flPPROVfED FOR RELEflSE1
Assistant to the President for*
National Security Affairs Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation Director, National Security Agency
of Official U. S. Personnel in Moscow and Leningrad to the Chemical Compound NPPD (fS3
is incontrovertible evidence that the KGB has been systematically applying chemical substances to official U. S. personnel in Moscow and Leningrad. Although at least three or four different compounds appear to be involved, the. most consistently applied substance hasnitrophenyl)-rf,(NPPD). The KGB program is designed to contaminate U. S. officials in the USSRighly persistent chemical so that these individuals leave detectable traces of the substance on any objects they subsequently touch.
There has been periodic intelligence reporting on the contamination. personnel in the USSR with NPPD and other substancesumber of years. The first confirmed reporting of the presence of NPPD, in the formellow powder noted on clothing and cars, was in Moscow in October Positive samplings for NPPD in yellow powder form were: oneoneone threeone1 and three The initial analysis identified this specific chemical (NPPD), but the full significance and extent of the deployment of this chemical against U. S. personnel were not known until the early summer In an effort to establish whether the KGB program posed health or safety risks to u. S. personnel, thie Agency arranged for NPPD to be subjected to the Ames/Salmonella test (seeelow) Although results of tho tests, received in revealed that NPPD could be harmful, the level of exposure by means of the yellow powder was not
the basis of evidence that NPPD,rackingbeing employed in forms other than yellow powder,
in May and implemented an extensive samplin^^rograrnror NPPD in the Soviet Union and East European countries. Laboratory testing is still incomplete, but the preliminary results indicate that the contamination of U. S. personnel in Moscow and Leningrad is more pervasive and chronic than we had previously assumed. Further sampling will be required to determine the full extent of the exposure of. personnel in the USSR to NPPD and other chemical substances, but there is absolute proof that. officials and their family members have been contaminated. NPPD does not occur in nature, so the presence of the chemical is not accidental. The exposure is deliberate and specifically directed. officials.
Ames test was developedears ago by Professorat the National Institute of Health and is currently theused short-term test to determinehemicalgenetic mutations. This test is widely yised throughoutworld and has been usedimited extent inand Asia. Damage to genetic material (mutations) canadverse genetic effects in future generations,and inherited birth defects. Substances failing thehave been shown toercent probability ofin humans. Ames testing of NPPD revealed it to bepotent mutagenic agent. NPPD tested positive in all 10 an extremely rare event. Next, a series of with animals was conducted to determine the acuteof NPPD. The results showed that NPPD is not ery unexpected effect was observed fromto massive doses of the chemical. Classicgait followed by coordination and balance problems, Animals lost the use of their hind limbs, went down,developed respiratory problems. This led torepression and eventual death. The potentialtoxicity with repeated exposure to NPPD is unknown,importance of this question is heightened by theinvolvement. Delayed deaths at lower, althoughdoses in the animal tests reinforced this concern. the Agency's testing resulted in the conclusion thatpotency of NPPD is strongly indicativeotentially
carcinogenic material and that important questions of toxicity through chronic exposure remain to be resolved. Additional information on the Ames test and NPPD is attached.
5. . personnel and dependents who have been assigned to Moscow and Leningrad5 to the present may have been exposed to NPPD and/or other substances in unknown quantities. Medical monitoring of these individuals is indicated to allay any concerns they may have and to determine whether there have been harmful long-range effects. Additional sampling and laboratory testing are required to identify conclusively the other substances involved and to determine whether they are also potentially harmful. oordinated interagency program is underway to deal with the many implications of this problem and to prepare the. Government