The USSR and Blicit Drags: Facingto tbe Pfoblbm
ISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASE AS9
The USSR and Illicit Drugs: Facing Up to the Problem
The USSR and Illicitacing Up to the Problem '
In sharp oonlraii lo past official efforts lo conceal ihc existencerug problem in ihe USSR, the regime of General Secretaryroviding extensive publicity oo Ihb teewc. This media attention. alongew concrete measures taken lo facilitate the wort of government drugsuggests that the Kremlin is, gearing Bp for an isualt againsl illicit drugs. This wouldogical citetuioa of the drive against alcohol abase and be consistent with Gorbachev's overall effort tolaw and order. The USSR's drag problem is foe led by:
The Soviets' lack of lapettise and experience in dealing with illicit drugs and failure toajor cornmitmeol of resource* in this area.
The close relationship between drug use and other societal rxoblcms such as crime and corrupliori. family instability, youth alienation,esire to imitate Western trend?
Soviet users and dealers who illegally divert supplies from legal drug
Widespread drug use in Afghanistan among Soviet uoops, iodic of whom smuggle drugs back into the USSR.
Increased cross-border drug trafficking, pantcolaily front South Asia, which includes some of the world's top drug producing and traffic Lint countries.
An incipient rote as an wtertsatiorial ewnduii for drugs transported from South Asia to Western Europe
By Western standards, the drag problem in themalt; alcoholthe Soviets* number-one drug of choice. Fragmentary data suggest that Soviel addicts number in ihe hundreds of thousands, compared with several million In the United States. Nonetheless. Illicit drugncreasing, especially among Soviet youth. The growth of drug use among privileged youth from Russian ethnicUSSR's future leaders- -causes the Kremlin particular concern. This development and its association with societal maladies such as crime are most likely the reate*ns behind the government's decision tonore aggressive itanor
The official approach to combating the drug problem, as In the case ofproblems, has been largely punitive. Most apprebended addicts ate seat to facilities that differ little from prison camps. Drag laws arc tough but poorly enforced. In any event, the Soviets hu the medical treatment facilities, cadre of professionals, educational programs, iraecialized law enforcement units, and eradication equipment thatenable them to tackle the drug problemomprehensive basis
e/ tfioogix Sofu-mux
ihc high priority Gorbachev assigns to taking on problems that strain the social fabric and discipline, it seems that he will more more vigorously than his predecessors against ihc drug problem, much as he did against alcoholismhere are reasons to believe that theregime docs have the capability to prevent or at least slow down the growth of drug abuse:
Unlike heavyeeply entrenched habit sanctioned by centuries-old tradition anduge proportion of thetion, drug abuse is an incipient problem that has not taken root among the population at large except perhaps in Muslim areas or the USSR.
Since roost Soviel drugs come from internal sources, at least for now the Soviets can largely deal with the problem internally. Thus, the Soviets may be able to stabilize tbe drug problem in ihc short term through the inexpensive methodaw enforcement crackdown
However, if the USSR's domestic illicit supplies are curtailed, demand could lead to increased cross-border smuggling and more international traiTickJng through the USSR to Western Europe. As the Soviets face up to both domestic and cross-border drug problems, we expect that they will become more active in multilateral drug control programs The USSR plans to participate in the UN's World Conference on Trafficking and Drag Abase innd it has hinted that It may join Interpol, the international police agency, someifmelthough this involvement will be on the Kremlin's own terms, we believe that theill become increasingly cooperative during the next few years
Evidence o( Recent Soviet Concern
Curtoviet Dick Scene
Soviet Drug Users
links Between Drue Use nnd Other Docrrestic Problems
roduction and Marketing of Illicit Drugs
Drug Use Anjoog Soviet Troops in Afghanistan
Soviet Policy Response to the Drug Problem
The Legal Framework
Drug Education and Prevention
Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation
Tbe USSR and Illicit Drugs: Facias Up to the Problem
Under Genera! Secretary Gorbachev, tbe Soviet Gov-errnnent is both pubfieiiingeveloping solutionsariety of social proUenu that it eewvwusly plarcdatc inbes alcohol coo trot initiative* Illicit drugrull ia companion to aloobotiani in tbe USSR, but iton In bote* to broader iccieul probleitu that are forang the KicraUn to act.oviet antidrugikely to be recused Inward on drug abuse, concern over trafficking probably willove Into tbe International arena that will bring Soviet ofllciali into contact with tbe United State*umber of drug lawes over tbe next few years
F rideoee of Reetwi Soviet Ce-crra
Increased Soviet ptcu coverage and official Hate-men is in recent months ind rate heightened regime concern about illicit drug activity In the USSR. In sharp contrast to pan efforts to conceal the drug problem, the Gorbachevrovidingthat since6 has assumed the pfopor-lionsnin tram pafige estimate (hat the number of drug-related article* during tbe firs* six months6 arc more than twice the number that appeared0S. Moreover, publicb no longer concentrated in the Caucasian and Central Asian republic* but is reflected in periodicals throughout the country.
Io mid-April Ibe Morrow Jtewuwnof youthe* puWtxhedirst ia-depth expose of tbe nation -wide drug problem, acknowledging tbe existence Of Soviet pushert.nd drug-related crime.
June linjilyi aitlcle acknowledged that the "growing problem" of drug abuse has begun ia
* fleet children and ei prosed regret thai "we have shown oersdves io bereparedight this evil."
> la snad-Juty. UtrtUavaaoyw Carer* pubfahed ato the editor writleaot her of two drug addict* in Octeaaa who lamented thai "aoon the poppy harvest will start peering into tbe city. Tbeoing nothing to control this. Wc can't be silent about thb."
Sinceumber of high-level officials have addressed the drug issue publicly:
parly chief Dorisolitburoand Gorbachev protege, itatedclythat "drughas increased greatly."
la late July First Secretary of the Georgian Ccert-ir.ur.iitmh.it, notedocal party meetirtg that prominence was being given "to the task of nipping io Ihe bud such negative phenomena at narcotics addiction that push people into crime,'" Hit predecessor In Georgia and now Foreigntiduard Shevardnadze had previouslyeeting of republic law enforcement personnel that "drug addiction, which ruim people'i health and brings about their moralot being fought "ith sufficient vigor by us."
Abo ia July,onfer coot in Kharkov anended by prraetntor*umber of unaon republic* and obUsu. USSR Procurator Alteiaedr Rekunkov calledepped-up effort In the itruggle against drug addiction. The attendee* concurred on the necessity for itudying drug use uaiiMwide.
ay interview (he head of the leading Sovietinstitute publicly urged that abe launched against drug addiction similar to that againstm.
i. 4Ht hi-inmu ..
Lifer In augiInlength) piecein Uittalunaya Oattta. Interviewed police, firm, ind health ofE-dah calkd forisiti to conbat tbe colli rati on and use of drugi. RSFSR Health Miais-ter Anatoliynttcd, "li'i high lime tbb evil (of drag abuac) wii denounced loud and clear."
In an August uiocrail ra. I.odz-bayev, Fi.-tt Seael iiy ai the Uzbek Party Central CorjioiUlce. admin ed that both drug addiction and ibe mluvaiioa of narcotic pilots were tntteaprtad peobktni in the republic
- Al an Oclobcc conference of locial roentuU,Yegor Lienchev iiated thatnergetic araea-tarca arc being la ken to rjed barrieri agiiost drag addiction.*"
a September mcling held by (be Lfkrauiiin Central Ccenmiitcc. Poll too ro member Vudirrnitijy com pill in cd aboutcfic. mcricit of educational andam res In dealing with ibe drug problem.
The Krctnlia'i public icVjio-lodgirientomcuic drag problemongturiding taboo.6 mokk Soiiel officlali ilitmiued drugseaiore of Westernecay not found In ihe USSR. The recentartly ibe rcstiU of Gorbicr^v'i call for openneis, or tiasnost. in Ihe press In miking contrast lo Brcgtincv, who suppressed Information of dotiiealic problems to avoid fluting; up public cjilicurn of the Kgitne'i failure to deal with Ihern. Ocebacbcv is Pobnctiing Ibesc problems to marshal public iup-pon behind bit policy intiiaiivea, Mc probably believo il it neeesMry to portray the drug problem more eandidly Io rarte public awareness and to coedi'ioti Iheccept tbe need (or rigofocti rernedi-al measures
The ciacl mt of Ibe USSR'sobicai Is oao the Sovleo t JMuunry of Inlcmal Attain (MVD) iiaiisiics ou aociil maladies arc itaie tocrcu. Official data lhal arc released are fngmeniary anal seemingly iiieotsaiiteat. Io recent yean data published in Soviel proftasioca! yc-amiU have Indicated lhat tbe official numbei of "registered narcotics addicu" in ihe cniitc USSR has Iwveeedooulaiioai ofill-cl Moteow parly chief Born Yeltsin, however, publicly ar^owkdged in6 thai Moteow alonecgiiicccd addicu Government figures icpre-ien( only Ihoaa aridicts who arc regiit-ied. the lenn uied for those who have been artcaiod or turned In for nircoiiea abute. Yduin affirmed lhal hit ligvrecgitleioJ addicu In Moteow In- "uded only
those people, who were involuntarily rcgiiiered. ind he readily admitted that there are many who arc not registered. *
Wc believo thai Sowct authorities (hemwire, do notood handle oo Ihcumber of drug users, Uil most sources Indicate the total number ofuch higher than that officially reported*
authorities put tne number
of addku in ihc repubbe0
users in. "
J according io MVD
estimates, thereUJ add acta ia Mcaeow4 aad three to four times thai bub* orxaiaeeaal uien of tuiroracs.
This same iodmdoal asserted that several Soviet cities along tbe VolgaSaratov. Gor lay. aad Ulyanovsk, eachopulation of more than 1said to have00 addicts each.
an nripareot effort to improve iu ability toup Ihc problem, the Georgian Republic cailiei thii yeararge-scale survey on drug use. Aa6 Izutillya ankle disclosed Ihat. whits the survey did not reveal eaaet tout! oft did conclude that the drug ratoblom In Georgia li rltlng
put the number of Soviet drug user* in the hundreds of thousands: In Ihe United States, in addition to tbe widespread use of marijuana,tuen of cocaine number moreillion and heroin users aboutccording to the National lotlltute of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
drug use appears torowing phenorne. noo in the Soviet Union, thetill small by Western tunelards. Tbe tug her uaoeTacsal estimate*
Soviet Drag Users
Drugot new to tbe USSR; many ctbnk group* of Central Asia aad the Caucasus have used hat huh and opium forntilrug use was largely ccc&ocd to (bote southernome sources hate noted that drag ue began to spreadmall scale reormer Soviet medical raearcber claimed ihat dreg abuse among crimioab aad in Soviet prbeets tint became noticeable daring thatA recent artacle in Ihe
Moscow rauih newspaper also fiwd the spread o( drug use at ihii lime, wbieh cttocida with -hoi drugs became fashionable ia (he West t
jLtJdB.incm ea^raoed una ocelbcra Eatropeaa areas of (he USSR.ia ihe larger aties of ibe Slavic aad BiIikad tavooj SeMel yootfc of all social claia-es.xocabl, <bb catcmk* of drag use ficen traditional areai into elite yo-lh cuctea lhal alar em Soviet
rug matj are young, usually fnItem - -h
onvertsrug ok are primarily urban, educated youth from the privileged aocial malum C
Jdrug use was rising amongof "importantho couldrag users Inio
Ihree categories: bored and affluent children ofand railitaryworking classby tbe pressho oftensupemsion, belong lo llreet gangs,pushers to pay fee their habits; andchildren wbo accept offers of drags outand believe drug useign ofMcaoow addicts also
ischsde -decent- perioral, tics such as soentoti. writ en. (Aysaeiaris. and famous athletci
Theae different segrnents of Soviet society areioadprice andnarcotic subvuoces:
Hashish and nurijuana appeare more widely used ihanproducts among Soviet youth because they arc less eapensiVe- One hundred grama of ha thus costso JO rubles.
ighly eonccotrated lea estractigh caffeineubstantial high. Itlegally raxctaccd from tea and is widely used by Slavs in Siberia and in forced labor camps, where it is openly available and cheap.
USD and cocaine arc not rxmmoei in the USSR because of (be complicated proceuior. procedure and (he lack of indigenous sources of supply
IJnkt Between Drug Use and Other Domestic Problems
Like akotioliim. drug abuse is associatedide range of social ma ladies that vrooened duringnd: divorce and family instability, crime and corruption, youth disaffectioneneral waning of ideological belief and lowering of popular morale. Greater contacts with Westerners in recent years have given impetus to drug use among Soviet youth infatuated with Western trends and fashions. For scene, more leisure time and an increase in disable baeoroeeriod of consumer shortages have been ccmriacting factors. Al the tame time, drug useariety of ttaneatic ills by increasingand incentives for coeraptkei. helping to cause familyggra vaiing already serious ruDerail bealth probkmi. and further itraining social or>hesi*eness and tfisdpfine.
Drugs used by aEueni users include mrxphine and codeine preparations, which,Mubies per gram, are considered earieoiive
' Students, workers, minor criminals, andaUheaper, potent narcotic called kuknar. which is made from dry poppyheads. Known ai one of the -hardest and strongest" narcotic, kukno, resultsery painful withdrawal syndrome but laargain at IJOubles per kilogram.1
For some "'goldens sons end daughteii of Ihe elite are called, drugs haveymbol of rebellioneans of emulating tbe West:
One offK,a| of the Committee for Stalei1 that alienation of many young people. Including children of ranking CPSU offi-clala, was directly linked to drug use.
wwrtaryrite kOIII& II
A young Moscow teenager said that ihcbcr friends tmoked hashish because Ihey wanted to keep up with Western trends arad that usingat ihe -in- imag todex
ecent book, Chligli Alurutov. noting the weakening bold of ideology on Soviet youth, laid that, for many ot* them, drags bareymbol of "eoiertag the Weal."
A6ayo Pravda article blamed drug use among children and youth on "famille* foe whom ovate rial valoei long ago pus bed spiritual and moral order Into tbeeorgian ictcacfegiiu.ecently peblithed iludy. asserted that "betleasitjjs" is Ihe main reason lot the spread of drug addictjoei.
Another recent article la Moskovskara Komiomo-Itis. eating that the drug problem was acute among children of the lOuerH. concluded thai drug use in the Sc-viet Uaioa cast he traced ia part lo weakened firmly valoei
Gorbachev* it cm aoiiakobol campaign, under way sinceay haw Hlmulaled drug use by raising Ihe price of alcohol aod retracing illIn early Juste several Soviet newtpapen reported lhal aoenc yixth have reacted to the restriction* oa liquor fay turning to tobtti intra inch a* raw poppy ettract, paint ibutrier. and preacnpiioo medicines.
Open Soviet press acureesooocctioadrugs andaaging ftutn apartment butgUriea to murder, and indicate lhal drug-related crime is on Ibe rise. Arxordlng lo an6 Ifciilraoviet legal official reportedtea Jy growth in theoived Crimea linked to dnigi" Georgly Mcrtow,6ikaya Kultura interview, listed namx.ci use and crime and cited as praof Wen German autistic*
0 crtmei connected with drug abuseuri Dyachenko, chief of the Kutbyifaev MVQ antidrug icctioa. icceaxlyo+rtikaya Rosslya reporter that Tntoody crimes arc some limes ceenrnil-lednde.nc ubtct, an ampule of morphine, or hashishther ocwipaper inicles hive hinted at ihc Involvonvent of organiicd crime,most; i'IlI ing appeane carried out by small-time entrepreneurs rather than large-scale net aorta
Dreg use alee it beginning to contributeariety ofcWemt in tbehysicianbildrefl's boapital notedor example, that thereise in the number of addicted mot ben giving blrlh. Thereie evidence ihut far linking drug abuse to AIDS or Deedle-trauriuitcd hepatitis; but reporting doe* Indicate thai Soviet drug addicu reuse hypodermic needles, and in June officii Isacknowledged one AIDS case caused by intrave-arm drug ute RSFSR Health Minister Peeapov recently admitted lhat "drug addiCrici often goes hand in hand with bomotexuality."
InCttnal I'rodocOoo aad Marketing of HBcil Drug*
Most of the USSR's filkai drugs coeae frotn internalracdiKtion, and titarketieg all occur within Sovietlthough caoaa-bordet trafficking from South Asian countries, like Afghani-slan. if iies tome drugs. According to an Aagvti articleoviet MVD official,ercent of Midi ornxki are produced frotn licit donjolk crorsa, with the remainingercent cemtng from Qjegilfrotn medical institutions
Two main crop sources for illicit drugs eitsi trllhln Ibe USSR. Cannabis la cultivated legally in the iouthorn USSR, and the ptanl't lough fiber, known as hemp, it used for retaking rope aod twinelthough meat of the cannabis native to the USSR containsentagc of narcotic gub-ttancea, it is cuHirated illicitly for marijuana and
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Trafficking (it the Soviet < |
<1 easyobtain Illicit drugs In
Moscow os It Is In any motor US city.
ofboth drat asc" and dtalcrt
ltd free and guile comfortable In Moscow."
j drugs ownin more thorn MM/i an 'hedeaieri. or "street pushers.'are knownfrom Cktrtmushkly Market,nlnfadikty Market, aad
3 In tne earlyeolert who stood on Leninskty Prospect with ready tyrlnget wereby addicts In auiomobilts who stretched out their arms, recti red Injections, and deponed without ever hayinget out af iheir cars. tVhen the weather got cold, these dealers moved to Vnukovo Airport. The Satyut Hotel In Moscow was usedrug distribution, point In the. t
j thai during lhat time am aday neany
i kilogram af pure morphine was diiiribuitd *
Soviet teenagers In
Moscow tatting openly about puS'uig pita and am-sha Hypes cfopping iranaulliiert. SmtWmX chemical fumes, andaxlc,oncoction known as BF. or Boris Fedororlch. dial Is made from bulylphenol glue.
umber of leenaje hippies often use marijuana, hashish, and ISO *-
juse by Soviet students Isare occurrence.
Nnrneious Soviet pressIcll of dealers aad users wbo liockho Mate opiumS Komsomolthuya Pravda article depicted groups of deakrt and addku contrglag on Central Asian pc^pySdett (rooi ibe Baltic region and frotn ihc Rtrtaiaa alia of Orenburg. Orel, aad KrtarrocUr These riming groups often Unj lot days and collect sacks of ocas an goprnet, aoottrdiaj; to Ibe article. One entotxeancni cancial ia (be Ktdbysbev region pobiidy lUtod that Ihc avauaUlity of narcotics lo Ibe area ii hie "home brew Rowing Irotn the kitchen tap.**
Dcalen and add (etinrurcotics, iiich as rnorphinc andncdicinea. frotnprsrionnel, as well as from drll defense enterprises. Criminal cbanneli reportedly supply ihe Mtncow black market with opiates obtained from robbintospital it or age facilities, and tallioad can transporting medicinal drugs. Some dlicetors of drugstores and hot pi tali cooperate with virionsnarcotics traders. Dealers can obtain roedi-tines containing narcotic toee* frompunts in Kharaor, Trmih. Ufa, Kazan', Nsvoi, and Moteow. Some nircotics dcalen boy narcotic* conutned In medical supplies of geological teams going to remote pans of (he Soviet Union. Some phyiaciins and thcrapm* tell prtscripticc* for drugs containing narcotic to be lances Illegal borne laboratories aho supply the buck marketo bribe or swindle civil defense ware-bcuse maragen to borrow individual protective kill and replace (he lyntheiired narcotic Su balance thai each kit ccnuins with waterheaper painkiller. Dei lot obtain limilar narcotics and reatable syringes from military tuppty notes, which slock amnuie* ofercent morphine for medical purrmta
are usually brought from the aoulhcrnto northern titles by train or automobile. Some dealera and used also tram tbeir own opium poppies ai dachas jasi outalde of Moaeow. c
3 "Touristho Irve ia regions where popeees grow and travel to Moscow lo tell wholesale QuiBliliea of illitit drugs, usually obtain iheir mppliea from Slate opium poppy farmt Dcalen often proccii the collected product with crude and cheap "home technology" lo purify it and tell It at higher prices
Drug Use Among Soviet Troops in Afghanistan
drug use among Soviet
troops in Afghanistan is based on fragment"*
j.e re is no conclusive
indiuiinr that druglrwpl
reached epvierrilc proponiorH or ,ha. the dree problem bag impaired the performance of .he Sonethe frequency C
C . - ome
(hat drug use among Soviet troon in Afghanistan j$ increasing. Some reported instances include:
0SJ.kliti.die. Indicated lhal more than SOSovietfghanistan usedaddiction also has been reponed in the
Traces bartermnui otheroi droj,
7 Soviet scedicts ia Kabul using bashub aad tellinc oqaipeneat to purcfaasc drug,
gear can be found at marhei bazaars known for drui traffkkJiit. These bazaar* have been Wen lined in inch places as Kabul's Rishkour City District, Jalalabad. Herat, and alone the Qandahar-Chaman road In southeastern Afghanistan.^
3 ;flbeSo"t' nutside of Kabul. particularly along tbe maincommunication route* between Kabul and the USSR,ajor market for the drue trade
' Afghan truck and bus drivers routinely carry drugs to bribe Soviel soldiers manning chccVjoinu As-saulu and robberve. of bus pnaier.gtn bysoldier* were freoeot be/ore drivers started curry-iardrugk
Jm Afghanistan com-Nllard about heroin use among Soviet brbcopter |aa*vr**C
by pilots hat led to an increase in helicopter craihe* In anotheroviet lank crew was killed when their vehicle was driven off (he road Into the Kabul Gorge- Military investigators said thewis the result of ihe driver's heroin addiction
Alcohol, the Soviets' traditional drug of choice,difficultbtain than are hashish andAfghanistan. Unlike Soviet military offvaas,do not receivemonthly alcohola liter bottle of vodka, for example, can costpay for enlisted peasonnel. Soviethowever, easily acquire illicit drugs,because Afehan drug,cheap andThere is no bar, on opium poppy cultivationand|ilUe
hu been done by either Sravjetiglun tfhcinli to curb drug produciion (figure 5)
J Moscow has asked the Afghan Government to be mote effective in cradkat-drug produeuoo- L. ttic or no iojx Bat been take' sT
opium rayppyoo in iraeUUanal Afghanareas since the Soviel invasoi ^
' inostee-ihehcrM and hashish consumed by Soviet troops it prod-ced in Nangarbar Konarha. and Kelmand PrrMnees.
lo- morale, lack of
disc.ptine. tbe young age olnseripu. and long lulls between combal are factors in tbe troops' drugSoviet military dociririe and tactics are noi lulled lo (he drawn-out lighting against ihe Afghan iruur-genu Sovkt soldiers arc poorly trained for coonterln-aurgency warfare and are misinformed about (be Afghan situation- e
J they were told the troops would defend Use USSB'i border and would fight Chinese snd US meiceoarics. Miry seedier* smoke haihiihtake then naiads oil is< eirly wai. C
ovietare loereaiingly concemaJ aboat drug use in the
Afghanistan-based foreea. but iheaying
bilko eiK, th* Semet*ot iitm any drastic step* to curtail the drug prceacrtts among iheirin AfghanisUtv Fo*.
Jib* Soviet military hu not illem-*cdleurcr, opiumSoviel comra.fxl.ri jn outlying ueu of Afghanistan, where drug uie amongarticularly high, hive idopioduoicof routing troopi between poiu more frequently io damp*be measure,lus noi been successful. A
.* * Sc^eiotncer* hive nude soldier* more accountable for (beirreportedly to prevent soMiers from trading ihem for drugs. For cinmnte. Soviel miliury police have citablUhed roadblock. In Kabul to look for any iiupiciously large amount* of miliury equipment Soviet UtMc* might be accumulating for drug
d tbe itrict control* against narcotic* abuse by Soviet troop* in Kabul have become increasingly effective. Any told icr found guilty of telling orilitary weapon i* arrested aadilitary fail ia the USSR
aoaue Afghanr muse-
hldttn. cecaiionally entice Soviet troop* with drug* to etisnare them or to barter forhe insurgents generally deny inve^vemcnt in the drug trade,Afghani who support ihe iniurgency admit to rupplying Soviet soldiers wilhooetbcleu. we doubt that the drug trade conititute* in organized. Urge-acale effort by tbe iniurgenuf
j Involvement of any kind witb haihiih and opiates among their people i,n the baiii of their conservative lilamkowever, have no icruplei about sellingand traditionally have traffickedever,c believe that individual mujahtdtcn or liuurgertcy lupporteri purvey drugs lo Soviet troop* and to any other buyer a* well
OoH-IWrdrr TrafflcUat The USSRarket
Aa with nuBietoui otherrug Uamckmg into the USSR ia accotnplMhed throagh thel->li pj sti.^gg'.er;|ByaBBg| hVuTl
atwtttire on the faci thai drugishe So-icts. and cnitoeni personnel are not trained in or cqaupped for drug .d. nubeai.cn and win addition, several sow roe* allege ihatget illicit drag* inio the Soviel Union by bribing enrtoens official* at ibee do not have comprehensive data on Ibe frequency and quantities of illicit drugs that crew into the USSR, but we judge Ihat the How of trafficking ii regular and increasing.
A key factor contributing to Ike Soviet Union's ctoss-bordern geographic location. Ibe USSR'* southern region* border some of Ihe world'* top drug-producing and trafficking oountrlea. auch as rakiaua. Afghanisun, Iran, and Turkey. We believe that most of tbe illicit drugs tent to the Soviet market from the louth originate in Afghanisun. which is an increasingly popular avenue Tor South Asiaa drug smuggling. This drug trade puts greater pressure on Soviet cujtoen* eeficials who apparently concentrate on checking ktentincaUorts of traveler* and nscvernent of war-related cargo along the Soviet-Afghan border Wc also suspect that croia- borderio the USSR is made easier by Ibe ethnic tie* between South Asians and Soviet Asians, who are Uaditicaul drug users and could ceTer con-Soviet imiiiglen easierorder trafficking cbinneit
Most of the illicit drugs bound for the Soviet market from Afghanistan probably arc brought in by rett-ro-ing Soviet miliury troop* RcasorU of drug smuggling into the USSR have increased since ibe Soviet* invaded Afghanisun
were implicated} In connection with acperalion between Kabul and Moscow. Soviet aoMiers involvedmaller narcotic* ring along the Afghan-USSR border were being Investigated by the KGB in
was ordered la investigate drug smuggling from Afghanittan to the USSR via miliury transport.
3 Soviet sceeberi morning liom AfghaaiitanO-iani bath ofV*elt*pread tmoegliag of vtiiem andashish indout oT Afghanistan by Soviel soldier* Thiireportedly wai icxomplub-cd by bribing Soviel Naval penonnel who wore terving at cuiiomaal tbe USSR-Afehan bordci.
a case not involving Soviet irocpe. an Afghan _
uw lllicii drugs being smuggled from Afghanistan Into Ihe USSR by civilian couriers at the followingosing points: via the Keleft over head pipeline, ai Sher Khan Bandar by ferryboats, and in Termezoviet railway line
We believe that ihe niajority of illicit drugi shipped into the USSR comes from South Ana. but supplies also filter in from other sewrces. Fornn grad militia tenciab acknowledge that heroin is smoggled ia by Sjviet aad foreign sailors.
J Tbe Black Sea port of Oceaea.enter ofaffkhmg m
ef* IS?"vnbMyfof ink,t
-line suteimpound bureau arrested more fhan SO Polish ciliien* along the Scrviet-PoBsh borderriod for drug smuggling. Most of (he confiscated drugs reportedly were marijuana and cocaine.
Although notajor transit route, the USSR is being used more freonently by traffjekenonduit for South Asiao-pi-cdoced drugs rnoving to markets In tha West. This may be aa attempt by the trafficking groups that supply drugs to the Soviet market to carveuche in the more lucrative markets of Western Europe. It may alio reflect an attempt by established International traffickers to locate secure alternative routes to replace traditional routes that have been identified and come under stricter exforumcnl Tar-key. for example, has kngransit point foe South Asian drugs, but traftxjxrs oo* race higher risk there because Turkish cencais have beefed up
interdiction efforta. Tke Soviet Uauon. wilh Its Lack of eiTcricacc ia inicidKiaon and drugelatively lowritk alternative to these tcpfcuit <atcd. interna lionxl txatficken. For ciample.rugs arc well concealed in rather cargo, they can cross Ihe USSR by truck without much rJiffieulty. Once ihirerseots dear iruprxsion ai ihc Soviel border, there usually Is no careful examination of transit goods at checkpoints within the USSR If the shipping papers arc in order. Iiunjection procedures at Soviet pons and.esser extent, airports art also not designed to detect and seise concealed drugs.
Several recent cases support our view thai drug smuggling through tbe Soviet Union Is increaaing Foe example, rtlicil drugs have been discovered on Aero-llo( night* from South Asia to Western Europe via Moscow'* Sherernetevo II Airport:
06 Masco- /tveitlye article, N. A. Uarheaov. First Depot* Prosecutor General of tbe USSR, died casesJ in which fairly small .mounts of hashish were ditccvKcd co AeroPc*ordasnaa. an Australian,riloo were trnrxooacd in tbe USSR fee carrying the drugs io amount* of io bkcgrami or less. They were flying from New Delhi to Zurichtcipovcr in Mcacow In anotheranish man wasfor three months in (be USSR after Soviet cusiotns authoritiesrogram* of buhksfa in his luggage The Dane, who was arrested in5 at the Moscow airport, was dying from New Debll lo Denmark. These flight routes confirm reporting that identifies Indiaajor icflnlng and iraJlicking center for drugs Ihat arc (lien ihippcd to Europe and North America,
expensive Aeroflot routing from South Asia lo Western Europe via Moscow continues to be used by small-time drug smugglers
3 Soviet iniffer dog* in
uk- AH iricoening Ariioi (Afghan-flag carrier, bagfagt is checked by tbeey .poo rently ate targeteder flights arrivini (mm South Alia
larger errounts ol* drug*.heroin, ate smug' lied act .ui Ihe USSR on overland and maritime routes. The thipmenli usually mijiivitehani. itan, Pakistan, and India:
SoriH ra41cyhe Drue;
Ihni far. (he USSR's anlaebuf efforts Uek tbe teeth Gorbachev put mm bat IMS alcohol control tmtUtivt-Soon after Gorbachev node (be itoaolnmOp national priority, tbe USSR Coct*fl of Mims-tenjoioiol" marching crier* to implement Ibe program, la addrtion, tbe Presadium of (he USSR Sapreme Sovieltatute signifi-canlly iliffenini every area of the Soviel legal code dealing with alcohol cmuu motion, rale, and produc-(lon. These lype* of tough nationwide measures are still absent in tbe Soviets' antidrugoreover, Soviet action against domestic drug problemsack of trained enforcement and medical personnel Soviet drug control agenda have limited cipeilencc In combating whatecent problem for the USSR
There ar* tr.dicai.oni. bo-ever. lhat the Soviets ar* gearing up for an assault on druga logical riiemmn of the drive against akohol and, moreart of Gorbacbcv't overall effort to .Lengthen ta- and cedes. Along -hh the eetset Iha spriag of Ihe media focus on drags, some regional party ora^aaratioats have begun to lake concrete asea-sarcs to combat addiction. In tbe raou unking effortate, Moscov/ autboritiesiywide drug
SaMei Official Aiieaiiemikeratiem Bafeee ihe lUOt
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pn-grun ibis April Tbepart)rt*ximarseled eitj legal aod mecKa! services for part mist she* aod tpeciiVcally ordered tbat enforce -mcnt eertctalt ensure proper storage and use of mcdi -
We cipect tbat further measures will be taken, although the Kremlin will have toreater commitment to fighting illicit drugs and back lis antidrug enunciations with material resources and training. The government teems to be focusing on three general areas in (ta antidrug efforts; vigorous and :cnt enforcement of drug laws; drugand prevention programs, particularly for youth and medical personnel; and improved drug treatment and rehabilitation programs
' At tartyhe Motto- aatni. inniiultd acatealjM tke drug aM<Ooa prut-em in thtThw tndudea
ofimChertweed medical etanUaUont hyorIn dalrtcu haaatrd b.
resetUewatil of tdearu osi ol Maon. ualllyiht UU.it re priwa ar ueJimeni ciaiers loll* proMerr
I mptoved law eaforcemcBt hasey theme of the Soviet GcaetiunetN from the Kremlmo local levels. The Soviet press has openly reported on drug related arrests, the rcptaccmctu of al least one top drug ceTioal. aad the ercaijoo of aew drug enforcement units- Recent drug cases publuSicd by Ihe Soviet press suggest that tougher measures are imminent. According tougust Sovelikayaumber of Soviet doctor* and nurses have recently been found guilty of illegally selling drugs from medical Institutions. In oneurseonvalescent borne near Moscow was sentenced to death for Healing drugs and for unspecified -severe conioquences" lhal resulted from her actions. In another incident publidied in Ihls newspaperedical worker at SUifasovsky Emergency Hrjtpiu) In central Moscow was found guilty of peddling atolca drugs from Ibe hospital. Tbe Georgian press reportedepublic Koeruotnol Central Com mil tec Bureau
this spring dealt with iheof four mem-ben apsxebeaded for roiicsooa nod ore of drugi Tbeinvenigatioa alio disclotcd evidence ofand other nbutci on ihe pan of schooli aitended by ihe youths-
Dt. Eduard Babuyan, the USSR's foremost authority on drag and alcohol abuce for ihc pan decade and iu representative to ihe UN Corrirniuion of Narcotic Drugs, was removed this ipring from hu pou ia ihe Miniitry of Health, whkh ii the USSR's lop drug enforcementabayin. who played down the Soviet drug problem and oppcaed draconian rneaiures against drinking, was reprimaaded for orgitgmoderation" in alcohol consumption instead ofore aggressive stance- Clearly,ut of step with the drive to loughen enforcef both alcohol and drag laws f
rtove lhal could affcci future drug Uaflicktng In the USSR. Soviet customs has been reorganised Earlier this year, tbe Ministry of Foreign Trade was relieved of rapce^bilily for customsew Customs Directorate was created under the Council of Mlnbten. Tbe bead of this new directoratestated Lhat "dingrtfoncse lhat quite evidently has effected us,nd announced that Soviet customs would become more "vigilant" against the smuggling of contra band. ioduding drugs.
Soviet enforcement agencies are stalling torelatively anull antidrug prograrni, and th* police arc beginning to tackle the problem directly in tbe Gelds:
The MVD is oe tanking new antidrug units, working on Insulting ticctric ahum systems in pappybclds, and studying the experience of the Kharkov district, in the Ukraine, which reportedly consolidated popoyfidds to make them easier to guard.
'Tht Mioiiuvof Heal'*.'he MlnWry of Internal atr.in(MVDk ike kgb. aid tba Cuiloma Dlieraaruc artct-mtwt tenonssr. c
3 tbe Seteuia Cavaral Clil ia af ra* MiMun of Meahk ousrwaala ihe -wl ef ikeae tear arganluUnra
lirflllya repotted In6 thai authorities had uied helicopters lo pinpoint illicit opium poppyfieldsUthek and other aicai of Central Asia. The operation involved mourned and foot patrols in the valleys of the Amu Darya River and toad bloc ia set up by the highway police.
laulya reported that local authorities of the Karakalpak area ofad been severely critlriied for failing to deal effeciively tvilh the growing of illegal opium popples. According to the government paper, an irrvctiigaiion in MayO eases of illicit poppy growing ia the Karakalpakectares of poppies were destroyed,were prosecuted, and five people were opcllcd from Ibe party.
So>riskaya Rotitya in late Augustong article outlining measures undertaken in ibe0blast lo counter drug trafllcking and abuse, including Ihe me of airborne and mounted pntrolt and police raids of fields.
Uibek authorities reported In mid-September that dozens of hectares of poppies had been destroyed in the Karakalpak, Fergana. Dihiiak and other ob-lasis of the republic
Although it appears that local policend the MVD arc Hying to curb illicit cultivation andthese enforcement efforts remain small. Sovici press repeats have conceded that eradication measures in some areas are implemented only In fill and guru and are not sufficiently backed up by organirational and educational work:
peatda in earlye>er.titiied the lack of training of the policethef poppies from fields.reported lhat hundreds of lieetares ofin the Volga region remainegional guard conference decidedwatchiowen, but Cwas no one io man them.
Soviet Drag Laws
USSR's criminal code on Midi
Persons convicted uf manufacture, acquisition,transportation, or sale of Illicit drugs /ace up IOears COnftnemenS. wttk or withoutof personal property. The decree docs notinimum sentence for these acts, but It doesarsher penalty for those Involved with 'largef Illicit drugs (no gram specification} or thoseecond ctjense.econd time, an Individual can be sentenced to si*ears, with or without (OrfXtCOtion of personal property.
Foreign eilliens arrested In the USSR for drug smuggling can bo Imprisoned from three0 years. Foe those convicted of cross-borderihe sentence can carry an additional two io five years. The period of pretrial InvestigativeIs usually limited to two months, bat can be extended up lo nine months with ihe permission of the USSR's procurator general. Consular atxeit is permitted during this period.
maximum penalty for possession tsf Illicit drugt. without Intent to sell and not In combination with other drug offenses. Is three yean plusif addiction Is delected. The law does not differentiate between various drugt The penalties
ore ihe tame for all types of drugs. There Is no minimum amount for the possession offense to become operative. When "Very large" amounts (no gram specification) are Involved, the tsffense may fall under one cf the "aggro-rated" categories thai carry stiffer penalties.
Theft af medicinal drugs is punishable byuplo five years imprisonment and from three toearsepeated offense. Once again, mo minimumIs Included In the decree, and there Is no breakdown of penalties according to quantities of drugs slots*.
Ihr Illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium pop-pies con leadrison sentence of up to five years. Setting up or maintaining dens for narcotics con-lumptlon It punishable by Imprisonment feefivr toears.
five years. If minors are involved. Ihe maximum lenience Iteart. No minimum sentence for etiher offense Is spelled out In Ihe code.
i lines can be levied for obtaining drugtoctor's prescript ton. An offender can be fated ur io JO rubles foeense. Parents or guardians are held liable for juveniles' use of narcotic substance!octor's prescription
In Kuibyibev one eeTicial recently complained abooi tbe lack of ivelkopten apdoi her droned the "lackomprehensive approach."
Tbe lack of eiperkncc and adequate equipment for eradication and Interdiction limits the government's ability top iuV ajsinit drug- with strong action
The legal W.
Tbe USSR Supreme Soviet enacted national drug lawind no major amendment* have been made lioee then. Drug otfenie* outlined in thecode include pooeauon. storage, ti importation,
and sale of mkit drugs; cross-border smuggling by forerigneri; theft of pliarrruceutical drugs; Illicitand manufacture of drugs; andoctor's prescription to obuin drugs. The Soviet Government's approach lo the drug problem has been mostly punitive, and the law, reflect this heavy-handed response
By Sovici criminal code sundards. the dratare not citicmcly harib, but ihey ar*1 either. Soviet media have recocted at leait one recent caeca -tion in the USSR for drag theft, although tbe death sentence seems ioare Ktuerroce for drug offenses Wc lack infeematioo on sarch lhaags as ihc aomber of drag cases brought before Soviethe USSR's conviction rate in drug casts, and whatypical drugthat could aid In assessing tbe adequacy or Ihe Law. Nevertheless. It seems that drug sentences in the Soviel Union arc more arbitrary Iban in many other countries because offenses aod penalties arc not sharply denned la the criminal code. For dimple, minimum tenieoces are aot stipulated for all drug offenses Ai the USSR perceives the drug problem to be worsening, Ihe law* for producing, selling, and using drugs may be madeey issue in the effecttvenest of Ihe laws, of course, will be the degree and consiitency of enforcement
Drug FdacatUa aad Pro cation Until recently very few Soviet drug education and prevention programs existed. There is link or no education policy ealablnbed to educate Soriel young people, who arc probably much less cognizant of the health haiardi than Western youth. In an6 Soittikaya Roiilya interview, foroung drug addict chimed lhat "poppies ere good for yourcorgiy Monger of the Serbskiysaidecent Soviet press interview that "serious educationals neededffectively control illicit drag activities. He cited young people's inexperience with and ignore net of dragsause of drag abuse aad addiction
Traditionally, ollicialt discouraged talk of drugproblems and warned lhal too much publicity would cause youthxperiment with drugs. This ostrich: approach has now been reversed. The current volume of articles by addicu and parents as wellelevision documentary in Georgia ar* clearly intended lo educate the copulation to the harmful cotitcoutnccs of osiog drugs.smi-tnte and other centers within Ihc Ministry of Health are orgir.ir.ing granu for drug education programs. Making headway rapidly, however, will requitereiource*pgrade ihe priority of drug
education. Soviet press articles have acknowledgedajor problem in Kiting up effective drug cd oca lion programs is iha lack of Soviet drug eaperu who can lead tbcrn.
Drag Tronic .ml and RrbaWktatiaw
Drug rebabiliution programs are few and ineffective. In mid-August RSFSR Health Minister Poupov tut-cd thai only one-fourth of Ihe rcgUtercd addicts were being medically treated, oftenursory fashion for seven or eight days, and thatercent of these returned lo addiction. More extended "treatment" is largely ox reive
Addicu rarely seek treat menl thernsclxs if only because of the system's punitive approach in dealing with item AM suspected drug users are regis'.ered with tbe militia even if evidence of drug abuse is only circumstar.lial. If the addict It not released through luck or payment- to WO-ruble bribe, the addict Is admittednalogy diipensary where psvchiairitts determine Iho aUltis of (he addiction.
Once diagnosed, addicu are dealt wilh in various way*;
Many user* who are caught are accused of being dealers and givca lengthy prison sentence* with no medical assistance.
Other drug patients, especially those who became aeMicted through treatment for illness, are seat io psychiatric bospiuls and cllnica, whereo not receive sperialiied care bul are confined withand menial paticnU.
According to Potipov. (be current Sovieltreatment for addiction is "isolation and withdrawal for at leastays.
drug abusers, however,onmpj^iy treatment in labor Treatment FacilitiesFsl. wascb differ bits* from prison camps. Addictsto LTPs are aot paroled aniil certihed cured C
reatment" al an LTP tan list three years.
followed by iwo yean of "controlled observation.'" LTP clinics force addicts lo withdraw fromwiihceu feeeiving limited doses to ease Ihe transition. The LTFiherapy" resultsery low cure rate.
Treatment alio appearsary from republicand even from cityity. In Odessa infor esarrrpJe, drug abusers wereIhe public health department and localand received controlled doses of3 In Moscow In the early
IVBOs, after aa addict was rerwimanded three times, he was temciKcdourt to Jail for throe years if he wu unemployed and had no family. If beamily and was employed, he received forced medical treatmentabor dispensary. v.
Some evrdeooe suggests thai Soviet autlsoritics are rethinking their approach to drugecent article writtenoviet Judge, for example,cceuidentialiiy and exemption from criminalfor addicts who voluntarily sought help. The Moscow evening newspaper recentlyotline thai drug addicts could call with guaranteed ecniideeitinliiy. Because there are almost no Soviet doctors treating drug addict Jon and no known courses of tasinieiidn in drug therapy bt (he USSR's medical educationajor effort to launch an effective remabiliutiort program might not (bow remits for several years
The Soviet drug abuse problem pales in comparison lo the alcohol problem but appears to have grown enough to cause concern at high levels within the regime. It combines with alcohol abuse and other manifestations of societal stress tb impedeoverall effort to shore up social discipline, strengthen law and order, and restore popular respect for the regime's ability io assert Its autbority'and to make domestic Improvements
A comprehensive program to deal with drug abuse would severely tax the already over burdened Soviet medical system. Implementing effective measures to
rehabilitate addicts wouldajorof resourcesime when economicmake this especially hard to do. Nevertheless, there are reasons to believe ihat (he Gorbachev regime does have Ihe capability to prevent or at least slow down the growth of drug abuse:
Unlike heavyeeply entrenched habit sanctioned by centuriesoH tradition anduge proportion of the Soviet popubiion, drug abuse is an incipient problem that hu not taken root among the population at large caccpt perhaps in Muslim areas of ihe USSR.
Because most Soviet drugs come from internal sources, at least for now. tbe Soviets can largely deal with the problem talernally. In this regard, the Soviettrikirigiy Afferent, from the US problem; the US drug market draws to heavily oo external supplies that purely internal measures of control not directed at the sources of prcductioo are irtxumcicM.
Thus, even if the Soviets do not embarkostly program of rebabilitaiion and better medicalthey may be able to stabilise ihc drug problem In the short term through the less expensive methodw enforcement crackdown. Over time, however, if domestic supplies are curtailed, Increased demand for external supplies could give impetus to smuggling. Moreover, ashe war io Afgnanistan drags on, young Soviet soldiers will route through Afghanistan, be exposed to drugs there, and in some cases carry drug habits backbe USSR
Because of the potential for eapanded cross-border smuggling, (he Soviets are likely to become more inclined to cooperate In uiceruticnal efforts against the illicit drug trade Hrnvever. the USSR wiUpursue intei-naiional Involvement In typical Soviel style, actively seekinge for drug control but hedging on supplying detailed tafecnution about Soviet-related drug cases or materbl resources for interna-tional programs. Nonetheless, the Soviets haveshown somen broadening the UN
oi iItaly, on ii'n 'Hk drugs. When flic UN Comminioa oa Narcotic Drugs reel in early
Soviellegni ejected second chairman to (heBureai offter the election ofmembers discos ted ihe UN-sponsoredon TraDkldnf and Drug Abmc. whichfor7 in Vienna. The coouinsiiunagreed lhal1 convention ontraffic is outdated, andewwill be discussed al Ihe world conferencethat the Soviets will help update ibealthough tbey may ariproach proposalsthan other UN commission members.the commission meetings Khlestov confirmedUSSR supports Ihe draftingewIndicated that tbe US draft proposal might be*"
3 but repeatedly said lhat the Sovieti ate committed lo keeping irrelevant political issues out of th* world conference disco tsioei
Although Moscow's tlrong icnse of tovereifliiiy limits tbe Kremlin's interest In buaicral drug efforts,believe lhat Mcscow will more actively participate to multilateral drug eaforcemcnl curtudc tbe UNFor example, the generalof Interpol, the international policy agency, predicted this anting that Ihe USSR will join the organization sometime in
East European country, Yugoslavia,partsdrsatiitg in multilateral drug controlandrecedent and model forUoe *
J the Yugoslav police arc very active In Interpol, which helps train the Yugoslavs in interdiction, drug identification, and drug testing metboda. Drug enforcement training has becomefor all Yugoslav customs and police officers The training apparently has paid off because thehave nude important contributions lointerdiction efforts. We believe thai Moteow
might permit international organizations like Interpol lo train Soviet customs officers in drug enforcement. Although the Soviets may be hesiunt at first to fully participate on tbe international level, we expect that they will become increasingly cooperative in ihe nexi few yearsOriginal document.