Uk of Beirutirport.
manyertoritts have enteiod and exiled Lebanon via Beirut International Airporl. Numerous lerrotiM attack* outlldein Weiiernbeen conducted by operative* who new out of Beirut.addition. Ibe airport ii*eir ha* lervedIhe siteorarderable number and variety of lerrorist activities, crpociallv tkvjtckins. Although much, use of_ihe airport by tororct* ha* occurred without our notice, theMiddle Eastern terroriPl group* are known to have been involved:
. Radical Lebanese Shia* have intuited*iipon en routend from Europe. Some of their skyjacking* have Involved Ihe attpou.
. Operative, of iheadr Brigade, affiliated with Amal. probably have passed through theoute to West European counu tea to attack Libyan Interests. The Muta Sadr Brigade bit hijtefced several aircrafi. and meet of ibese (kyjackings have involved ihe Beirut airport in some way.
. Matt of the airport employee antvidence th*nd uuticab drivenik of eollabontori for Sbia group* hoping to kidnap foreigner* orotable* going to or from the airport. In addition they wob.bly are availableupport Otherndeavors.
. Untilalestinian terrorist* made extensive use of ibe iirporlerieL as -ell Si Pales.iaian and eon-Palestinian personnel, io sad from Europe. Since the Isiaeti invaWn of Lebanon, Pak.un.an use of the airport has declined, but both pro- and ami-Arafat raieitinian group* continue, to move personnel In and out of Lebanonihe airport.
The Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Faction .Irtioti certainty has tent some of lu operative* and materiel to Europe via the iirpcrt.
. Armenian lerrorltt. have fWn from Beirut io Europe, where theyon Turkilh diplcenatic facilities.->
AirpUne hijacking, involvinge. national Atrpon have been aOur record, indicatei percent ofalllha. occurred outtide the United St. ies_beg.it, passed through,at the airport- This tony IS-ycar record demort.irttei the existence ofleeutily problem there.one that the collapse ol Ubtaett .
aagaaluawm* . aasg^HaniabBBBBar.^ Tw. inila*
authority hat only accents:
(torn various group* to pa" through ihe airpoit covertly
of trying to keep terrorilli out, lympaihctic airport woiker. have actually
Ai present, security ai Beirut International Airport ia prscitcallv nonexistent. The airport it surrounded by Shia Muslim ilumi in which pro-Iranian extreraisis operate virtually it will. The radical Kitballah otganiaation is strong Jrt nvoii or the arcat adjacent to th* airport iniJ *aesaseadBSjgaw^
airport roadhere foreigners and Lebanese Christians can easily be kidnaped^
airport iudf it under no central authority. Militiamen of variousroam the passcaxer terminal, occasionally learehing or robbingrefutb" between rival mBUUnten have erupted In the airport several timet. Moreover, artillery and mortar round* from Ihe surrounding civil war tone periodically impact within ihe atrpori oerimoler. The airport ha* been closed tor much of ihe past year because of damaged runwtys, and alrpori employees have gone on sirike repeatedly during ihetwo yean to protest the dangerous worklngconditides
Hijacfcinfis In'oiring Beirul International Airport
flight M7 ftooi Athens io Rome wa) divcriedeirul. Arter two round nip* to Algiers, doring which tonve hostages were releasedS Navy serviceman wai murdered, elememi of Hizballah and Amal took control of the operation ia Beirut. The rest of the nonages were released oaune through ibe inierccsiion of the Syrian Government.
Palestinian protesting the hijackingoidanian Bight tbe previous day sciiedplaneeirut- to-Cypru* Right after it landed In Lam tea. Cyprus. He wat talked out of the hijacking by authorities.
gunmen from Ibe "Su*id* Brigade Imam al-Sadr"ordanian airliner while it was on ihe ground at the Beirut airport ind forced Ihe crew toyprus, llaly.and back to Beirut before releasing tbe passengers and blowing
lone gunmaniddle East Airlines fligbi Trcm Beirut to Jiddsh. The plane continued to Jiddah where the hijacker wis persuaded to surrender
tbtfryLebanese Druie. protesting the high eotl of living, seited an aircraft on Ihe
ground la Beirul and forced It to fly to Larrue* and then bach to Beirut, where he came under the protection of Dniteid JumbUlt. One person was killed and seven wounded.
grouo of Shias from the Musa Sadr Brigadeypriot airliner ai the Beirut airport and demanded that the Cypriot Government release two colleague* held for an earlier hutching. After apparently receiving the itsuranees they sought, they departed ihe plane. The Cypriou later released the two prisoners.
four Lebanesehouwaiti airliner from Dubayy to Tehran began their mission from the Beiiut airport. Two American* were killed in Tehran by tbe hijackers.
Shias diluted an Air France flight from Frankfurt to Beirut before beading: to Tehran, where they releaied their hcotages aad blew upthepUrx't Big hi deck.
Abu Dhabi-io-Beirut flight wet hijaekedebanese Shia who demanded torest conference lo denounce tbe Itiaeli occupaiion of touthcrn Lebinon.
UK fiom ihe Muta Sadr Brigadeuwaiti airliner la
7 DettmberLibyan Bight from Zurich lo Tripoli was hijacked by Amal members
eerronding Information concerning tbe Imam Muta Star. The plane wai forced to fly to Beirut. Athens. Rome, and back to Beirul.
Jordanians,toebtuwaiti merchant,uwill Airways Beirut-to-Kuwait flight io Bahrain, then io Tehran.
manoy pistol ailcmptcd to hijackuminio- Beirut flight to focus attention on ibe Imam Muta Sadr't dltappearanee In LibyaB.
anuaryLebanese Shias armed with pistols and grenades were arrested at the Beirul
airport trying tolight to Pails.
anuarylone hijacker dfrerted loiddle East Airlines night leaving Baghdad.
He was arrested by Lebanese authorities after hetiiemem about the disappearaDceoftbe Imam MusaSadr.
anuaryShia gunman demanding the return of ihc Imam Muss Ster attempted to divert
a Middle East Airlines flight to Tehran. After allowing the plane to land in Beirut for refueling, he surrendered to Lebanese authorities.
7 5rpreai*erAlitalli Tehran-to-Kome Bight was hijaeked by three Lebanese Shia tiuocnis
demanding Inforaattion about the Imam Mats Sadr.
Lebanese Shias demanding Ihe release of ibe (mam Muia Sadt hoicked a
Middle East Airlines plane in Beirut ind diverted ii to Jordan and Cyprus.
Swiss woman pianninsUM""Zurich-to-CairO flight was arrested after receiving explosives in the Irantii lounge at tbe Beirut lirpori. She had planaed io demand the release of Palest ir. inn terrorists.
Pnkitinran* demanding, the releaierisoners in Arab Jaibritish Midlands plane bound from Behol lo Kuwait.
Arabs hijacked toiddle East Airlines flight en route from Beirul io Baghdad, After the plane landed In Kuwait, governmenl commandos overpowered the skyjackers.
Turks diverted tourkish airliner on aflight. Upon binding. Ihey surrendered to auilsodtiet.
Palestinian terrorist* killed three aadhile trying lolane bound from Beirut io Cairo.
Palestiniansoha%uoaH0ahcionging lo Ihe Popular From for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) were arrested iitempling to smuggk weapon* andLM aircraft In Belial.
men claiming membership in ihe Palestine Liberaiion Army and demanding release of terrorists held in Athensritish Airways flight out of Beirulforced it to land in Amsterdam.
Palestinian* and one Lebanese about to board in Air Frincc Right from Beirut to Nice were arrested after Iheir luggage was found io contain explosive* and liming devices.
craherLufthansa flight from Beirul wai hijacked and forced io flv to Munich. Nieosii.
Zagreb, and Tripoli by two Palestinians who demanded and obtained the release from West Germanon meet of tbc surviving members of the Black September terrorist group that hid conducted the Munich Olympic* massacre.
Univer* ity of Beiruthomas Sulhcrlind was kjdnsped by several orSoadl of ganmen after arriving a( ihe airpoa.
French journalist and researcher was kidnaped while driving into Beirut from (he airport.
loyaldU began reentering Lebanon via Ihc airport. Personnel working al Ibe airport liavcaaaajajdjah iuiiled Palestinianentering and leaving Lebanon.
Lebanese Shia lerrOritl carrying explosives in hit luggage was arreiled in Zurich after arriving from Beirutiddle East Airline* flight. He was linked to seven Lebanese arrested in Rome onovember for conspiring to bomb ihe US Embassy.
A large suitcase bomb *ll defused al the airport.
Armenian terrorists hew from Beirui io Lisbon where ihey took pan in ihcseiiure of (he Turkish Enibauy
dissidents (raveled lo ttcirvt for training In Palestinian camps. Many instances of such irarcl have been reporiei*.
mem hers of Latin Americanaps were spotted flying to Beirut for meeting* and possible training wiih Palestinian groups-
Norwegian was arrested when explosives were found la his luggage. He wat en route to Frankfurt.
member* of the Palestinian group Seiqa held five persons hostage at the Pan American hangar, demanding joeps and trucks.
US businestmen were kidnapedaxi en route from Ihe airport to downtown Bcitui. They were relcated four daj* later minus (heir money and passports.
Northernaad Ballot Bom" Strategy Coarinues
The Provisional Sinn Fein, the political "im nf ihe Provisional IRA. woncats in peovincewide municipal eleeiioni on IS May. Five days Luer. the Provisional IRAombehicle car tying (bur members of the Royal Ulster Constabulary, killing (hem all outright. On I* June the Proves set offpowerful eat bomb in downtown Belfast, the first such attack In several years. Eight persons, including two policemen, were injured. These bombings suggest that the organisation Iniendt to continue splitting its eHoris between the ballot and the Ujaasa,
Tbe strong dectoi si showingersonal victory for Geiry Adams,IRA leader who has helped mastermind ihc "Armalile and bolloiof recent years. The iirategy has not been popular with theofowever, who are kain to spend funds from Ihc war chestcampaigns, and five hardliners were recently expelled fromfor opposing it. Among them was Ivor Bell, one of theof the campaign that ousted ihe old leadership ind made way for Gerry
Brigades Leader Arrested
Barbara Balearani. Italy's most wanted terrorist, was arretted near Rome onune. Balearani. Ihe reputed head of tbe Red Brigades cue olive committee, was tbc subject of II arrest warrants including one for tbe assassination of former Italian Premier Aldo Moraer captureenewed counter!errorist campaign by Italian police that also ltdhe uresis in Rome last April ofuspected Ked Brigades members, including Vittorio Antonlni.the leader ol ihe important Rome column. Latnaa*
Americans Slain on Sea Salrador Sidewalk
Onune gunmen in Salvador an Army uniforms mac hi neeidewalk cafe in Saa Salvador killingersons, among them four off-duty US Marine security guards from the US Embassy and two American civilian^nHMMlHrthe terrorists fired initially al Ihe marines, llien ai otber labkJ where Silvaooran civilians were seated, and finally al passing traffic. Securily in the area of ihe attack hit always been lax. even though it ibuts ihe homes of wealthy Silvadorans, govetnmertt officials, and foreign
. ihe clandestine Radio Veneeremoi staled the eperiiici had been oondactcd by ihc "Mnrdocueo Ctm Urban Cueitilla Commando* of thehe urban lei ro* til aring of Ibe Ceauml Amcrieaa Rr-olalieaary Worker's Party. The samet.aKadoraa Ana.Corps patrol oa4 and ai lacked National Police rafucks early this spring toteen previously associated with urban terrorUm like (he cafe masucra Thii action more closely reiemblea the lypc ofaltacki pcrpeuaicd by El Salvador's moll violent urban terrorist group the Clara Bliiabelli Ramirejr Front. That uoup. which surfaced inas responsibleumber of lethal attacks in San Salvador, including ahe assassinationsS Navy adviser in1arradoran Army spokesman in March of (bis
The unprecedented attack marramatic taenia too of (errorisaa in Ibe capital, tine* its BBigaitude aoeabeyond previous attacks by even tM radical guerilla ipiTicf gmupi
Escape From Prison
Luc Reineltc, leader of the Caribbeaa Revolutionary Alliance, and three of his principal lamtcnanu escapedusse-Terre prison onune. Reinetie hid beenyear sentence for terrorist acis committed in Guadeloupe The escapes mayew wave of terrorist violence in the French Caribbean depart menu, (aaffjh
< i>riin( Claims of Rnaoaataility for Airiinor Crash Off Ireland An Ait Imba pUrte exploded and went denm off Ihe coast Of Ireland onune kilhag itt persons. An aoonynaoas caller said theb Studenth Regiment" bad bombed the plane to protest 'Hinduh. or Deshmcsh.ilitant Sikh group rcaponaible 'or rainy acts of terrorism and communal <iol*ace in Indiail andormei leader of ihc Canadian Sikh Student Federation drmed thii group hid been responiible. laying ihe federation no longerecond caller cliimcd credit In ihe name of ihebeiationroup that seek* the transfer of ihe stale of Kashmir io Pakiitin. We believe Sikh enirembis were ptobibly
Sm peel adeset
Five personi. three of ihem juveniles, were arrestedune, when the> were observedim tubmiehlnegun nearearch of their car lamedopyommunist Combatant CeHi fCCCI eommuaicue. Two other persona were arrested ibe next day. The three jaieades were bier released, baa pottce eoailnaie to hold WiadiaU- ionelgian Air Force sergeant; fteeianariend of vor Ncuman and former member of lb* same military uml; Louis-Jean Carpenticr, brother of Posianr and. anlil last December.Belgian Navy diver; and Angela Alvaret-Coitales,ounger btotheit art among the three youths released. ifjHaV
Westin Airport Bomb Killi Three
The blast, which sdo injuredersons, occurred in in area thai servicesand four Wen European airlinei, making Ibe target difficultdentify.intent (or willingness) to cause indiscriminate casualties probablywere not Wesi German terrorists, who are usually rather punctilioustargets of their bombings and assassinations. An unknown, apparentlyof environmental eairemisls calling themselves the "Peace Conquerors"2
Attacks Mar Common Market Entry
On II June the separatist group Basque FaiherUnd aad Liberty (ETA) moved its
spring campaign of violence from the Basque provinces into Madrid. Three
suspected ETA members gunned down Col. Vicenteawyer for ihe
Army COasiruction Office who hid no involvement in Basque affairs. The gunfiie
also killed ihe cotonel's chauffeur.
boon later, police discovered tbe leriorists' bomb-rigged getaway or parked in the garage oflarge department store. After evacuatingeople from ibe vicinity, ihc police attempted io defuse the bomb, but two policemen were killed and ai least eight others injured when it ciplodcd. Later in the day.errorists ihot andavy noncommissioned officer In Port tigs leie.eajfB
officiis saw these attacks primarily as an attempt io mar ihe day
chosen fot tbe signingea ties thai will admit Spala to tbe European Economic
Communky inhe altacks in Madrid wereay for ihc group
to show lis strength and gain maximum publicity amidst speculation that
government might renew its efforts to open negotiations with ETA.
LARF Members Sentenced lo long Prison Tfdil
years* imprisonment (ore*plc*rves andember of ihe Lebanese Aimed Revolutionary Faction(LARIFK He had been arrested in Tries*osephine Abdu was convicted of being bis oeeompl.ee andear icnlcnce. She also faces trial in Romeember oL ihe^ LARF. wtochhss threatened to condocl reprisals against Holy if Ul memberi are
nol id eased.
Jardaalan Jet* Hijacked for Opposing Onune sii gunmenoyal Jttrdaaatn airliner while iiontrut aad forerd ilolr lejuvi From Laraaea. tbc skyjacked plane proceeded to Tunis bat -as not permilicd to land; eventually ii Hew back to Beirut. There, iht skyjackers evacuated the passengers aad craw (including eight Jordanian sky manna's} toil blew up the plane They then disappeared into ihcound the a tbjaa^
"The Voice of Lebanon Radio den lined the iVyjaekert as nvembers of the Mun Sadr Suicideroup that hai hijacked planes from Beirut before. One of the skyjackers, however,ialemcnl in the name of the "Martyia of the Lebanesehe injaiktta' sole demaad was thai all Palestinians leaveor Tunisia. Weey probably were Shiai angered by recent Clashes between Pilcatir-dnsand the Amal autiiia and by Pa lea Una* Jotdarur. coope ration.
IIalestinianandpenadea Middle Eastern Airlines plane in Larnaca. claiming t* be acting Wi retaliation for (he attack on the Jordanian plane the previous day. He freed the passengers but held the cre-membcrs. demanding toboo Jordan.hile be wis persuaded to give up tbc ercnide. however, and was then permitted to tcave for Ammanoidanian airliner. Upon arrival, he -as srie^trd faa^W
Bomb Causes Carnage la Tripoli
The car riggedilogramsloirues. blew upandy store etowded with Muslim customers buying candy to celebtaie the end of Bamadan. Al leastersons were killed and IM injured No groap hat claimed responsibility.,
Iwmlisoso Welcomes Argmllo*
Sendtro Luminoso (SL1 guerrillas mirked Argentine Presidentine visit bycries of bombingsune ihai caused power blackouts in major Cities and damaged several targe commercial eaisblishmenl*Lima. The group ti also believed responsible forar bombs-one ouis.de the Presidential Palace, where President Belaunde -asiplomatic reception for Alfomin. and the other near ihe Palace of Justice, -here several accused SL guerrillas are on trial. These were the groups flrsi use of car bombs.,
On }Jane IMBWibtntl tu RcwJtaubaary Movement Tupac Anx.ru iMKTAI repeatedly itteiceceed Army iraefc an the Pan Aatciicanooe-en maulh of Lltna and took the toldVent' weaponsure .boat JO armed and hooded MRTA mem batchool ta Lima and urged the it-dent to join the "armedhe Mate day. anoltav aimedit raided two Lima thopptni center* and teittd iirgelood.ii distributed In nearby ihlMytOwnv Although thentt occurred on the tame night at twoSendero Luminraocar bombings in Lbna. there it no evidence that ihc iwdVouB. are eoordinaiiog ibeir opcratiorui. Meanwhile, the USaking tpcclat precaution! in responseeports thai Tupuc Amaru may attemptenior US official in order in ochinge him Tor impritoncd MRTA members, tmtrm?
EarctHaefore FVetngr eel
A Wenrovincial orTteiil wat amongostages of ihe Sudan People'i Liberation ArmyiSPLAieaeeuted onay by iheir guard, apparentlyrevent their latcue by approaching governmeni soldiers. The SPLA hai kidnaped other governmenitheir current ttitui it an known-but daea not practice utatti nation. Id tkil milt ace. the guard may have panicked, killing Ihe capiivci on hit own initiative inker than underaf*fafc.
> ploth Taa Wartert af AJraart
Onune at Tokyo's Nirit*ontb went oft baggage that had Jail beer cITondrde.noan Neihcomb wu io be iraatfe ittl so ta Aa laaa* Arghi. be ton ii detonated premature1 v. and thai ihc perpetrator* went Sikh citrcrruits ftggafJR-*
Five bombs eiploaed in the capital of Kaihrnindo and ihc western city of Pokhara catJune, leaving seven dead (including one of the bombers) and at traitthers injured. On JI June ihiee more bombi went off in the southern border town of Birgunj, hilling on* other pcrton. Th* largci* in Kathm.ndu included ihe Koyal Palace, Ihe Nationaloventment effice building, and the country* leading tourln hotel. An *ttembiyman andeonstiioent were killed in on*plot ion. ind four hotel imptoyee* including an Indian woman were killed al the hotel. These were Ihe flrii icnorin bombings ever recorded In Nepal Two prevlouily unheard-of group* have claimed eredii: the "Janw.di Moreha-)Revoluiioa*iy Prontl Innaicmcnt to an Indian newspaper, and th* "Samyuki Mukliin" (United Liberation Army) In lotfieu icatteted around Kalhmsndu
dead terrorist. Chriitas sen linked to tbc frmf.es of the ruling Paebellenk Sccialilt Partyowever, and fear of discovering more such embarrassing information may lead ihe governrccnt to abandon id investigation, ft/fr*'
Indigenous violence hit sur iged in Greece this year.he Revolutionary Oif aniiationovember murdered im irnative publisher Nikoiioa In March Am* State Stragglead George TVcfa nopoukn. aa Albcaa public prosecutor, la1 of al Ibraa major politicalArcbombcd. Two weeks before the national elccuofuune,anarchills"clashed with police and Athena University building fof Several
M ay Greek criminalTsoaaacwvis
ompanion ai the two were tryiag to Stan the WZ y vetwcSe In aa (coating gunnght. Taovuonvo aad a
ice olTicer -en Used Two other orndrrs -ere J wounded in the incident and subacc.uaoily died. Police / are still icekinc Use companion who iook_Tsouisouvii'1 I weapon from him al he lay dying
i*osludyin Weal Blcrlin He subseflueatlym. Austria, where heroupft wing Greek students.
Mm moved to Sweden. Baaaaasssaaaw" avoid prostom-wi in Gra: forelting of right-ing Greek students, fjamsr
Amil-Siott Sl'iggU surfaced in. clatmtig respoauibuity for Ihc eftirdef of Tbcofa Mesauloa. The Greek Govern mem. baseaablahed Twutsouvis's involvementhis killing. Similarities in modus operandi between the Tbcofa nopoulos assaaiination and other assassianions coeded byovember suggest Ihe possibility Ihe iwo groups are connected. In IH7S. Ihcovember groupuasasiinated CIAtation Richard Weld. Since then, the group has murdered seven more pcrsoni, Including US Navy Capl. George Tsaatia infter more lhandecade. Greek authorities have neither caught norf the group ajggaw*
Pattitlt Csrineri'onttmbrti of PASOK. The Oi^viieion press has alleged that, while in Sweden. Ttouticwvii joined the Panbellen-ic Liberation Organ laiion redecessor of PASOK
. . nation in his villiae
the recent elections. Vglyrakit was the Icadlru; PASOK parliamentary candidate for the to- r.
Terrorism In Sub-Satiaran-
Patterns andptK' P?
Terrorism watcriout problem in most pais of Sub-Saharan Africand there, it no indication that things will be much differenthe number of international terrorist incidents did increase somewhatoe to tbc decision by insurgent groups in several countries to deliberately target foreign missionaries, aid workers, or employees of multinational corporations. Tbc United States has notriority target in these situations; the few US casualties from terrorism in Africa4 were largely Incidental to local conflicts. Indigenous itrrorism continues to be largely the byproduct of ongoing insurgencies In which civilian targets arc easy to attack
In central Africa, most of the terrorism in ihe last yearalf hat been connected somehowibyan ambitions and concerns. In southern Africa, the continuing conflicts in Angola. Namibia. Moiambiouc, and Zimbabwe generated sporadic incidences of terrorism. The African National Congress (ANC] continued its terrorist campaign against South African Government interests, while Pretoria continuedumber ofput pressure on its neighbors to constrain ANC activities. (MgtsV
he tcrroriim in Sudan arises primarilyuerrilla war. The Libya aiuppoi ted Sudanese People's Liberation Armyowerful force in sout'ern Sudan, concentratei on legitimate military targets, but civilians are often vieiimired by its operalioni. Inor (sample, the SPLA sank altamer in ihe Nil*lock water traffic and cutudanese military supply line. Suttwquenily. th* SPLA look many of ih* civilian passeagers hostage and later killed some of them sfflpk
s* ih* SPLA deliberately urgeicdajsanaRyoften Ihaa in earlier years,o forceoreign personnel and theciotwrc af their projects For riarwgaV. empaayocseach oansuuetion tVm building ihe Jongsoi Canal were the targets of at least two armed attacks and case kidnapingonsequence, construction was halted, at least temporarily. Other rebel targets included misslonaiiti lone American) and aid personnel from foieign lovcrnmenii and international institutions At the security situation in the south deteriorated, many governments and private institutions withdrew personnel. Now that Ihc number of potential targets ia inner, the frequency of rebel attacks againti foreigner! lias lessened
bai long fomented insurgent and ic irons',n aart toike pro-Wot on Sudanese regime CoontcrvaiJiug Sedancse support for Libyan caikt* gave Oadhan an additional reason to back vlokncc by Sudanese dissidents in ibeir homeland. Considerable Libyan resource* vut devoted ic training, fuad.ng. and providing Imrstie support to thefrom bases ta northern Elhlopu) Libya also encouraged tbe itbcli lo coaduc. terroriil attacks in Khartoum aglinll various foreign "includingInor cumprl, four Libyan-trained Sudanese were arrealcrj (or plotting to attack Ihe US En ban y. (inong other urgel* ffl^ai
Tbc level of Libyan-Racked terrorism in Sudan in ihe future "ill depend in large measure on the policies and sliength of the new Sudanese Government. If the new reiimr continuesuild tics to Tlipoli and to deny tunporl lo Libyanadhtn may raerctte restraial in the nearhe mil andoaMcdlr retain lebwrsaoa and terrorism as policy options ic iaftucrxe developments there Tripoli it continuing to mobilise money, materiel, and manpower for potential operations in Sudan, anddraft will be quick to employ aay terrorist lactic he think* may intimidate the new regime to bis advantage, or evenown The Sudanese Governmeni has already handed the Libyan* *omc usefulh* establ ihrnent of diplomatic rein ions, which gives LibyaPeople's Bureau from which agcnti can operate; and the release of ill "political'ncluding those incarcerated lor terrorist plottiag with the Libyan* in the past, wavesool of poteniiai local Libyan turrogitet loi future terrorist oea>ai>oas.
Chad. After Ihc Libya ni failedro-QtdMh government in Chad through direct nuilitary iatervenliotJ. they turned to terrorism" i dosldcnt* backed by Ijbyaargeting ihe Flinch forces that had intervened to block Qadltali'i ambitions. Although no successful ittacht were mounted against Iiench inieresis inumber of plots were uncovered. Chadian President llabre was the target of one Libyan itrromt eocation at* ihe Cbadiitiutinciimm planning lo placeattache ease bombuilding where Habre wat to attendmealing.
|he had been trained and sent by thenJ Chad presented its evidence of this particular Libyan plotpecial meeting of Ibe UN Security Council. Cadhafi is likely to continue to use terrorism in hit effort to bring down the Habre regime ilihough the Libyans probably will not target French interests unless Paris sends military force* back into the country. fMaaV
Cran-af African Republic. In conjunction with Its campaign io replace French influence In Chad, Libyao bached local and foreign terroiltti In the Central African Repabbc Earlyor eaimple. Chadisa dittickou and Libyan agent*rench schoolestaurant in Baagvi Sack (tucks ware meani to islrrnirJaie the regime, challenge ihe credibility of French protection, and raise the cott to France of challenging Libya in Chad The Central African Republic wat alto usedtaging ground for at least oac lurornti attackeighboring country: Inersons were wounded when two eipioiionsiench aifbaer minute* after ll had landed in N'djameoa, Chad The aircraft hid come from Bangui, where two Libyans had been teen leaving Ihe pUacS Tripoli ho* coaliaucd to sepport fletsaacait Irving te
bring down ihe government in Bangui
Zaire. President Mobutu's backing of the French in Chid and hit recti ahl it time nt uf diplomatic retaiion* with Israel hive made Zairetarget of Libyan-tpontored terrorism. Inuiicave bomb ctploded while being unloaded from aa Acroftot flightmshaia airport;vidence the bomb had been put on the plane by Libyaa agcatt. Later thatotel frcQucnted by ibe f'reach was bombed ia Kinshasa fn Much, icveral Zairian facilities were bombed, apparently by Libyan-backed dm idem* Terrorist activity in Zaire ha* dropped off since then, but Zairiin dissidents continue io receive mi Ii' training and support from Lit
luypOTiintnitiation of saboteurs and materiel into Zaire.
Angola: UNITA Tesriss lo Terrorh* lilrongstanding and increasingly virulent insurgency. Supported by ihc Soul* African Government and by sympatturciiumber of Western courtiies. ihe National Unior fc the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) stages againstrmi-leanesthich rions supported by the Soviet Union and its allies, especially Cuba. Typically. UNITA insurgent forces mount attacks agamit government militaty forces and edrnioistiutlic and economic instsllaliom
Last year, however, UNITA beganI Mitdil fc-eig-andf.rthcr its objectiveeconomy and dncowtagingAfter leparaie attacks against theofebruary andUNITAotalenerally UNITA dec* til Westernharm: most ai* marchedebel strongholdpari of the country aad eventually fc'easccInternational Red Cross or anotherbte. UNITA has deliberately beentargets, especially Eaueia blocadvisers, in lepra of intimidating theirinto reducing aid io iheFor example, UNITA bombedof Soviet. Cuban, and East German^ggaanaag. ot many as
UNITA leader Jonas Sa<nad> has warned ifcal bo group internal toattacks en faelliiics of Westera martinational corporations bceauac revenues from these corpcralions help lo firm me ihe governincnl's oparations. including in counter! at urgency effort. In addition, the heretofore all but automatic release of Western hostages may be
at an end. Savimbl has announced thai the release of all hostages muit now be negotiated directly with ihcir home governments rather than ihiough intermediaries Since Sarimbi has uted tuck direct negotiations ioeasure of ometal recognition, irtosl con nines had biiberso depended aa In lee media ries dgga*
The South African Borderblack nationalist African Nationalhas been responsible Tor most of theSouth Africa The ANC* goals differ (torn thoseother African groups that employattacks are directed less at their tsrgtu peral iucmnconstilucocy. each iacsdert isdemoasirate the groups viability, thatsupporters and validating its penmen as its*mititanlorganilaion. Although Ih* Awing sierrorist organ!ranon.that by gradually gaining popular support itmatureull-fledged
Therimary tactic has been bombing, it commonly tar gels government nmccs, transport, nun lines, electrical posver irons for men. and other Infrasiraeiura! facililici. ll designs its opcalMni to masimin ihcir syaibolM effect, and it usually tries so avoid caning indiscriminate en sua hies. Th* ANC mounted more than three dozen attacks in Ifad. they appeared to be timed primarily to keep the gioup in the limelight and io offer evidence thai the South African Government's counter terrorism proa mm had failed to stifle it.
Unlike most African croups, the ANC has conducted some of its attacks outside the borders of itscountry. In4 in Swan land, for example. ANC operatives are believed to haveigh-level police officer who they believed was collaborating with the South Africans. The move backfired: rather than intimidating ibe Swaiis. the attack led them to crack down even harder on lh* ANC. (I"
b 5 b
lo take iltp* to prevent Ihc ANC from staging terrorist opcinilont into South Africa from their territories. Al la* beginninghtiaging moil of ill operation* into South Africa from Moambique. ai oac rneaa* of jetting pressure oa Moumbtquc. thi South Aflieati* -ere supporliag theinsurgent grtup realaotuJ Rariuan Movement (renamo) la4 Maputo capitulated and Ugnrd the Nkoauil Accord with Pretoria, -hereby Mozambique agreed to prevent tbe ANC from lUging operation* into South Africa in return for South AfricaS pledge to nop luppotting REN,
onteouence of the Nkonuti Accord. South Africa wai able to turn fti attention from the Mouaibicar border to other bordert. ihotby iaapoding ANC effects to iafiltrite opentivc* from other nearbyooth African caaneaaado raidt ijan.it ANC facsiities and perOapltdcontinuing South african eaplornatK and iconomic pretianr. mtf mutated ilea* governments from uylngeplace the support the ANC loti ia Moumbique. i
Bcglnainc in the fallNC teirorlti activity declined dramatically.tw bombing! look place over ihel*n' the pace of ANC attacks picked up again, al least partially in retponK toucks on ANC personnel and facilities in Botswana. flHIB
The inaargency ia Moaamtaquease of ;he oat>attacking theAMO it corojixed inaaaly oftribal aad pc*iocal re .menu not rcrccscatcd in Ihc govcrauttni. RENAMO rwaeraiicss baveiacrcaied despite the Nkcaaaii Acec-rf. alihoagh materia! South African support had originally spurred RENAMO to increase ill lerrorMl peestur* against ihc Moiambican Goverantent. RENAMO was nee dependent on Stand African support. To the disappointment of Ihc Miclicl regime, there till been noiigniAcani reduction In Ihe level of RENAMO tcrrortsi activities since Ihi accord with Preloila. To the contrary. RENAMO guerrillas have begun operating in the suburbs of the capital iuel'.
RENAMO appeait to go out of its way lo cause casualties among nomombaUnti. Among tu most common ucuci air imbuthei of civilian vehicle* and public Ironsion; during such ai lacks RENAMO guerrilla* are more likely to kill ihe occupant* of ihe vehicle* ihin io take hostages, and those who survive to become hotuget ofton ate fount dead btter. These bloody opentiont impede Iriasportaiion. deter economic development, and dfmorstralc that government forces cannot pi urn ihe people, i
RENAMO stiowi ae laveu-iiiim in Us highway aooasbci; fortigntn and Moiambican civilians alike are subject to being hilled, injured, or abducted. RENAMO it believed to be Urseong East Geirrar. tccaaicaani specncaiij ia hopes of forcing Etcoor halt its aid program in McracibMae.eant of put nog fartheron the gcwawntcutely targeting tl foreigners,
irtctud-ng; American <J
The South-Wett Africa People* Organisation (SWAPO)constitute* the tole armed Indigenous opieniiion lo South African plant io reiila control over Namibia. Wiih ihe onset of the rimy tea ton. SWAPO begins ils annual mililtry campaign, laierii ihe year, after its supplies and manpower have beenures to letroeiti bcer.busgssy of keeping upi*ir pressure at Song at gostibic. Mail of its comb-lag* art directed aglinit indite nous urgets such a* govermneoiloaet. and tervtee Nations Ssaar mtuJauMu art hi| year after year SWAPO doe* acergeial trartftirnct lotcigaeri boraanc iacidkaial enmities of theUorrrais were killedWAPO bomb wptodedthe serve* tutsan whan they happened to be buyingnert limeouth Africaa wai kiScd -lienSWAPO bomb exploded it the ircarJe where he *as shesopiai ajfe
SWAPO'i mou teeenl offensive began Ute last yeai. After encoaatering Ktbacks in ill atllliary Cimpaigrt. (he group begin Hi terrttritl iliatki earlier Ihin atuil. The liming of ihc attack* and the device*
ism Diary. n
iidata of knownconemaole lignlficane* io
terrorist! around' iht world Our inclusionolt or event ihould not byeoniirued loorommtmoraiM itrrorlil
Switzerland. Independence Ot*.
Benin. Independence Day.
futoilarla. Upriting Day (iialt holiday in Soclaliti Republic oflnam. Gulf ol* Tonkin incident
Italy. Entity-til paeaont biBed in bombne of Bolocna train Untie* Neo livcm Aimed Revolutionary Nuclei believed reipom.Wr
naajMa Birthday of President He bib Poorginba-
-t'ijjrr. Independence Day.
Cypenj. De-th of Prealdent Makaiioi
Eaaaiarial Guinea. Coup d'ciat overthrowing Maciss regime. Eguaiorial Guinea. National Day.
Burkina Futo. Coup Overt In owing previout military regime (led4 renaming Of Upper Votta^.
Burkina faro. Independence Day.
Ike Bahama', Grenada, Jamaica, tin* acutalioa Day lirtdependrnoc from United Kingdom).
Boiiria. Independence Day.
United Arabt I. Acceaaien Day of Shaih Zayed bia Saltan al Naymir oa* Abu Dhabi.
Itarj Canti. Independence Day.
Guatemala Coup by Gen. Otcai Mejia Vieterel owr throws President Rlcn Monlt. Singapore. Independence Day (tcccitioa from Federation of Malayila).
nland hilcrnmeirl without tri.l
lOAagunI rwc periderm Day.
II AugutiAccetUon Day of Kirta Huucin
fInland Ar^nnlic* boy* lock gues offort*!
Conwaiud by Pretestirdvct
IJ Aaronel Piasnlenl Falel Castro.
IJA.to,,Afiitan Ke-uHic. Ineejwndence Day.
IdAagutiMilitary latecn-cr by Can. Zla Ul-haq.
ISAuguttHurmcse Com-nun ill Pi'iy founded.
ISAugutland South Keraa. Liberation Day.
ISlDaynhro- of Yooloa repmel
fSAaaawMMihi.ry roupu>bur Rabma*.
ay (fxoclamatien of Ihe repul
l9AagunlavaKon by Soviet aod Warta- Paei uoopi
20AuguttKina'sand Peoptc'i Revolution.
iOAmt-nDay taHbdrawal freao Mali Federation)
ion rrfopooaiiioa naure Bcaujno Aev.no bypeiwenei
Chrooolog, of Terrorism
are described naeemreethy faretgn end hmerneiiomal terror la eremtsterror Urn deueloaonemJt tooloccurred or come IO light fie OweErentt and dereloaemene, tkat he-re eireedy been described tUewmere Im ihil .are mot
Sootk Africa: three mum competed of isaehttllng aptoshe, end weapon, fee ANC. African National Congress militant Joou Naobesej-year term, while lha Other two dateneUntt -ere lenleneedive yean Lj 3,
Sterol Western Journotittt lunar Wett Beirut after muring death Ikreals. They had written about Ante! itrociliei igiinsl Pilcxiniant In the L !round tbe Well Daliut refugee camps entnVT
Prrildentlal ralecr hit ay racket! fired from somthern Beirut PrelitJent Amtn Gemayel wat in the palace but eieapedreviously unknown (roup, tbe Ulimk Republic O'laniiatlon, cliirned feaponslbilily for the attack, which caused cilcniivc damage
Six Leeemeie ShiasIn Home foromb US Embassy last Anonysnoai callers have threatened in thef ihefcnraie Jihad to aiinca Italiansti tne accused ndicals are not released eaagaW
faeces. Armed merebers ol Alfaro v'*e.nayaooi' opened hit -wen poLce iiurooted lo nop and wouadiaf two. Thai is Ihe Ant time ihe group hat thai led to fatalities
battle milk police
a pickup track in killing one policemanin air incident
Germmayt Man hilled planting bomb ot otfees of Hanneoee Fair. An accomplice escaped but turned herself in three days later, and invest nations later ledecond arrest The three woa.'d-be terrorists apparently were membersew coup, Ihc "Children of the Economic Miracle."i
2Air Force Col. Sulayman Pa-ud Modern assatsleated by unidenti/Ud
genmen Milium wai driving to hii home in ihc IVckaa Vsllty at ihe ii "gg)P
prm/riiar mi cmhwi CVfjraSma CmlotVnitrtin- Whilegovernrneni ipc4.etn.ii described Ike attackers uSa= Cartaudcali have more often been 'jrjaed by ^^
Explotits throw* al La fai officer aj IIS all nploretioa Arm. An improvised dynamite device earned extensive damage io Ihe facilities of the TfcSORO Corporation of San AMOflio. Although no croup hat claimed rctpoeaibiliiy. iiudenitearby university recently callcel for (he eipuluott of American comonniet from BoliviaaggggggY.
Itoekeis hit TV bat Hint la TaJlat ol-Khayymt. The tlisnyth wait ofihe Sunni militia. Claimedy for (he attack,t ihe art!enete -af ed against these distorting creels in 1rx
New Caledonia Bam* fawml i. garage Inaeotbmeti of IWaamca Tattiaaalarne atcef In an attackourt building io the capital- li-iiieperdtoce French aellleri have been arreiied for that bomber,two Others theght
Seadero Lamiaoto tmerrlllai dttiroy Cateo radio station. Theoman Catholic rcligioua order, and the attack may have beenloa priest'j recent condemnation of alleged Sendero Lumlitoso killingsearlier in ihe tame ret 13
AniLBaurae lerroein imrremdtet la police lacic-in from th* French Foreign Legion and former operative ofLiberation Group (GALheenh illegal tottesttdnand involvementtdnapmg
M.laymaz Atresrt ia SatanPolice detainedthree bombs thatabcraun and enmrcat five other persons iadispute dariag ibe peevmut three -eekiP
Backer attack mgaintt Preiidaalial Pmlmce Jails. When iriggorid by a
timing device, the rockelt misfired, severely damaging the loom on theitthe Carrera Hotel where ihey had been emplaccdouple whounder false tdentiiiei Th* Maauet Rodriguez Patriotic Frontihe Movement of Ihe Revolutionary Left iMIHiare suspected.came from CubaJ
iiad aaiwiiasj onMadridit etiracli-eo from Fiaac* last year. teeujM airWm that onundi that (ha acouituJ haflrillWha Freaes Gc-eet-ment ctpUiaed illby luiaif. thai ail paaaaaaa iB Fiance mitbt avftt retaliation by iheies* iron Group, jj
IILanka: Tamil leperatiits elieek Sinhelete 'illagr at Dehieette, killing ai
lout cighl elrtlieni mad turning mare thanemii. Actual llfurcl mayee lie lovemrnent taailly minimise! caiualtie* In *uch ineldeniil
J JLa-elation at AaUrian trade lammiuion le Karachi let tee,I, iajurei
eat men.ave been retjemeie Nmc member* of AlZulhiar an la prrtoa in Aasin* alteronvictederrorist attack at Vienna in July
Time bomb. sasonatUSintaJuncoutlr at the office!entntetion Errns involvedt>ce work at lb* nev. Toky* Inteiailioeal Airport at Niriia. Several'outt appose the c* pi ation.
Chile: Anotherur.lt tombed ie Santiago. Then -are no Injuries reported inhe eight* ami-Mormon bombing in Chih unce Mardlogan! linked to the FMPR oer* found palmed on Ihelt of the church.i
14Inland, Pelicemee terieutly weunlrd in amhuth ai aelita Italian ia
Niwff. No (roup hai claimed responsibility, bul the Piovnlonal IRA hai conducted tcvtral attackshe police insince ihc beiinnioi of tbc i,
Ftanti: GAL attackrench Bntj,tr dead in Cibouu. The attack-lo have been in retaliation Tor attack, in Madrid onune byDascjue iroup ETA that left(includingSpaniih Army
colonel) ind mere :haanured7
Lebanon: Etplaii vet-laden ear explodes in West Brim after Lrbaxru Army soldiers fire at it The driver had_ ii noted their crders to nop. There were bothmilitary casus llleiaank
- Freaek-owned department stortt in Vitorie bombed by ETA. There wasIre damage, but actp>
Sri Lanka: Government fortes raid Tamil Tiger hideout im Manner. Security forces killedembers of the Liberal Ion Titers of Tamil Edamnd cfmliscaud S30 rounds of ammunition.ocket-propel led grenades,one quantity of eaplosives. LTTE is believed lo be respontible for theassacre of Buddhimat th* Anuradhnpura .
Explosion damages residence of Daim Humid Muttapke. Seceeiery General of ihe United Snbeb Notional Organitmtlon,ather is attempting lo overturn the election victory in April of ihe stale's Chief Minister.
Erliremn Liberation from octotes Ethiopian Government of killing Erlirean Red Cross official. The murder of Ihe organiialion's chairman is alkeedly partlan to licridate Erilrean leaders
Ireland: Part-time policeman killed near Londonderry. No groupresponsibility.j
Spanish policeman shot to death in Vixeaym. probehly hp ETA. At ibe scene authorities found the casingm parabellum round, ihe type of ammunition often used by the ttasoue separatistMf*
Spain: Bomb in Gmiptnooa har ca.tr, no eainalliet. No group has claimed responsibility for the incident, but tbc ETA it suspected. tjgv
Spain: Policemen shot In back and killed in Santuree. The three assailants piobsbly were from the iiTA-tflft
Italy:xplodes et Israeli shipping line offiee In Genoa, causing minor damage. No group has claimed responsibility, but the perpetrators probably were Palestinian or