US INTELLIGENCE AND THE END OF THE COLD WAR TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY

Created: 1/1/1999

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

US INTELLIGENCE AND THE END OF THE COLD WARNIVERSITY PRESIDENT BUSH LUNCHEON REMARKS Inlroduclion hy DCI George Tcncl

Good afternoon. Al (his lime of great sadness for everyone here ai Collegeant to first express Ihe deepest sympathy of the men and women of the Intelligence Community. Like our fellow Americans, we, too, have been watching the unfolding tragedy here on television and have been touched by the magnificent way that everyone at Ihe University, and in the town, have responded as one united community. We arc all thinking especially about the families and friends ofthe injured, and of those who lost their very young lives.annol imagine more devastating news than this. Ourprayers of the men and women of our Intelligencewith thcni, and we wish that God grant them strength at this terrible hour and comfort ihem in their sorrow.

On behalf of the Intelligencelso want to express my sincere appreciation to the George Bush School of Government and Public Service andniversity for co-hosting this conference with CIA's Center for the Study of Intelligence. You have managed to extend exceptional hospitality to us. even in the face of great tragedy, and so we feel an even deeper responsibility to ensure lhat this conferenceignificant intellectual contribution lo the understandingivotal period in our history.

Tlie men and women of US intelligence arc proud ofthe contributions that they made to defending the security ofthe Free World during the five grim decades ofthe Cold War. We believeareful study of our role in that great global struggle will show that, time and again, US intelligence provided American leaders with critical information and insights that saved American lives and advanced our most vital interests. During the perilous peace that was the Cold War, the stakes, the risks, and the uncertainties were higher than at any time in our history, with the possible exception of tlie Second World War. Keeping Ihe Cold War fromhoi" one was the overriding goal of American national security policy and US intelligence. An intelligence effort of suchfraught with such great risk andbound to have its flaws, both operational and analytical.elieve the overallecord you haveittle bit about this morning, is one of very impressive accomplishment.

Today, we look back on the Cold Waremporal distance often short years. It isorld away, replacedew and more hopeful reality in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. And it is separated from usew generation of young people who have no personal recollection of what it was like to have lived on either side ofthe Berlinthat metaphor in reinrbrced concrete and barbed wire for totalitarian

repression. Itime when all humankind lived under the appalling threat of nuclear annihilation. Those forced to live behind the cruel Wall, closed off from the rest of the world, knew constant (ear and constant indignilies. They struggled to keep hope alive. It was for us, the lucky ones living in liberty, lo stand fast in defense of the freedoms that wc cherish, and keep faith with tlie oppressed on the other side. Ultimately, after the sacrifice of millions of irreplaceable human lives and trillions of dollars in treasure, the human spirit on bodi sides of the Wall triumphed.

To the students ofoday who have grown up with practically unlimited opportunities to travel Ihe globe and roam al will within the borderless world of the Internet, the Berlinthe physical, political and psychological barriers to the free How of people, ideas, and information that itseem absolutely surreal. But for the generations who lived in its shadow, it was very real and very dangerous. No one knows better than the men and women here today who carried the heavy burden of high office during the Cold War decades. And no oneeavier burden than the President of the United States.

Every American President, from Harry Truman onward, knew that he would be tested in the crucible of the Cold War, and that he had better be ready to meet the challenge. Our country was blessed to have hadand Democrats- -who met the challenge. All of us here who have ever served in governrncnt remember raising our right hands and solemnly swearing an oath to support and defend ihe Constitution against all enemies. But after saying, "So help menly one of us here loday was given the awesome responsibility of leading the Free World. And on Inauguration Dayone of us. including our new President, could have known tliat soon, far sooner than any of us imagined, wc would be livingorld transformed. Nor could he or any of us know that his own Cold War crucible would be to help, as only the President of the United States could help, to bring that chilling warirtually bloodless conclusion.

Thisistory conference. Many of you arc historians. You are all familiar with the "Great Man Theory" of history. Our distinguished luncheon speaker does not subscribe to it at least as it could he related to himself By all accounts, he suficrsevere genetic case of New England modesty. But if you were to view historyuccession of great moments to which leaders must rise or invite disaster, surely it will record that this man was equal lo Ihe great moment that came tobrief historical span, when in three short years, with astonishing speed, the Berlin Wall fell, political revolution swept through Eastern Europe. Germany reunified within NATO, and the Soviel Union collapsed. From the security often years of hindsight, it is hard lo remember that not one. not one of those peaceful outcomes was inevitable.

Ifanoment were made for each other. George Bush and the end of the Cold War were the perfect match. To meet his moment, President Bush drew on his vast experience in international affairs, on the instincts and judgments he had honedifetime of service in war and in peace, on the decency and humanity at his very core,ifted national security learn and the key personal relationships he had cultivated, and

last, bul certainly not least, on the strength* of the greatest intelligence system thai the world has ever known. Thus equipped, wilh skilled, quiet statecraft, he wisely shaped the policies and guided the actions ofthe sole rwnaining supcrpow-cr through some of the most dramatic, consequential, and dangerous yearsh Century. Atomentous time, the American people were fortunate indeed to have George Bush as iheir President. Germany and America's olhcr European partners were fortunate to have him as their ally. Mikhail Gorbachev was lortunatc to have him as acoumerpart. And the brave peoples of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union were truly fortunate thaian as he was the leader of ihe Free World.

ladies and gcnilemen, it is now my honor and pleasure to present to you the only President of the United States to have served as Director of Central Intelligence,mmandcr in Chief. George Bush.

PRESIDENT BUSH: George, thank you. Sir. Trunk you very, very much. Thanks* lot tor lhal wdeome. Thank you. Thank you all. very, very much. Director, thank you, sir. for those very kind words.

You didn't get one thing quite right. The firstas in the Oval Office, General Scowcrofl and Bob Gates came to see me, and they said thai at'clock onih of this year, the Berlin Wall is gonna come down. Hey, don't say we didn't have good intelligence. I'm telling you.

Okay, so you got it right. None of us, none of usa layman like myself nor ihe piofcssionals -understood exactly when it would happen. But because of the knowledge lhat Ihe Community presented io ihe various Presidents, and because thai knowledge led lo keeping the United Stale* of Americahink tl was all bul inevitable that that Wall would eventually come down,

Barbaraove coming here. Weittle apartment upstairs. The kids on this campus arc just about as decent and nice as you could have. We've had world leaders here. Lee Kuan Yew. and Giscard. and you name it.ot of business guys. And all of (hem go away saying, "We understand why you put your library atheir questions arc tough, and they're straight, and they're from the heart, and people actuallyuestion hecause they wanl to know what the answer is.

Which reminds me thai George Edwards asked if I'd take questions today,aid, "Hell no. These guys, every one of them, know more about the subjecto. I'm not going to lake MucstitmsJustittle dessert and get out of here.

m really pleased to be here. Counting myself, six DC Is are here. George Tenet. Jim Woolscy. Bill Webster is here. Where is Bill sitting outope you've allhance io meet him. Boh Gates, of course. Dick Helms.

I'll never forget my first visitngley. I'd just been elected lo Congress6 from down the road here in Harris County, the first Republican ever lo he elected Irom lhat area. Wilhin Ihc first couple of weeks Dick Helms got us out to CIA and gave us one hellnow job oul Ihere at Langley. He was the master, and he still is, and he's so widely respected in the Intelligence Community thai we're just very fortunate he's here with us today.

Another guy who served wiih Jim Baker and me is now the Chancellor of theniversity sysiem: HowardGraves. Former Superintendent at West Point,ight add. We're so honored that he's heading up this vast network of some of the great universities in our state.

I want to thank George Edwards. This guy can really puthow, especially if he has Lloyd Salvctli working wiih him. The results are going lo be jusl great.

m very pleased to he here.

just single out one other. Thanks to the far-sightedness of our Director, we have hereisiting professor onIA man named Jim Olson. His course is just about the most popular there is. He's awakeningew generalion Ihe necessity of good, sound intelligence, and wc arc blessed to have him on this campus and grateful to the Agency for helping facilitate his being here.

Roman Popadiuk here is the head of the George Bush Library and Foundation. Anybody who wanls io leave money here, he's the guy you talk to. And he was. as many of you remember, our Ambassador in Ukraine, and before that, was al Brent Snowcroft's and Bob Gales' side as he wrestled with the very inquiring press that we have in Washington. And, of course, my co-author here. General Scowcrott. There is nobody tom more indebted than Brent tor advice, for counsel, for wisdom, for caring. He's the very besl.

So Ici me start by saying lhat having this conference sponsored by the Bush School and the CIA's Center for the Study of Intelligence is one of the highlightsear that has been very, very special for tlie Bush family.

in January when,ouple of weeks of each other, two of our sonsin as Governors of ihc second and fourth largest state in our great country. Thenthe CIA Headquarters in langley was. as the Director said, renamed in myto be honest, had Barbara scratching herillle bit. She said,uilding dcdicalcd to intelligenceyear-old guy who jumps Oulgoodrushed off that criticism from her. Actually, despiteI didarachule jump in June, landing right out here on the frontsee it when you walkout, the big front lawn of this library. It was mysecondoluntary nature. And, as you can see. il worked out okay.

Finally, ycslerday'clock in theelumed from an eleven-day, eight-city tour of Europe including Warsaw, and Prague, andscenes of so much drama thai the Director referredew minutes ago. the drama often years ago. And, as you might imagine, itery emotionalish every one of you people who have contributed, men and women, in one way or another, direct or indirect, to the intelligence of this country, could have been there just to feel first-hand the emotion. To be in Berlin, to celebrateh Anniversary of the fall of the Wall. It was also an overwhelming experience to stand in free Poland next to the President as he thanked the United States of America for our steadfast support. Meeting all the other Polish leaders. Then to be in Prague to celebrate the Velvet Revolution with Havel.

It was overwhelming to visit with menonsider modem-day heroes and realize that,ears after the October Revolution brought its tide of tyranny, and afterears of occupation, Europe hasebirth of freedom. Thereotal new world order, butew world order of more freedom and more democracy, and in theope that many of the young people here, the Texas Aggies, when they go out in the world, will assume responsibility lor solidifying anda new world order which the whole world benefits from the kinds of joys and blessings that wc take for granted every day of our lives in the United Slates of America. As this audience knows, the revolution9 marked the triumph of the many nalions who coalescedingle idea. It was an alliance of freedom that eventually carried the day.

Over Ihe last ample ofot of lime wiih another historical figure who will be remembered kindly by future generations. He was at our side in Berlin, and Ihen again in Prague. I'm talking, of course, about Mikhailon'l think there's any doubl thai none of whai we saw happening in Eastern Europe ten years ago would have occurred as quickly as ii did if Gorbachev had not had the courage to follow through on his pcreslroikusuwsl reforms. And, ullimately, he met the same fate as the other rcvofutionaricsandlul of others, myself included. He received whai Winston Churchill called "The Order of theey, mine happened through an election; Gorbachev was just kind of shoved out the door.

In any event, he was unable to reform socialism and maintain its viability, but he did not crack down as country after coumry left the Soviet orbit.orried lhai there might1 think several on our on our learn worried that there mightwas no encore to Ihe Prague Spring ofears ago.

This two-day conferenceelcome opportunity lo reflect on these and other events as ihc Cold War ended, Tomonow, and, today, too. You've gathered Ihe best in the business, including many of my respected former colleagues, to talk not only aboul how the superpower conflict subsided, but also what ils ramifications are for the fialure.

In looking at the lisl of names that Lloyd sent me, and (hat George Edwardsentee lhat you've lapped, as panel members for your discussions people who really served the Presidents of this country with great honor and grealentioned

Brcnl, of course, al our NSC,as blessedood, learn, Jimmy Baker over at Stale: Arnold Kantcr and Ginny Lamplcy here wilh us loday; Dennis Ross; Condi Rice; of course. Bill Webster, by golly; and Bob Gates, who's now the Acting Dean of our School of Government and Publicant to emphasize that last part. And, of course, Cheney and Powell, and my friend Dave Jeremiah, over at the Pentagon. Excellence describes thead at my side, and itlessing to work with each of ihem.

Make no mistake, they were good and decent people, but they were tough, too, with strong views, and they were mature men and women who understood that powerurpose. And seeing them work logether, it was clear that they respected one another.

As wc debated one issue or another, they would often argue views very forcefully. But once the President made the decision, we closed up thehat's the way it ought to be.

A President, given good intelligence, cannot, should not, be expected to put upively debate after he makes the Presidential call and the Presidential decision,as blessed in that way.

Together, weorld in the midst of turbulent change, and looking back, in many ways we're still struggling to understand the importance ofthe events that transpired during the summer and the fall9 as we watched "the world wake up fromver in our library, there's an exhibit on the Cold War titled ,rltie Longestnd it's an apt description, because ititter enmity that divided our world into two ideological camps each one armed, each poised to strike down the other. But if the Cold War was an endless struggleelentless adversary, then CIA was certainly one of freedom's mosl vigilant defenders.

My strong views about the Agency, indeed the Intelligence Community, and itsope, are well known to the professionals here in this audience. But one thing merits repeating. When it comes to preserving and defending the national interests ofthe United States of America around die world, there can be no substitute for Ihe President having the besl possible intelligence in the world, which means we still must rely on CIA and, indeed, ihe entire Intelligence Community.

Though our world hasrofound transformation over the last quarter century, my views about the importance of CIA and its work haven't changed one single bit. Every once in awhile you hear some nutty Congressman get up and say, "We ought to put the money in downtownr, "We ought to forget about intelligence. There are no enemies anyell, die heck with them. They don't understand the realities of the world in which we arc living.

ent in as DCI nearlyearsas well aware of the wntroversy that engulfedas well aware that it wouldough assignment. Detente had run its

course, and Ihc Soviets were expanding their efforts to strengthen their military and to export revolution to the Third World. Butrote my three brothers and my sister Nancy before leavingcame to me out (here, that the President wanted me to comeas riding my bicycle, going from the International Club lo our Embassy,ommunicalor appeared and said, "Mr.essage foraid, "What ise said, "You'd belter sitnd itessage inviting me to come back and take over as Director of Central Intelligence.

rote my brothers and my sister, "Overriding all this iserceive toundamental need for an intelligence capability second to none.ough, mean world, and we must slay strong. When the cable camehought of Dad. Whai would he do? Whai would he lell his kids?hink he would have said. "It's yourf course, to tell you howrote and toldhought itolitical dead end, too.

Ilangerous time tor our country'- Bui il merits noting that itarticularly difficult lime for the men and women who worked for Ihe Agency. We all remember those days. Thanks lo, among others, one Philip Agcc, who tried to sue my wife when she wrote something nasty about him in the book. But have at it, Philip, becausehinkhink heolemn trust in helping to expose the identity of our undercover agenls.an't think of anything that in my book, is more traitorous or more offensive to the decency that is the American way. To thiselieve heoral responsibilily for Ihe lives lost in the wake of those actions. And,ay add, that treachery by Agee. like that of Aldrich Ames or Edward Howard,ood reason why we must never let the guard down on our counterintelligence. The Agency's people are its sfrongesloint every DCI sitting oul here understands as well, if not better,o.

Needless to say,ntered the Presidencyears ago, thanks to my brief time oul Ihere atnderstood the value of intelligence and the need for intelligence.

In his memoirs. President Truman wrote,resident has to know what is going on all around the world in order to he ready to act when action is needed. The President must have all the facts that may affect foreign policy or military policy of the United States."

Well, in my view Truman was describing one of the President's most important jobs,an understand why the DCI uess it was Admiral Souers. General Vandcnbcrg, then- was usually Truman's "first caller of thes hehink tliose are the words he called il: Ihe "firs! callers of the day."

As for me, the PDB, the Presideni's Daily Brief, was Ihe first order of business on my calendar, too.adeoint from Day One io read the PDB in the presenceIA officer and cither Brent or his deputy. We tried to protecl the distribulion of the PDB because we knew very well that once it was faxed or puterox machine, then the people preparing it. with iheir oath to protect sources and methods, would be

inclined lo pull back and not give ihe President the frankest possible inidligencc assessment, presenting the best possible intelligence.

adeoint to read it with the CIA officer and usually Brent Scowcroft, or sometimes his depuly. or sometimes both. Thisould ask the briefers for more information on matters of critical interest, and consult with Brent on matters affecting policy.hink it helped those who were working night and day out there in Langley on preparing the PDB to know that their product was being looked at by the President himselhink itittle bit with ihe morale of that section ofthe CIA that works so hard to put this book together.

Knowing of my interest in the clandestineemember particularly one event with Bill Webster and also with Bob Gales would occasionally bring someone in who had risked his or her life to gather critically importanton't refer by name lo the rwrsnn Bill Webster trrought in. but III never forget that meeting until theie. It wasoman in the operations end of ihe business, who literally had her life on the line day in and day out in intelligence gathering human intelligence. It brought home to me the necessity of protecting people like that and saluting them because ihey serve without ever getting ihe prestige or honor that they deserve. Withoutas impressed wilh their courage, and their patriotism, and the professionalism of those who served in the whole Directorate of Operations. They never gel recognition, but they deserve it.

As we saw in ihe Agee and Ames cases, (here'sanger that they, or one of their comrades, could be killed if their cover is blown. Our people continue to serve with honor and thank God for that.

1eaned very hard on CIA during my lour years inyears during which wc saw our world change in profound ways as ihe Cold War cmlcd, Eastern and Central Europe and the Baltics were liberated,emocratic Russia started emerging. Just as remarkable, was the way the world community stood shoulder to shoulder against Saddam Husayn's brutal aggression against tiny Kuwait an act that insulted every standard of international law.

So much harmened so quickly during those four years, and it was an incredible challenge toari of shaping some ofthe critical evenls that unfolded.

I wouldn't have wanted to try tackling any of the many issues thai we confronted without the input from the Intelligence Community. Nol for one second.

Today, icn years after the revolutiont is satisfying to look back and not only note the vital role intelligence played in our historic success, but also to see how far we've come,orld dividedorld transformed. Ilafer world, free from the thrcal of nuclear annihilation, and yet it'sorld in which we face new threats to stability, and new enemies and perhaps greater unpredictability.

The superpower struggle is no more, but new dangers have emerged lo lake its place. Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorists, extreme religious fundamentalists. narco-tra flickers, to say rKrthing of despots like Saddam Husayn and. at least at one point, at least in history. Oadhafi. All represent threats to the peace and stability that the international community socks to build.

Another thrc.il to mxutU) and stability are the forces of isolationism and rampant nationalism. They are noi above political opportunism in their attempts to turn their countries selfishly inward and lamely away from the course of reform. These forces of defeatism teed otf discontent but they can strike anywhere, and, in my view, thai includes our own great country.

Today here. Ihere's kind of an odd coalition comprising elements of ihe political left and die right who want ihe US to wilhdraw from much of llie world. They like to beat up on theike to do lhat, lon, but not on every part of il. llseful mle lo play when Desert Storm came along, and we've got to figure out where it can be effective. They like to bcal up oney like lo pound on China and Japan. Some even like lo bash the EU these days, and Ihey wanl no more free Iradehink these people arc in the minority,orry lhat attacks by this vocal minoritycrriblc signal Io our friends around Ihc world about our willingness lo stay engaged

And at the same lime, our alliance is undergoing its own transformation of sorts to give more responsibility to our global partners to address regional issues. Thisoodtor example, it weakens the strong US-Europe ties lhai have helped keep the peace in Europe tor much of Ihe last half-century.

It is imperative that Ihe United Slates noi withdraw into some form of nco-isolalionism or protectionism. By way of example, the only thing that concerns me about the new European Defense Initiative is that it may be seen in the Unilcd Slates as "Yankee, goas recently usked about thisarge gathering, in Paris of business people and foreign affairs experts.aid, "fine, and if any olher country wants to do more of the heavy lifting, that's fine too. But don't make it lookYankcc-go-homc' thing, or we're going to go home, and we're going to pull back fromn my view, that would be disastrous

Somebody asked me about the French-US relationship. "What do you Ihink? What's your summary ofaid. "You think we're arrogant, and we Ihink you're French. Hut's theold himashought, "Well, this is off thenow nothing is off the record.old him this,as surprised when he said. "You got something there."

Today leaders in Asia and Europe continue to face lough political and economic issues as the process of reform moves forward. Seeing their struggles reminds us that, though we're in an age of exhilarating change. weVe stillreat big job to do. And the

stakes riding on the success of these ongoing reforms are just too high for us to get it wrong. That'seally hope that Ihe Uniled States won't get tired ofope we'll continue to lead.

As Bob Gates noted in his wonderful book, despite the turbulent changes we cneountcrcd during the Cold War, one thing stayed the same. The US was able toundamental, bipartisan commitment to freedom, to winning the Cold War. Me also noted that every President, Republican and Democrat, had stood faithful watch during the Cold War, and that each was able to build on tlie contributions of his predecessors.

For example he pointed out that President Nixon's SALT negotiations built on the work of the Johnson Administration. Jimmy Carter became known for his advocacy of human rights aller Jerry Ford had political courage in going to Helsinki. And clearly, Ronald Reagan's supporttrong defense was absolutely critical to our effort to manage the events that took placeas President of the United States.

As we strive to build the next Americanust hope that we canew consensus on our role in theope we canew bipartisan way of addressing the many challenges that remain. And in that regard, conferences like thiselieve, canery useful purpose. The kind of give and take on display here this week is exactly the kind of big-picture, long-range thinking wc need to solve the many new questions that have emerged in the wake of the Cold War.

To be honest, I'm not sure we've found our footing on this new path that we've taken. And atorry that wc appear to be kinduperpower adrift. But my time for contributing to this work in the public arena is now past,ad my chance. And thanks to our team, we got some things rightxpect history will say we may have screwed up some things, too.

Of course,2 election did not work out the way we hoped.ave tried very hard,hinkood point here for the young men and women of, not to criticize my successor, understanding that his jobifficult job, and that there arc plenty of good people in the loyal opposition out there fighting for many of the beliefshare. They don't need one more back-bencher in Houston, Texas, saying, "Hey,inute. Here's thesed to do it"

We had our chance. Besides that, my two boys in the political arenaeed me doing diat either.

So Ihe torch of public service in our family has been passed,anifference here in this little school.an help Roman Popadiuk, and Bob Gates, and George Edwards, and you name it the professors that give of themselves to inculcate into theseense of public service. Maybe then, if that's my public service, well, maybe it's not over. Bul it's been passed,road sense, to George and Jeb, who make me and Barbara very, very proud every day that they're willing to be in theretill

want loayontribute, though, and the Bush Schoolig part of that. Wc have grcai people here, ami wc have high hopes for what wc arc seeking to accomplish,ant toant to helpan.

Last week inas proudnnounce the formationew privately funded fellowship program along with Helmutush-Kohl Fellowship. It's going to enable young German and American professionals to spend up loonths working in business and government positions of leadership on the opposite sides of the Atlantic. Ami the goal is toridge of even greater understanding and cooperationay that will strengthen US-German relations and better enable us to meet the challenges of thet Century.

Next month. Helmut Kohl will visit College Station lo receive the first-ever Bush Award for Excellence in Publicust hope we can repay some ofthe gracious hospitably lhal he and all Germans extended to Barbara and me last week.

If you don't think Ihe work of Ihe CIA matters, if you don'i think the hard work of national securityifference, you should heed John Kennedy's advice Go to Germany. Hie reception wc received wascomplete outpouring of friendship from ihe Germanas the recipient, but the credit goes to all of those who vigilantly supported their cause of freedom. And, you know, it was exactly the same way in Warsaw, exactly the same way in Prague.aid last week, we can never repay the debt lhat is owed lo the brave men and women of Berlin and elsewhere who taught us the true value of freedom. But if we can help pass along their enduring legacy of courage and honor, then maybe, in some small way. we will be doing the Lord's work. Such is the work the CIA performs day in and day out,m grateful for this opportunity to salute everything you in ihe Community do.

So thank you for coining to this school, and good luck lo each and every one of you. and may God blessniversity in its grief, and the United Slates.

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