directorppoinlcd by (he Secretary General and confirmed by ihc General Assembly. UNIDO probably willpecial-iied agency this year.
Number of Soviets/East Europeans: 57
Secretariat of (be Uniicd Nations Industrial Dete4opincn( OrganiuKion
Seeretarlals of (he Staff Pension Committee, Coruultatlte Committee on Adminitlraliie Questiortt, Joint Inspection Unit, and Staff oa Leaie Without Pay The StafT Pension Committee carries out the entire administration of Ihe UN Joint Staff Pension Fund and services (be Joint Staff Pension Board, which is composed of members of Ihc staff pension committees of (he Uniled Na(ion* and (he specUHred agencies. The Commiiiee hasembers who are dccied by the General Assembly, appointed by lhc Secretary General, or elected by the staff.
The Joint Inspection Unix is responsible foi inspecting ard evaluating (he financial expenditures ofhe UN system. Il consists ofnspectors who are appointed by the General Assent-Hy.ecretariat, whose members are appointed by the Secretary General. It is located in Geneva.
Consultative Commiiiee on Administrativefocuses primarily on (he UN salary system, conditions of employment and other staff problems.
Secretariat of the Joint Inspection Unit
jii European! I
Staff on line Wilhoul Pay
Nunilwr of Senieii/fin
U. OflVm of Field Operations andissions The Office of fW Operations consist ol abut unarmed force whose fond ion is iotransport, rruinuin communications, and oversee the security of UN missions in the field. It does not undertake any functions of truce supervision otbul docs assist those bodies so engaged.
Thc Office of Special Missions consists of lhecontrol and command staff for the UN Truce Supervision Organization in Palestine. UN Military Observer Oroup in India and Pakistan. UN Force in Cyprus. UN Interim Force in Lebanon, and tbe UN Disengagement Observer Force between Israel and Syria.
D'fice of the Held Operation and External Support Activities
Nambci ofnmini: I
i"Nations Crater for Human SeltlernentiNairobi The United Nations Center for Human Settlements Serves the Ccnrsmission on Human Settlements, which reports to the General Assembly through theand Social Council, 'ine overriding goal of the center is to strengthen the capacity of individual nations to solve Iheir respective human settlements problems by developing strategies, disseminatingand coordinating relevant programs and activities of other UN organizations. The use of thc term "cenier" in the title is meant totatus sornewhat superior to lhat of most substantive division oithin thc [department of Economic and Social Affairs.
Number of Soviets/East Europeans: 5
United Nations Center for Human Settlements
ffice: of lhc Special Represcnlatiie of the Secrelary Ceneral foe the Law of fhe Sea
This office assists the Secretary General and the Conference on the Law of thc Sea. Thc conference was orif inally formed to modernize the body of interriatrortal law toverr.ni man'r activity on and beneath tbc oceans. Over ihe years, its agenda has crown to inchrde issues of icmiorisl limits; rights of passage through straits: use and conservation ofrights of land loci ed countries, international rales, machinery, and fees governing economicion of the seabed; control of marine pollution; scientific research: and procedures for settling disputes
Toial stair: 26
Number of Sovieis/East Europeans: I
Office of thc Special Representative of the Secretary General for the Law of the Sea
ffice of ibe United Nations Disaster Relic" Coordinator (UNDRO) Cenm UNDRO is authorized by and responsible to tbe Secretary General (or mobilizing, directing, andthe relief activities of thc variouswithin the UN system in responseequest for disaster assistancetricken state. It also coordinates UN disaster aid with assistance given by intergovernmental and nongovernmentalsuch as thc Red Cross.
Thc Disasterordinator is appointed by the Secretary General normallyerm of live years, andevel comparable to that of an Under Secretary General. Thc coordinator reports directly to the Secretary General.
Total staff: SO
Number of Soviets/East Europeans: 2
Office of Ihe United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator
enter for HumanThe Center for Human Rights is headedirector who reports lo the Secretary General through the Under Scerelcry General for Political and General Assembly Affairs. Its tasks include: the preparation of studies, reports, and publications on human rights and ihc implementation of thc Program for the Decade of Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. It provides ihcse servicesumber of UN organs, including the General Assembly. ECOSOC. lheon Human Rights. Ihe Human Rightsihe Sub-Commission on the Prevention of Discrimination and lhe Protection of Minorities, and ihc Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
Total staff: 89
Number of Soviets/liavt Europeans: 5
enter far Science nnd Technology for
DcrclO) men I
The Center for Science and Technologya product of the Uniled Nations Conference on Science and Technology for Developmentubsequent resolution allowing for the creation of an Intergovernmental Commit lee for Science .todfor Development. The Center aunt* thein eat tying out its mandate, which iselp the General Assembly formulate policy guidelines for the hormoniration of policies regarding science and technology within thc UN system. The committee monitors the actlviiies .in' programs iclated lo its mbyxt wiihin thc organs of (he UN system and prepares operational plans for carrying ou' thecf action formulated in Vienna. Itsorts andarc submitted to the Generalthrongh LCOSOC. which may trjrisrnttil deems necessary.
Total Half: 30
Numocr of Stwtcts/tast Euroi-eans: J
Cenicr for Science and TechnoloBy for Dorlopment
nited Nation Center on Trnnsnatinnal Corporations
The UN Center oo Transnational Corporations is thc secretariat of the Commission ontandinp committee and subsidiary body or ECOSOC. Thc Commission was created to develop andomprehensive information system on Ihe activities of transnational corporations as veil as to help ECOSOC crealc (he basisode or conduct for transnational ccrporations.
Total staff: 62
Number of Soviets/liasl Europeans: i
United Nations Center on Transnational Corporations
ccrefarials of (he International Narcotics Control Bond and Ibe Uniled Nations Fund for Drag Abuse Conirol (INCB andThe INCB was created1 lo supervise Ihc im pic menial ion of ihe Single Convention on Narcolic Drugs, lis members arc elected by ECOSOC for five-year terms.
(JNFDAC was founded1 fortfcc nurrioscoi developing plans and programs related to drug abuse conirol and providing funds for Iheir ctccution. The overall administration and control over thc fundih ihc Secretary General. UNFDAC's executive director reports directly io the Secretary General.
fotal sta!f: 22
Secrelarial of Ibe International Narcotics Control Board
Secretariat of the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Conirol
ecretarial of the World Food CouncilRome
The WFC was founded4 by the Gene: il Assembly on the recommendation of the World Food Conference. Establishedinisterial or plenipotentiary level, it is meant to promote and coordinate thc political action necessary to carry out the General Assembly's resolutions concerning food. It monitors thc world food situation, mobilizesand seeks to ensure coherence of policy efforts by governments and international agencies to solve world foodhc WFC is sc.viced within the framework of tbe FAO as wdl as by its ownIt reports to Ibc General Assembly through ECOSOC. and itsembers are elected by ihc General Assembly for thiec-year tarns afterby ECOSOC.
Total staff: 29
Number of Soviets/East Europeans: I
Secretariat of the World Food Council
Tbe-IAEA was founded6 to fenter. encourage, and live advice on the development of the peaceful use of atomicoot ihc world. Thc agency alio has ropoosibtlily for forming and implc-mer.ting ibc safeguardof the Nuclear Non-Proli (era tion Treaty. Becauie of the changing energy situatroru it also has been called upon lo provide assistance in feasibility studies for nuclear power plants and lo espand iis work on the development of siting, safety, and reliability standards for nuclear
power stations. Technically, lhe IAEA is not aagency, but an independentorganization under thc aegis of thc UnitedItembers. The Soviei Union joined
Number of Soviets/East
The ICAO was founded4evelop tbe principles and techniques of international airand to (otter the planning and development of international air transport for the purpose of ensuring the safe and orderly growih of international civil amiion throughout the world Itembers The Scrviet Union joined
Number of Soviets/Easi Europeans: 21
International Gvll Arialion Organization
ii founded9 to improve working and living conditions throughout the "Ortd bycountries to adopt imernrfiooal laborand recommendations telling minimum Hand-aids in such fields as wages, hours, work conditions, and social security. It also conducts research and technical cooperation activities, including vocational (raining and rnaragenxni doelepment. The ILO secretarial is called the Internatronal Labor Office, li is headedirector gcneial who is appointed by
the governing body. Thc director general's office is responsible for preparing ihe agenda documents for (he genera'conference, assisting member stalesthe conference's decisions, publishingrelevant ia!he orgsniration's work, and condnctirtg special irrvcstigations ordered by the conference and (he governing body.
Number of Soviets/East Europeans: 58
International Labor Organization
The 1Tb was founded5 as thc International Telegraph Union; its title was chaneodhe ITU is responsible for the improvement and tational use ol' telecommunications of all kinds, as well as for promoting and offering technical assistance tocountries. To this end. thc ITU is presently involved wilh: effecting the allocation of the radiofrc-quency spectrum and the registration of radiofre-quency assignments to avoid harmful interference between tadio stations of different countries:efTons to eliminate harmful interferenceradio stations of different countries: fostering
international cooperation in thedelTvery of technical assistance Io developing countries: harmonizing the development of telecommunications facilities, notably tltose using space techniques; undertaking studies; making regulations: adopting resolutions; formulating recommendations: and publishing informationtelecommunications. Ite Soviet Union joined
Number of Soviets/Essi Europeans: 18
Internat ions' Telecommunications Union
Uniled Nations EducatioosL Scientific, andOrganization (UNESCOJ-Paris UNESCO was foundedS to ptoinotecollaboration in thc fields of education, science, and culture. Itembers. The Soviet Union joined
UNESCO's secretariat is headedirectorwho is appointed by (he General Conference upon the rumination of thc Executive Board. As thc chief
administrative officer of (he organization, (he secre-tartai is chargedormulating draft workand wooosals for action by the Conference and thc Board. Staff appointments arc by personal choice but must be geographically reoecsentative.
of Soviets/East Europeans: 73
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
orld Health OrganJtntionThc WHO was foundedoact .ii the directing and ecvjrdiroiing authority on international health. Upon iCQucst. it helps governments strengthen their health services, by providinc information, counseling, and technical assistance. Along with promoting and conducting research on health-related matters, the WHO is also responsible foi developing international standards for food and pharmaceutical products. Itembers. Thc Soviet Union joined
Theecretariat is headedirectorwho is appointed by the Health Assembly on the nof the executive board. Thc secretariat isighest technical and administrative officer ofO and is ci-officio Secretary of thc Health Ass-mbly. the executive board and all othercommit tecs, and conferences convened under WHO auspices
Number ofast Europeans: 90
World Health Organijatiun
Humanitarian. Technical Aid. nnd Oilier ON Bodies
I. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEFl-NtwYorit
UNICEFfounded6 to help governments undertake long-range programs for the benefit of children. Thc organization focuses its aid primarily on health, safe water, sanitation, education, nutrition, and family planning. UNICEPs income consists en-tiicty of voluntary contributions from governments and private sources. Its executive board consists of representatives from JO countries whose ciccotivc director is appointed by the UN Secretary General in consultation with thc board. The Soviet Union joined UNICEFS.
Number nf Soviets/East Europeans: 2
I. Uniicd Nations Institute for Training and ResearchYork
The General Assembly authorized (he csiablishmcni of UNITARl is financed by voluntary conlions and/or granls from cove in meats, inter poretnmental organizations, foundations, and other nongovernmental soui.es As an autonomous-ithin thc frarnewofh of the United Nations. UNITAR is meant to enhance ihe effectiveness of Ihe United Nations by peoviehng facilities for high-priority training and research protectsasembers. The Soviet Union joined)
Total staff: S9
Number of Sovieit/Fast Europeans: S
United iNBiions Insliiutr for Training and Research
nited Nation Development ProgramYork
The UNDP was founded0 to administer and coordinate most of the technical assistance provided throuch the UN system, lis objective is to assist developing countries in their efforts to accelerate their economic and social development by providingand sustained assistance geared to iheirobjectives. Along "ith giving financialUNDP presently made available to developing ccuntries0 technicians and advisers IIembers The Soviet Union joined
Number of Soviets/East Europeans, 't
Uniled Nations Development Program
niled Nations Relief and Work* Agency for Palestine Rcfogm ia ihc Near KnitBeirut
UNRWAestablished by ihc General Aiiemily9iireei relief andrograms in lhc Near tail. lis operations are financed by voluntary contributions. The Sonel Union is not on iheBoard of UNRWA. bui there arcSoviets on loan from Other organisations presenilyhe agency's staff.
Number of Sovieu/East Europeans:
Uniicd Nation* Relief and Work* Agency for Palesiine Rcluetw in ihc Near East
nitedInstitute for Disarmament Research
I Mlill.'. , UNIDIRfunded0 as annm nut ice nextinc ia dove rcbiBMiship mh ibc Department of Diufrriamcrii Affairs. The Institute it roponsiblc for carrying, out research (or ihc puiposes of assisting in ongoing negotiations in the area of disarmament and arms limitation, slimulatingfor net* negotiations, and providing general insight into the problems involved. Il is funded by voluntary contributions from states and private
Number of Sovicu/Eas; Europeans l
United Nations Insfitutc for Disarmsesearch
I lay ward R. "Dimensions of Conflici in lhc General Assembly."
The American Political Science Review, Vol. LVIII..
Allen, Robert Loring. "Uniicd Nations Technical Assistance: Soviet and East Europciinnternational Organization Vol. XI,..
Armstrong. John A. "The Soviet Altitude Toward UNESCO."Organization, Vol. XIII...
Iscrccsun. Hclgc OIc. "HumanProperly of the Nation-Stateoncern or thc Internationaltudy of the Sovici Position Concerning UNf Civil and Political Rights" Cooperation and Conflict. Vol. XIV.
en fold.. "Russia and thc Uniicdditorial Research Reports. (March lv.ll.pp.
Brinklcy. George A. "Thc Sovici Union .ind ihc Uniicd Nations: The Chancing Role of the Developinghe Review of Polith v. Vol XXXII..
Builer. William E. "Thc Sovici Union and thc Continentalmerican Journal of International Law. Vol.i..
Rylinyak. S. and Y. Osipov. "UN Conference on Tr.idc :sndnternational..
Clark, Claire. "Soviet and Afro-Asian Voiir.fi ir. lhc UNustralian Outlook. Vol. XXIV..
obert W. "Thc Executive Head: An Essay on Leadership in Inicrnalionalnternational Organization. Vol. XXIII..
Crane.Soviet Alliludc Toward Inicrnalional Spacemerican Journal of'Interixatiiinul tow. Vol...
Cutler. RobertRthlnMts ai UNCTAD_Globalandr^ motion. Vol. XXXVII. NoIMHf*
Dallin, Alexander. "The Soviei View of the Uniicdnternational Organ, anon. Vol. XV|..
Dmiiriyev, Igor. "IAEA andVw Timesol.. pp. Ill-Ill.
Drach. V. "UNESCO and ihc Contemporarynternational Affairs, pp. III-IIS.
Emerson. Rupcn andlaude. "Thc Soviet Union and lhc United Nalions: An Essay tnnternational Organization..
Fcency. William R. "Sino-Sovici Competition in ihc United Nalionv"Surrey. Vol XVII..9
Thc Soviei Union and ihe UniicdearbookWorld Affa.rt p
Fryer. Eugene D. "Soviet International Law Today: An Elastictary Um Review. Vol. LXXXIII..
Gallagher. Maureen. "Thc World Ikalih Organization: Promotion of US and Sovici Foreign Policymencan Medical Anociation Journal. Vol. CLXXXVI.
Gardner. Richard N. "Thc Soviet Union and the Uniicdow and Contemporary Problems, Vol XXXIX,..
Gardner. Richard W. "The Uniicd Nations Conference on Trade and Development" Imernohnnal Oreani.-ation. Vol XXII..
Garcau. FrrtfJcrrc* II. "Cold-War ravages Ashe UN Generalhe Journal of Politics. Vol XXXII..
Garcau. Frederick II "The Scwiet Bloc and the United Nation* SyMcm The Qualitativehe Wetiern Political Quarterly. Vol. XXV..
Gmsbtirg. George. "Soviet Atomic Lncrgynternational Organize; jit. Vol.H. pp. dffdaV
Golden. Jeffrey B. "The World Court: The Qualifications of thcolumbia Journal of Up* mul Social Problems. Vol. XIV.
Goodman Elliot R. "Thc Cry of National Liberation: Recent Soviet Attitudes Toward NationalnternationalVol. XIV.. PP-.
Goodrich, Leland W. 'Gcotraphical Distribution of thc Staff of tbe UNnternational Organization. Vol
Gregg. Robert W. "The Economic and Sooal Council Politics ofhe- Western Politicalol..
Guybowski. Kazimicra. "International Organization* from thc Soviet Point ofh- anil Contemporaryol. XXIX,..
HalHZ. Louis. "Thc UN'* Peacekeeping Crises: Thc Battle ofhc Collision Course of the United States and ihc Soviet Union Over Payment for Past Peacekeeping Opcrai.Mt* Could Cnusc the United Nations to Founder: Wtafs Behind theVerfPencr Report...
Herts ley.National Bias and thc Inicttutiotial Court ofidwest Journal of Political Science. NoS6
llottelct. Richard. "Moscow and the Unitedeader. Vol, pp IMS,
Hottclet. Richard. "Soviet Strategy and lhe Unitedrchestrating Protest andew Leader. Vol. L...
Jiieobson. Harold K. "Labor, ihc UN. and the Coldaernautnntl Orsanization. Vol. XI...
Jacobson.Thc Soviet Union, ilic UniicdJte Western Political' Qtlarttrlv. Vol. XTp.
"Thc USSR and Ihcnternational Organization, Vol. XIV. No.,.
Kapchcnko. N. "World Dcvclopmenis and thc Unilednterna-tional Mfairs..
Kihl. Young W. "Funclional Performance and Mcmbcr-Siaic Behavior in an Inicrnalional Organizalion: Test andournal of Politics. Vol. XXXIII..
Kodryaclscv. Vladimir. "Thc USSR and lhc Unitedew Timesp.
Little. Tom. "Mr. Khrushchev and thc Neutrals al Ihe UniicdorldVI, pp.
Malino'vski. V. R. "Centralization and Decentralization in ihc United Nations Economic and Socialnternational Organization, Vol. XVI...
Masters. Roger. "Thc Emperor's Oldussia and the Unitedale Review. Vol.Oj..
McMillan. C. IL "The Isilaicral CharaClcr of Soviet and East European Foreignournal of Common Market Studies, Vol. XIII.
Mitchell.nd Alanconhard. "Changing Sovici Altiludcs Toward International Law An Ineorporaiivceorgia Journal of International and Comparative Law. Vol. V|.-
OSiikwc, Chris. "Contemporary Soviet Oocinnc on ihc Juridical Nature of Universal Inicrnalionalmerican Journal ofImw..
Pethybridgc. Roger. "Soviet Nationals ai the Unitedntertm-rioimlol. II..
Pctrovsky. Vladimir I'. "Thc Sovici Union ami the United Nalions: How Russian Scholars V'cu the Internationalista. Vol. IV..
R;ri. Kul li. "Foreign Aid ;ind Voting in llic UN General Assembly.ournal of Peace Research. Vol.l..
Roster. Richard P. "Soviet Opprjsiitontcial Discrimination in thc Unitedussian Review. Vol. XXI..
Rowc. Edward T. "Financial Support for the United Nations: The Evolution of Membernternational Organiza-lion. Vol. XXVI.S7.
Rubinstein.. "Soviet and American Policies in International Economicnternational Organization. Vol...
Rubinstein. AlvinThc Soviet Image of thc UnitedlriimViin Philosophical Society Proceedings. Vol...
"Soviet Policy Toward Underdeveloped Areas in thc Economic and Socialnternational Organization. Vol. IX...
"Soviet Policy inase Study of Soviet Behavior inEconomicnternational Organization. Vol. XII. No.,.
"Selected (Bibliography of Soviet Works on the Unitedmerican Political...
"Thc USSR and thc IMCC. Some PreliminaryS ,Xnval Insliiute Proceedings. Vol. LXXXV...
Knsscit. Bruce M. "Discovering Voting Groups in llic Unitedhe American Political Science Renew. Vol...
Schapiio. L- B. "Soviet Participation in Inlernalional Ins'ilutions."ofairs, Vol..
Singlt. L. P. "Chaneinc Soviet Strategy and Tactics intudies on the Soviet Union. Vol. IV..
Viktorov. V. "Focus on Soviet Initiatives: Results ofh UN Generalnternational Affairs.
Zilc. Zigurds L.oviet Contribution lo Inlcrnaiional Adjudication: Professor Krylov's Jurisprudential Legacy" American Journal oHdierna-Hanoi Law, Vol.'LVIII..
ay ward R- and Russell. Bruce W. World Palmes in the General Assembly. New Haven: Yale University
Chiang. Pci-hcng. Nongovernmental Organizations at the UnitedNew York:
Claude. Inis. Swords Into Plowshares: The Problems and Prowess of International Organization. Nc* York: Random
Dallin. Alexander. The Soviet Union at the United Nations: Inquiry Into Soviet Motives ond Objectives. New York:
Fernbach. Alfred P. Soviet Coexistenceose Study of Experience in the International Ijibor Organization Washington: Public Affairs
Finger. Seymour and John Mugno. The Politics of Staffing the United Nations Secretariat. City University of New York: Ralph Bunche Institute on thc United Nations
Gardner. Richard. The Future of the United Nations Secretariat. New-York:
Grant. James F. The Soviet Approach to the Non-Aligned Mmvmcnt.ational War College
Gregg. Robcfi and Michael Barkun. The United Nations System and Its Functions.
Princeton. Newan Nostr and8
Hovel. Thomas. Bloc Politics in the United Nations Cambridcc: Harvard University
Hagras.ase Study in UN Diplomacy London: Pracgcr
Huss. Pierre J. and George Carpozi. Red Spies in the UN. New York
Jackson. Richard I. Thc Nonaligned. the UN. and the Superpower* New York:
Jacubson,ran. The USSR and lhe UN's Lamiimic and Social Aiiivities. Noire Dame: University of Notre Dame
James. Alan. The Politics ofew York: Pracgcr.
James. Robcn. Sniffing ihe United Nations Secretarial. Sussex: Institute for ihc Study of International Organizations
Kaufmann. Johan. United Nation' Decision Making. Alphcn aan den Rijn: Sijthofl and Noordhoff International
>.inl, G. J. The United Nations (living Countenanceoviet Strategicof Africa. Zwollc:. Tjccnk
Tlicodor. The United Nations Secretariat: The Rules and Practice. icxmgton: Lexington
VOTOZDV, G.chciimscv. The Untied Nationt Twenty Year* of failures and Successes. Moscow: Novosii Prcw
Naih.it. Maltya: I. National Interests and Bureaucracytudy of the United Nations Expanded Program of Technical Assistance io the Third World. Geneva: Tribune
Osakwc. Chris. The Participation of the Soviet Union it Universal International Organizations:olitical and Legal Analysis nf Soviet Strategics and Aspirations Intide ILO. UNESCO, and WHO. Leiden: A. W.
Povolny. fVlujmir. The Soviei Union and lhe United Nations: Same Soviei Policies in the International Organization. Czechoslovak Foreign Institute In Exile
Rhodes. James R. Staffing The United Nations Secretariat. Sussex: Institute of International Organisations
Rubinstein. Alvin. Thc Soviets in International Organizations: Changing Policy Toward DevelopingJ-6J. Princeton:
Rubinstein. Alvin A. and George Ginsburgs. cd. .Voire/ and American Policies in theS-Year Perspeitive. New York: New York: University
Schwcbcl. Sieplien. The Sci-relarv General of the United Nations: His Politicaland Practice. New York: Greenwood
Scwcli, James P. UNESCO and World Politics: Enggetng in International Relations. Princeton: Princeton
Sharp.he United Nations Economic ami Sotiat Council. New York: Columbia Umverriiy9
he International Labor Orpamzaticn Pan and Present. Moscow: International Relations Publishing
Silvcrstein. Harvey B. Superships and Nation-States: Tht Transnational Politics of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization. Wcsivicw; Wcstvicw Replica
Smith, Dclberl. International Telecommunication Control.
Stroessingcr. John. The United Nationi and thc Superpowers. United Stain-Stniet interactional ihe United Nations. New York Random
Variiov. Andrei. Ivan Maireycvarsd Vtoolod Okandruv The Soviethe United Nations. Moscow NovoMigency Publishing
Walters.merican and Sovietoniparative Analysis. Pittsburgh; University of Pittsburgh
Irene. "The Soviei Union and ihc UnitedPh.D.
Carlisle. Donald Siocn "Soviet Policy in the United Nations and thc Problems of EctmomK3 Harvard University. I
Lindell.Thc USSR in? New York University)
Salter. Charles R. "Pariicipalion of thc USSR in International'*0 Georgetown University.)
Tidmaish. Kyril. "The Soviet Union and ihcDoctor of7 St. Anlhony's College, Ox.Vd.)Original document.