1. GOOD PERFORMANCE OF SOYUZZOLOTO DURING THE 1970'S 2. ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT

Created: 9/29/1984

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rigin aad Development of Artela la tha Sovlat Cold Miningry

SUMMARY: During tha th* All-uhloooci*tioo for Cold Mining (Soyunoloto) almoat always fLllfld It* plan, wblchor productionetric ton* of goldc*nt purity. h* plant. Th* UMlajorlo tha auccaaaaa ol ih* Soviet gold nlolog loduatry during th* producing ii

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rut of tba country's gold Tba flrat artel In tbe Industry vas founded12 lo tba Chelbanya Cold Field oear Suausea. It consisted of only sli people. Still earlier, the alnss ofs were worked almost exclusively by prisoners. The largest construction project in the Magadan area during thesilometer road to eupplyfields and prison caeps. rlaoners worked on the. envoy Sumner wellsold nine on It4 during aa evaluation of Soviet capacity to repay land-Lease equipment.

TEXT: 1. , the All-Union Industrial Areocletioa for Coldhich waa subordinate to the Ministry of Non-Ferroua Metallurgyas headquartered on Proepekt Kalinin* ln Hoscow. he Chief of Soyunoloto was Petrnd total employees of Soyutsoloto at Its headquartete location nuabcred. Within Mlotsvetnec, Soyunoloto had the statusain adalnlstratlon (glavk).

Hinteveteet established five-year and annuel All-Union plena for gold mining, end toyussolotei wee reopoealble for meet lognnual All-union plan called for the miningetrlc. tone (at) of gold9 percent purity, lo that yeer^ealn elawat sll others duringoyunoloto fulfilled Ite plso. aflHgjft:oB,MnC' Source could not recallear lo which Soyunoloto fslleaToTuTFlll its plan, but he wae not efficiently certain to aeaert that at on tine durings did it fall abort.) Accordingerson who continued to be enployed in Soyunoloto the plsn1 wa* MS et. (eg^gflp Connent: The lncraae* ln plan fromwaa probably realistic because Soyuisolotoood record oflta plana. In addition, for aubeequeot yeara, additional Increases should be poaalble because of the newon Novaya Zealya, which employees of Soyunoloto eald la extreaely rich. Horaovcr, Klmevetaat was allowing the Artel Systee to expend at the expense of the state-operatsd aloes of the Stete Mining Systeo, and the former was hlstorlcslly ouch aore efficient than the latter.)

Throughout tbe. the Artel Systea (Starate1'ekaya Sisteea Dobychl) grew eteadlly at tbe expense of the Stete Mining Syetee (Cosudarstveonaya Slateme Dobychl). Th* State System typicallyold field which waa divided into at least three aectlons (uchaetkl)

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letter eeraedew rubles per sooth. UnlikeQ's sadleoet ell of these employees were free leborere (vol'no-neyemayye raboehlye) rether than prlsooere. Oa average duringn* grea of gold coat froao IB ruble* to produce under the State Mining Systea. The typical artel, on th* Other hand, hadorkers, of whom onlyere administrators. It bought and ulnteloed its own equipment, unlike the field of the Stetesod th* artel*hole vere noted for the speed with which they repeired their equipment end for Its generelly good condition. rtels were selling gold to Soyunoloto for only five toruble* par gran and were paying their worker* sn average of aore0 rubles per month. The totel share of gold produced by artels resettedercent8 (up froa aero, eod eealor officials of Soyunolotothat the ertel share would reachercent

4. plt* their glaringly superior productivity, ertels weresoaa official* of Mlatevctmet end Soyur-ioloto on the ground* that capital!*! f produce I n. yjrWf* Commonti Thia was obviously aa other aourc*irritation wa* that thejofof th* Slat* Mining System quit, whenever they could, to switch t* lato quadruple or quintuple their hoae eupport of artel* turaad out to bc crucial to thalr

growth duringa waa Vladlalrhoor gold ainlag.

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The very first artel In the Soviet gold alolng lnduetry1 or2 at th* Chelbauya Cold Field (Frllsk), located approximatelyllocaters (ka) to the west of Susuaan ln Siberia, otally new organisational form, thi* artel did have an antecedent at Chelbaoya Itaelfi free labor {vol'oo-oeyemnyye reboohiye) ae opposed to prisoner labor. Durlag the. the Chelheoye Cold Field wea Oubdlvlded Into four geographlcel aectlooe: Section 1yy), Section 2, nd the Zhelanlye Section, which wee namedtrau which flowed through It. At each of the first three aectlons, Chelbenya eaployed approximatelyrisoners, whll. at the Zheleolye Section, it eaployed only0 free workers; deeplte the dleperlty, the output of Zheleolye was spproalmately the same as th* output at each of tha flret three ssctlons because the free labor force was auch more efficient. Tha free workera of the Zhelanlye sector ware feraer -rlsonerswbo^bad.completedw.ra etill enbject te late real Sia of theaa^ worket

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aa ertel on tha following three haalc cooditlone: they vould pay their owa eslerles; tbey would buy and aalotaln thalr own equipment] and tbey would aall gold to the eteterice of one-third that of tbe rest of tbe Chelbanya Cold Plaid.

'.. By way of coaparieoo, gold mined by the prisoners io Seetlooaf Chelbenyeoat about eight old roblea per graa to produce, and gold produced by tbe free workera of the Zhelaolye Section coat about ala eld rublea per gram. The prlaooere were unpaid, while tha free workera of the Zhelenlye Section eernad00 old rubles per month. All mining was from shallow drafta, none of which was deeper thaneters Mining operations occurred only during the four Summer months; It wae too cold during the remainder of the year. Tha purity0nd coats were calculated per graa at that purity. Howevar, Chelbanya's annual plan, which waa three and one-half at of gold during the, was stated In goldutlty Chelbanya'a production was picked up twlcs each week and trucked, under guard, to Magadan. Proa there, It waa flownefinery la Movoelblrsk. Officlela of the Chelbeeye field could not tell how9 purity gold they had minad'eechtil Hovoalblrek refinery notified thea.

Another Slberien field, the Perspektivoyy Cold Field, olned about two and one-helf at of gold per year during the. Located about five ka southusuman, it employed0 prleooera0 free workers. It mined by surface drag lines and washed Its ore with high pressure hoses.

g. During thes ande, supply of the very Urge nuaber of gold fields in the Magadan area was greatly hampered by the poor road network. Accordingly, the alngla largest conetruction project In the aream road linking Sueuaan and Khandyga. The project was handledinistry of Internal Affaire (MVD) administration calledpte*leelye Dorogaml Lagaryey, Adalolstretloa of Roads for Camps). DORLAC's haadquarrere vas located at AdlgkhalakX. which was located about halfway between Soeuman and the village of Hyaklt on the road. All labor used oo the project conalsted of prleooera;rlaooere froaaapa worked on the roed. Aa the projectrison caop wae built about everya along the road, constructionjilong' ihe'ctf

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Actual supply of the canpe and tba gold aloes duricge la the Kagadaa area waa handled by an KYD adnlaletratloa called KOLrHSNAJ (Rolyaa Saabehenlye,olyaa Supply). The goods which EOLYrlSKAS procured were transported for It to the various aloes and caapa by another HVD adsloleirntlon called TRANSLAC (Ttenepottransport for Caapa). The heedquarteta of TRANSLAC was in the vlllege of Myaklt between Susuaan and Khandyga.

In. envoyisited TRANSLAC'a headquarters la Hyeklt on en loepectlon of the gold flelde with the ela of aacertalning whether gold productloo would be eufflclent to. Und-Lease. Hla vlelt waa coordinated by Colonelhief of Tranalag. Harkov ordered very aztenelve preparatlona In advance of -alls' visit. All prlaon caapa within sight of the roads oo which Walls would travel were dleaantlad, Including all faacee aad guard facilities. On the actual day Walla arrived, all prisoners were aarchad deep into the taiga, out of eight. Becaasa Walls wss to visit ths Koosoaol'sk Cold Plaid, tha director ofield was ordered to allow eeveral days* worth of panned gold to accumulatehla acreena, and he wa* to 1ofore Veils that the total amount vlaible incraens had baan produced on the day of tba visit. Also on that day, all prisoner workers at tha field were dressed la civilian clothea. Meet important to Markov, all evidencethe prisoner-miners were. rations wss oblltereted, because tha ratlona were supposed to be destined only for ailitary units. In fsct, during auch4 ths gold olner-prlsoners ware being fed Upton tee, white bread. flour. canned aeat aod vagatablea. Thl* atteeti i ths sitreaa Laportanc* which Soviet authorltle* placed oo gold ainlog.) Wellsatisfaction with his vlalt to Colooal Harkov. Shortly after Welle left, Karkov was promoted to the poeltlony of tne Ohlaat' Patty Coamlttee la

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