SOUTH AMERICAN NARCOTICS: THE SPILLOVER COUNTRIES

Created: 1/16/1986

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

" DATE:7

AMERICAN NARCOTICS: THE SPILLOVER COUNTRIES

KEf J'JIXLMES'TS

INFORMATION AVAILABLE AS5 vas USED IN THIS report.

THE ILLEGAL NARCOTICS ACTIVITY that has LOBG flcrisiif.' in COLOMBIA, bolivia. akd peru IS SPREADING TO NEIGHBORING COWTRJES suchASSEXTIXA, BRAZIL. ECUADOR, PARAGUAY, ah3 vxsezl'ela, most OF

me illo combat the problem, most or these five

COUNTRIES have BEEN USED FOR CR'jg TtW.1SS.HI PHENT purposes FOR SOMr IDE, 3'jt SON TRAFFICKING ACTIVITIES IN these spii.rOVER COUNTRIES

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ARF EXPANDING AND THEY ABE SERVING INCREASINGLY AS BASES FOR NARCOTICS PROCESSING AND.ESSER EXTENT, CULTIVATION OF DRUG CROPS THEMSELVES.

TP JUDGYFNT, SEVERAL i'ACTORS HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO TKE fcCTlViriES THRO"SHOUT SOUTHEVERE ECONOMIC DIFFICULTIES, COUPLED KITH SMIDJG

DOKESTIC DRUG CONSUMPTION, HAVE INCREASED THE INCENTIVES FOB LOCAL GROUFS AND INDIVIDUALS IN THE SPILLOVERO ENTER THE LUCRATIVE NARCOTICS TRADE. THE ASSASSINATION IN COLOMBIA of .JUSTICE MINISTER lara BONILLA IN APRIL4 AJOR ANTINARCOTICS CAMPAIGN IN THAT COUNTRY THAT :iAS LED ITS DRJC MAFIA TO seek GREENER PASTURES IN THE NEIGHBORING STATES OF ECUADOR, VENEZUELA, AND BRAZIL. OTHER SHARED CHARACTERISTIC.-: THAT HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE SPILLOVER PHhNCKENON INCLUDE:

ISOLATED, AND SPARSELY POPULATEDTHE AMAZON- BASIS RECION OF BRAZIL AND ECUADOR AND THE ORINOCO RIVES BASIN INAPE IDEAL FOR CONDUCTING ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES.

AND TERRAIN SUITABLE FOR COCA AND CANNABIS CULTIVATION. FOP EXAMPLE, FOOT COCA PLANTS-AHONG THE LARGEST EVE? FOUND IN SOOTHBEEN DESTROYED IN EASTERN ECUADOR.

ORLY CONTROLLED BORDERS THAT FACILITATE ILLEGAL CROSS-dORUEP MOVEMENT.

rnACCESS BY AIR AND SEA TO MARKETS IN the UNITED STATES AND eu

BANKING AND FINANCIALIN ARGENTINA ANDCAN EASILY ACCOMMODATE THE MOVFyEN" AND LAUNDERING OF DRUG REVENUES.

ACCESS TO cii2micals USF.n IN THE REFINING OF "ccaTNT. ESPECIALLY IN

mmtbaff1ckebs have established operations in theer countries has left most governments .scrambling to eliminate THESE activities before they reach the nearlyELS that fxist elsewhere on the continent. ufL^'dcnt febres-cordero has been nagtng "he MOST aggressive drug enfcbcekeht campaign

against Traffickers and gronpps. conversely, ietlek paraguay because

resident stroessner and the involvemenimilitaby figures in the drug trace. in our view, 'enforcement efforts MMal1 somewhere in between tOi

TIVE ASPECTS OF THE ONGOING OWJG ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES IS THE GROWING COOPERATION BOTH W'THIN THE REGION ANO BETWEEN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND THE UNITED STATES THE

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BEST EXAMPLES OF THIS COOPERATION ARE THE JOINT INTERDICTION AHD ERADICATION OPERATIONS COLOMBIA HAS COND(CTED ALONG ITS BORDER WITH ECJADOR AN- PER- THE ECUA30RZAN OPERATION IS PARTICULARLY Mil WORT BY BECAUSE IT RFPRZSENTS THE FIRST COMBINED EFFORT BY TWO SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES TO CONDUCT ANTIDRUG OPERATIONSOMMON BORDER. ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES TNCLUDE INCREASED COLLABORATION SETKEEN THE VENEZUELAN AND COLOMBIAN ARMEDN" ATTEMPTS BYND VENEZUELA TO STEM THE CROSS-BORDER FLOW OF ESSENTIALALS USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF COCAINE. I

NEVERTHELESS. IN OUR VIEW MAJOR OBSTACLES HAMPER LOCAL ANTIDRUG PROGRAMS. EACH OF THE GOVERNMENTS LACKS FUNDS AND TECHNICAL ZXPERTISE AND WILL CONTINUE TO LOOK TO THE UNTTED STATES FOR ASSISTANCE. KOR-OVER, THE PERFORMANCE OF SECURITY FORCES AGAINST TRAFFICKERS S'JFFERS THROUGHOUT THE REGION FROM BUREAUCRATTC RIVALRIES AND INADEOUA?ELY DEFINED MISSIONS. CORRUPTION AND OFFICIAL COMPLICITY IN THE DRUG TRADE ALSO ARE EVIDEHT, ALTHOUGH LESS PERVASIVE AT THIS STAGE THAN IN THE MAJOR NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING COUSTKIKS. IN SUM, THE WEA-CNESSES IN LEGAL, JUDICIAL, AND SECURITY INSIiriTIOKS IN THESE FIVE COUNTRIES, TOGETHER WITHORMOUS FINANCIAL RESOURCES CF THE TRAFFICKERS AND THE REGION'S DISMAL SHORT-TERM ECONOMIC PROSPECTS, LEAD US TO CONCLUDE THAT THESE GOVERNMENTS WILL BE HARD PRESSED TO PREVENT THE NARCOTICS INDUSTRY FROM CONTINUINGPAND.I

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