Sub-Saharan Africa: New Importanceransshipment Area I
Africa's historic rolemall-scale exporter oi marijuana io Europe is expandingnclude tianuhipping Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine. Increased shipments of hard drugs through Afrin en rouic io the United Stalesarked departure from concentrated use of European channels and underscore (he iraflickerV determination io extend and diversify operations. One icsull of (his heightened trafficking il escalating drue abuse and met eased cultivation of ltlicil drugs within Africa. Another is the potential (or increased tensions in US Afmin diplomatic relations as the drug rssuc begins to surface in bilateral discussions^
The immediate cause for Sub-Saharan Africa's emergenceransshipment lone and irallicking center is most likely (he increasedenforcement pressure on traditional smuggling routes into the United Stales and Europe. The strategic location of the African continent with airline connections between Southwest Asia and US and European uinrftu'Mfi points makesikely transshipment zone In many cases. Southwest Asian and Middle Eastern expatriates living in Africa provide the initial links between smugglers, sources of supply, and the ultimate consumer. Muslim African nationals also have some advantages in gaining access to normally closely held drug networks in Islamk Pakistan. Communities of African expatriates in the United States and Europe, particularly Nigerians, often provide contacts for borne-country drug traffickers seeking to establish markets. We judge lhat the abundant supply of cocaine out of South America will encourage traffickers not only to develop Ihe African market but also to explore new smuggling routes through Africa into tbeu^jbjjjjjj
In addition lo these external factors, Africa's widespread economic and political probkms facilitate illicit narcotic activities An underpaid, corrupt bureaucracy makes it easy for drug traffickerstrike lucrative deals with government officials. At ihe same lime, economic hardships make many people
susceptible to recruitment as couriers and to perform other kinds of tasks for (nillickcrs. In many countries the overall political environment is easily exploited byuggler*jJJffffJ
r'tpaadini Trafficking Center
We believe thai the transshipment of Soulhwest Asum hrram and opium through Africa nines an immediateS drug interdictionhe amount Golden Crescent heroin transiting African canons, particularly Nigeria and Ghana, is steadily increasing The number of Nigerian heroin smugglers arrested at US airports increased sixfold3PJfff#J
Nigeria is ihe most highly developed, large-scale drug-smuggling center in Sub-Saharan Africa. Munala Muhammedair hub of Wcsi Afr:cj onsidercdey transit point.
rrrJrcmieni efforts, Nigerian traffickers are expanding centers of operations to cities throughout the Uniicd Slates, Canada, lalin America, Europe. Southwest Asia, and East Asia. One report indicates some Nigerian couriers travel through Mciko into (he southwestern United States, and others from Europe to Tokyo and on lo the United States The increasing sophistication of Nigerianhundreds of courien often of different nationalities with multiple passports -suggests they will pose an even greater problem for law enforcement in the future |
Heroin shipments also move along the coastal highway linking Nigeria and neighboring Benin. Togo. Ghana, and Ivoryhat Lebanese. Indian. Pakistani, and Syrian expatriates use this route for hashish and heroin destined foe the United Slates |
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Mauritius arc developing as iranssnipment centers comparable lo Nigeria. Kenyan Customs officials express concern over the increasing flow of illicit narcotics throughport of call for ships originating in SouthwestNairobi Lessercent of all containerized cargo in Mombasa is examined, and there is ample opportunity to offload com riband prw to docking. In Mauritius, authorities report thai imports of upturn and heroin from the Gofden Crescent are increasing. Brown Suijariquid heroin and caffeine mixture whose fumes are inhaled afier being burnedieceocal drug abuse problem of particular concern to law enforcement officials |
We have only limited information on heroin and opium trafficking emum and routes elsewhere in Sub Sahaian Africa!
large-scale trafficking groups smuggle an quantities of heroin from Pakistan throug Zimbabwe. Zambia, and Botswana for sa Africa. It is possible that some of this her shipped on to the United Stales
Evidence of cocaine transshipment through Sub-Sabaran Africa is less extensive than that for heroin We believe, however.ecent dodor-neiis indicate the emergenceocaine network between South America and Sub-Saharan Africa that probably has links to US markets:
number of cocaine seizure* at Murlala Muhammed Airport over the last two years. In each case, the cocaine arrived from Braril for onward shipment to European and African dealinations. One route allegedly used by traffickers nans from Bolivia to Brazil to Lagos.
A Ghanaian traffickingto import Peruvian cocaine for export to Europe end the Unitedexamining additional smuggling routes to increase volume of shipments to the United Stales. I
lo ihe growing number of airline flights and route* between Braril and Nigeria. Senegal, and Ivory Coast
' raffickers in South
ingOisci>unted.ines" of cocainexpand iheir market One intcrnatronal trafficking group is said to* into Souih Africa through Cape
Trafficking and use of marijuana occur throughout Africa. Kenya. Malawi. Uganda. South Africa, Lesotho. Swaziland, and the West African countries are major suppliers of marijuana products to European and.esser extern. US illicit maikcis Marijuana trafficking from all Sub-Saharan African countries to Europe showed an increase inI)
ion does no1 ment of US routes! in5 Nigerian and Ghanaian trafficking groupsouie io North America via The Gambia and London lo addition, there arc recorded incidents ofd %smuggled ihrougbin South Africa andwell as marijuana, from Swaziland and Madagascar being imported into Ihe United State
A growing drug control problem in Africa isof mandrax (methaquaJone) from IndiaGermany.ynthetic sedative,smuggled through Kenya.Zimbabwe. Zambia. Zaire, andfinal sale in Southand Indianbetween Southwest AsiaAfrica. Recent allegationsofficials and prominent businessmensmuggling, however, imply more directFuture use of these smugglingother drugsistinct possibility shouldmandrax traffickers comm..-jajajj
flickers supplying rilishultivate ci oiucusc suggests
diiioi! ofarijuana cultivation has existed foi many years, but some evidence muesli that the cultivation of marijuana is becoming increasingly commercial, supplying ihe international trafficking networks operating in Africa rainer than the liat domestic market. As far back1 key source for jiiu lor international drug traffickers supplying Europe -reported ihe presence of Briiish drug syndicates recruiting local farmers lo cultivate marijuana for export. Other evidence suggests that foreign nationals control lai Kenyan illicit drug business suspected Indian and Italiar organized crime ininvolvement in dreg trafficking and marijuana production. We have reports of Australian, Ugandan, and Pakistani participation in drug smuggling through Nairobi. Substantial amounts of marijuana shipped from Kenya, as well as from Angola, Uganda, and The Gambia, are reported to be controlled by traflkkii groups using ihe West African coastal highwayjj
Climatic conditions are suitable for opium poppy and rota plant cultivation in Sub-Saharan Alnca. We have sporadic production poppy cullivaTorTT country Inultivation in Kwa farms in (he highland* of Guinea alleges traffickers promoted coca pi
Nigeria, Ghana, and Ivory Coast in order to supply the cocaine market in Europe andI
Local Ihug I'loMtau and Enforctm*nl Sub-Saharan Africa's growing drug abuse problem is an outgrowth of iu increased userafficking area Druts diverted while in transiturgeoning addict population. Mounting evidence ol hard diug use among Ghanaian. Nigerian. Kenyan. Jvonan, and Mauiilian nationals has aroused govern me nrconcem over the debilitating efTcci of drug abuse on socii
report that high-level concern is prompting requests for US aid and technical assistance to combat the drug problem We ;udge that the continued economic recession and social tensions will contribute to higher levels of drug abuse J
Extensive marijuana cultivation in Africa and imported mandraxarge user population. Traditionally, marijuana use -as restricted to the aged for the reduction of pain Recent reports, however, point to the appearance of marijuana abuse in urban centers and among the youth Although South Africa is still the leading center of mandrax abuse worldwide, ihete is evidence lo suggest growing user populations in the transit countries of Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana
Regional and local drug enlorccmenl capabilities have not kept pace with the rapidly expanding narcotics business in Sub-Saharan Africa. Official efforts are limited by insufficient funds, manpower, and training; widespread corruption: and tow government priority for ibe drug problem. Stiff penalties for the cultivation, trafficking, tale, and use of illicit narcotics exist but arc rarely implemented. In some cases, fear of tribal reprisal inhibits governments from strenuously prosecuting offenders The thrust of government cnforcemenl activities is lo crack down on low-level couriers, but (hit has litilc or no impact on the drug irat
Marijuana cultivation in Uganda. Tanzania. Rwanda. Swaziland, and Lesotho reportedly exceeds estimated local demand. We believe exports of marijuana products to Europe mil continue to increase and may lead to onward shipment to the United States.
expanding nature ol* drug smuggling operations is prompting greater regional coopers lion among African nations Last June, government officials from Benin and Togo assistediench-initiated effort to curb the traffic of heroin, cocaine, and marijuana to France and ihe United States via Coionou. Lome, and Accra. Altempls lo curb trafficking networks based in Lagos from extending into other West African countries led Burkina and Ghana to conclude an agreement to curb 'rafScfcing and cooperate on drug abuse. Similar ag-eements. including joint marijuana eradication crTc-.u. are under consideration between South Africa and Swaziland. We believe that, in addition lo enhancing regional efforts, Sub-Saharan Afucan countries may begin lookinghe United Slates for funding and technical assistance JJBffffj
Increased mandraa imports to Zambia, Zimbabwe. Botswana. Mozambique, and South Africarowing addict population in these countries. Moreover, we judge that smuggling routes may eventually be used for
We judge that the narcoticsi take on greater mportance in US-African bilateral relations. Embassy officials in Kenya report US interest) are being directly affected by Kenya's enhanced role as an international distribution center for illicit narcotics. The port of Mombasaajor liberty station for the U? use by US person in Nigeria, the ni of Nigerianshreats of reciproc entering Nigeria about the potenti
Cultivation and trafficking of illicit narcotics occur throughout Africa, but we judge thai several more countries are likely lo become involved on Ihe same scale as Kenya and Nigeria:
Nigeria, Ghana. Benin. Togo. Ivory Coast. Senegal. Tbe Gambia. Uberia. Mali. Mauritius. Seychelles, and South Africa are developing extensivend oocaine-trafficking networks within Africa as well ai between South-cat Asian and South American sources and US and European markets. We expect narcotics operations to strengthen amid continuing economic and political problemsOriginal document.