illion people In tho USSR today are forced
jf> Ironrtmllllon In tho, They account tor 3percenfof In*( labor force. Forced tabor not only Implemenla Soviet criminal codaa and forcea compliance with polilical norma, Ita'so tupporft economic davalopmant. Deaplte Internationalf Moscow's pollclaa, moat prltonara suffer Inhuman* working and livingreetmant ot dlaaldant$ Im extraordinarily herahA
iillion have been sentenced directly to work prOfOcTspecific Industries or released from camps to finish their sentences at work projects but are unconfined. The number of prisoners In labor camps has increased byercenthe yearly growth rate of the camp population hasercentaurl* twice that of the total labor force (or the same
'Most forced laborers work In construction and majiufacturtngGha number engaged In logging has declined slightfy. but some are being used In new timber areas tn East SI Pedal Forced La Dor produces wood manufactures, metal parts, ccnsfiocliofi materials, and some end products. Forced laborers also work In the oil. crtenucal, and concrete Industries; mine coal, gold, end other minerals; and harvest orew agricultural products such as tea. There Is not enough Information to determine the extent of their contribution to specific Industries or export goods. 1
The conditions that led to the higher annual growth rate ol forced labor74 remain. Labor shortages, especially In unskilled or unattractive and difficult Jobs, have gotten worse. Largo-scale constructioncomplexes, pipelines, endexpansion tn outlying regions have worsened the
labor ahorfages. in addlilon. campaigns against cime and corruption have addad mora lorced laborers and required an expansion of the labor camp network. Crackdowns onhuman rights activists, religious nonconformists, and minoritycontinue. tHaaaY.
The ette ol tie Soviet forced labor population and Its use k> the economy win increase al about Ibe same rate as It haa tn recent years. The campaigns against crime and corruption, and now against alcoholism and slack laborI keep adding forced laborers to the system. Difficulty In attracting workers to unskilled jobs In construction end resource de^lopment propels In less developed regions shows no sign ol letting up JeBaaal
The useeon fined forced laborers will Increase because II Is the moat economical approach to punishment: labor camps will be used for the severest punishment and to support selected Industries. Because lorced labor nils Important economic and politicaland because International human rights pressures have had such little eflectmost political prisoners win continue to besubjocted to confined labor underharsn conditions4LasaV-C'A *SA-