TERRORISM REVIEW FOR 25 FEBRUARY 1988

Created: 2/25/1988

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

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Terrorism5S

1 crrc'i,m : What Do the^

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Support lor lerrontm in ivtw kJH-

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*

review Is published biweekly by iht WrtttaetHt of Intelligence. Other fitments of lhe CIA as well as othtr agencies ot the US Inttltlgenct Community art tntourattd to submit articles for publication. Comment} #nd queries art welcome and may be directed to the Executive Edtlo

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Terrorism Reviebruary

International Terrorismhat Do the Numbers- Say 1

Fewer dramatic terrorist attacks occurred7 compared with tbc two previous years, but the number of terrorist incidents increased slightly. The level of ioterrtational terrorist activity7 rose by moreercent ewer the

Incidents7 resultedersons killedounded, incjuding casualties to terrorists themselves. Again, this increase over tbe figuresbe explained by tne explosion of terrorism in Pakistan. Without tbe statistics for Pakistan, tbe rest of tbe worldrop of moreilledounded from6 figures.

Tbc United Statesajor target for internatioetal terrorists,total number of anti-US incidents declined byercentdoes not reflect any particular trend but is consistent with tbeia ocber categories elsewhere. US casualties also dropped by aboutTne greatest number of US casualties took place in Latin America,declined slightly. More US citizens were killed or wounded in Asia, andfigures for the Middle East and Western Europe remained at virtuallypercentages asbe United States undoubtedly will remain aand we believe that the incidence of anti-US atucks waiuacrcasegroupa adjust to recently der-ckocd

Although ihli

Terrorist attacks followed tbe same general patterns as lo preceding yean. Bombings remained the means preferred over all others, followed by.artoo and armed attacka. More than half tbe kidnaping* occurred in the Middle East. Although few In number, their impact outweighed Ihat of most otber terrorist cents of the year. Iranianterrorists win probably continue to riew kidnaping* and the aubsecjuent holding of ho*tares as effective means of achieving their objectives as long as Western governments are willing to mateoreanerman businessman, and two French hostages were releasedut more were kidnaped. Four Americans, an Indian professor, two Germans, and British hostage negotiator Terry Waite were seized last year.,

Table I

Iirtawtloul Terrorist Incidents Against US Targetsypenl and Region

n

bl!

luiupF

M 1 1

T<

Hj.cl.tUi

' i

vandalism

military, it was conductedangerous terroriit group, the Popular Front for lhe Liberation of Palestine' General Command,n interesting example ofbility to inr

State support for international terrorism rxrsistod. Countries that sponsor terror-lam try to hide their involvement through use of proaies and other means. When such attacks have been identified by perpetrators, however, the number of atate-sportsored intentional terrorist incidents increasedercentttack*he most significant change occurred Id Pakistan, where Ibe level of international terrorist attacks iponxorcd by Afghanistan rose from6increasecrceoL Another hnportant increase was In Iranian-sponsored terror urn:ncidents,percent Increase,onversely, international terrorism sponsored by tbo two countries mostto ulcrrutiional pressure, Libya and Syria, declined significantly: Libysn-epoei sored terrorism dropped fromttacks6 to only abnd wc recorded oaly two for SyriaaOJB^

Middle East

The year was marked by the absence of major terrorist spectaculars by Middle Easternor several reasons:

Physical security at potential official and nonofficial largess In Europe and the Middle East helped frustrate terroriit planning.

Enhanced cc-anterterroriil cooperation between Western nations and others afflicted by the problem kept terrorists off balance.

Wcll-publklied revelation* of Syrian complicity in iporoorlrig lerroeiam, COCO-biried with iu badly deicnoraliai economy, compelled Da mio dimlabh ft* support for International terrorist troupa.

Although Libya srai active in intranational lenctim during tbe year, ll continued lo ejcidae ihe caution il dcntoeulralcd6 following: ihc US air raids aad other US aad European sanctions

Finally, events iaas thc camp wars and the Syrian military atove lata Beirut early in lhethe attention of interaatlooal errorist groups operating in and oul ol Lebanon and inhibited ibeir ability to

, carry out atlacla overseas, agaanu

decrease vras offsetlu-t.. , Palestinian groups,srael and ,be oc- _

Table 2

Total Casualties In Iolemaliottal Terrorist Incidents7 by Region

eUna. tjareoe"

UUn

Middle

Warn.

do not believe that Palestinian radicals hare foraakea lerrocinnesas of achieving their objectives Several radical Palestinian groups already may be

pruning tbemsclre*esurgence ofctivity against IsraelLaad US targets both within sad beyond tbe Middk East. Given lhe eateotamong young Palestinians In thc Osta Strip and lhe Wealwith the Influence of laUmJc fundamentalism, are are concernedand groupings might emerge from tbc turmoil to bring about aof leirorism. Furthermore, any new International attempt to reach ain tbc region could also result In increased terrorism, moderatewilling to try io negotiate or compromise with Israel will probablyargets for terroriit assassination.

/

I

AN*no longer be eons-Jarer0r. relatively free from lb* dangers of international terrorism. The number of iaiernatioeul incident! in Asia7 byerceniotoul. Pakistantbc mou

dramatic Increase; if incident! In Pakistan were excluded, however, tbe figure*is of Aria would remain virtually the tame6

Table 3

1 mrnudcail Term.

by Type of treat aa

lacMVnlaegie*

Capa

lan** Araariaa

nwrefu

air 1.

i

VU

I

7

a world accustomed io lerrorlat atrocities in tbe Middle Eail and Europe, only a

Incident in3 Rangoon bombing by North Korean agenu or5 dowtiiag of Ibe Air India airliner by radialworldwide attention.rreral developroenu already pose serious problema for the icteraaiional eomm-jniiy. In addition io terroriam in PaUstaa, increased threat* wtU arise fromn (hendia, and Sri Lanka; the rccmcrgcacc of the Japanese Red Army (JRAJ; tcrrcrfcvi xiinuca of North Korean Government ageaita^and lhc tempting target weaonicd by8 Olympic Ginves in

Europe

Terror lata In Western Europe, both domestic and Middle Eastern,nternational terrorist atiackaa slight dropwenty-four percent were staged against US inurcsta, mostly bombings of US-owned or US-asacoaied facilitlea. US casually lujurea in Western Europe were low: one person killed andounded. Some indigenous grease* such aa Action Direete fa) France, sveee decimated by arrets. enhers. such as Won Gerrnany'i Red Army Faction, were largely inactive Separatist terrorism remained by far the moat persrstent and dangerous, and we fear thai Ihtiil cor.linve. given ihr ir.tem.iy of cmoiions and tbe degree of al least aome community support for Basques. Kurds. nd Irish

timmmmmm

To* reasons for Ike overallhich has persisted for (wo veer*.similar to those attributed earlier lo ihe lull in major Middk Easterncaution exercised by state sponsors of lerror lim. lead tagajor decrease ia Middk Eastern-origin terrorism, enhanced physical security; aad toccesses by law enforcement and security agencies, owing largely to Ihe Increased kvel of coopcraiion among counterterror 1st officials in Western Durope. We believe most countries in tbc region no longer look upon terrorism as an isolated phenomenon to be handled separately by cacti (talc and Independently of other aspects of foreign policy. Most governments now believe lhal ithared problem and that "oneterrorist Is another democracy's tci iuauuaV1

in El Salvador i

liaL and

The irscidence of International lerrorism in Latin America dropped byercent in Ml, downntidenis*s in the past twouffcred Ibe grcetesi number of international lerroristthree quarler* or tbe attacka In Latin America.ahe Dominican Republic, although ibey

Honduras

United Statea US

: the world. Although Ibey caused no deaths of US

Ofnodenu.71

ercent of all anti-US attacks

suited in subsiaaiial property

and only seven wounded Although

most attacks were againsi establishedbc United State* wasarget because of its substantial cctroomk presence and political influence In Latin America and its symbolic posilion as tbc engine of capitalises,

Africa

Consistent with previous years, international terrorist incident* In Sub-Sabaraa Africa remained few and of little significance.detected no significant trend Is tbe slight Increase in tbe number of such atucks. Amoks occurred Inountries, and only Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Sudan, and Mozambique saw Ihree or morence again, almost all attacks were committed within lhe framework of local Insurgencies, in which foreigners were sometime* deliberate u'rgcu but * mostly inadvertent victims or targets of opporiunity.djaausw*-

Only Ave lerrorist atucks were aimed at US inieieats, resulting in two deathsinjury, and of these onlyLibyan-sponsored bombing In Chadto be deliberate. Four US dtitens were kidnapedojambtdu* and Sudan, but they were releaseda few nsontbs. One US tourist was wouisekdsndmrne capkeion along ISouth African border.

Tbc number of kidnaping* was unusually high ia comparison with other regions Seven different insurgent group* kidnaped foreigners to gain publicity or estract ransom for their cause Moreoreignersnationalities wereuring the rear. most, however, were later released faMgV

97

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Siendear*

OfBcUlias

For ihe ftrn lime sincealestiniansope were victim*errorist attack. Onebruary in Umasaol.owerful car bomb killed Ihree PLO officials. One daytodcd aboard Ibe Greek iKip Sol Pbryne, which wai chartered lo carry Palestinian deportees, tympatkretn. and

ioetfnahsu from Cyprus to UraeL The PLO quickly blamed lhe Israeli Moasadaaa

both operation, and vowed to retaliate In liahl of the two attacks, the PLO claimed it would reconsider its commitment to ibe5 Cairo

] f

banning icKoiiim outside Israel and the occupied territories;hot been withdrawn Israeli authorities

denied tKeJ^LO allegations and blamed feuding PLO factions for the car bomb atucl

ACtion INrrcle Hunan Strike

lmprisooedrecw (AD)Rouillan, Nathalie Mcni-gon.JoeIle Aubron, and Georgeiear den th Th- fourhave beenunger iirikeecember, demandlni to be treated as political prison en and to be removed frompecial terrorism tribunal passed sentence on the four in msd-Febniaiv. The rest of theD members on trial received penalties ranging from an IB-month suspended sentence for journal-ists Paula Jacques aad Dan Franck. whougitive, to eight years forBene.supplied false documents. The four traderspposed to go on trial again in March for assassin lion, bombing, and armed robbery

Should one or more of the pnaooers die, the govern me e< anticipates rnore violent sympathkas bombmgs andthose seen to date. AD sympathizers in Wai Germany have carried out low-key actions in Frankfurt and Hamburg, and lis Jailed RAF members went on ihort hunger strikes to show solidarity wiih the French terrorists. Lacklgnineant response would probably cause tbeIhe Communist Combatant Cclli In Belgium, and thc Red Army Faction in Westlose credibility with thc support network of radical leftiili and other terrcrisUatBgaanaV

hit been unable to confirm the identities of the kidnapers. It hi poaUbiePalestiruao empioyees of UNRWA abducted thai toonay be tcemnc rxoteciioa froen syTrepai biters ia thc Stdoet area.apoaxanan declared publicly that it was aa internal PaVestiaiarian ancnymoui note received in Beirut several days after thc abductionUNRWA employe ea were spies who would be triteed and act free onlytonocwiL The tactic of declaring boatages spies previously had been usedShia to "leaiumirc" kldnapings.

of an active peace process probably would land to an upsurgeterrorism, including attacks oouide the Middle East. OpesaKticcireaolution of the Arab-IsraeliarseciticaJly toa major caaae of the unprecedented number ofS. Tnrkn.nl momentom ia thc pence proceaa almost ecrtainlya major factor in the lull in Palestinian attacks outside the Middlelate sponsors of radical Palestinian factions- Including Libyabe eipected lo encourage attacks against any Arab parties. ^

Aaacrica OSalrae-ar

FMLN Attacks an Ccabaasy Vehicle*

Sincehc Farabuado Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) has Increased terrorist tacticsntimidateworking (or the USriver auiined lo Ihc US defense attache ofTVce was abducted from a

t

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Iranian Support forerrorism in looa-aaV *^

7 increased iu iivvoJvemeot in international terrorism. Beginning In early January. Tehran ot its surrogates:

'ere accuied by Paris of irmigating6

bombing campaign anil of giving supportell of

North Africanated in March.

Allegedly ordered the kidnaping in Ubanon of US journalist Char lei Glass.

Beoefiied from the release of foreign hostages held to Ubarsoo by Hizballah, the fast-growing Iranian-backed Shia fundamentalist movement in Lebanon.

Targeting the Culf SUtes Tehran continued iu policy of i

. w. iltbougb someerrorism by Shias in the Gulf may have beenwithout Tehran's explicit authorization.encourages such acts in principle and caa call on these extremists to mount terrorist opera uorii Iranian-backed factions include the Supremefor thc Islamic Revolution in Iraq, thcof theevolution In the Arabianthc Islamic Front for Ihc Liberation of Bahrain, and lhc Utsmk Call (Dawa) Party, which hu branches In Bahrain, Kuwait, and

Iranian defectors and dissidents in West Germany, tbe United Wogdom, Switzerland, and Turkey.""

Iranian leaders view terrorism as an importantof foreign policy, which7 they were willing to use to advance national goals and to upon tbe regimes Islamic revrnutiooary ideals They used it selectively and skillfully in coordination withdiplomacy and miliury uctics. Most Iranian leaders probably agree terrorism la an acceptable policy option, although tbey may differ on tbc sppro-pnateneai or timelinessarticular act of terror

Iran's primary targets were the moderate Arab rc-gisTsea, the West, and Iranian dissidents. Tehran used tcjTurinra to try to Mtiamdate Persian Gulf rulers into ending their aid to Baghdad, lo drive US and French influence from thc Middle East, and to eliminate opponents of ibe regime.7 Tehran used thc threat af terrorism, along with attacks on Gulfto discourage Kuwait and the other moderate Arab Gulf states from supporting lhe US reflagging effort.

Iran'a campaign against the Persian Gulf6 when Kuwaiti Shina were involved Inof several oil instillations ashis terrorists carriederiesat Kuwaiti oil installations apparentlyto force cancellation or postponement ofof Islamic States summitto end Kuwaiti sappori for Iraq, The attacksin tbe name of tbe Prophetin Kuwait- Revolutionary Organization, aunknown group, which probably was simplyused by Shia cxtrernisls. Moreintended to intimidate Kuweitthc US reflagging effortaadn July, two Kuwaitithcnasclves up while attempting to place afrontommercial building housing tbcticket

brothers lold authorities in latebad been abducted by Iran, bul

had received sabotage training there. In September, arsonistsire at the science facility al Kuwait University, Over Ihc not two months bombs espleded

/

in Ironi of lhe Pan American ticket office, ihc Ministry of lhe Interior, and thc officeS-owned life insurance com pan

Thc rxoipcci of lenoriim against Saudi Arabiasignificantly in INI folWhag the Iranlan-inspircd claihes betweengrims and Saudi secant* forces during the pilgrimage to Mecca.leaders publicly committed Iran to retaliation for thc deaths of the Iranian pilgrims, to the over'hrow of the ruling family, and to Ihc end of Saudi dominance over the Islamic Holy Places in Arabia.anlanay have been responsible for lb* bombingaudi bank in Paris la September

Bahrain was also (he Urtrterrorist plot

Iran la lebeeoe: Hiiballah and the Hostage*

Lebanon has been Ihe scene of most tcrtosauuby groups supported by Iran.'. Tehran continued lo prrrvide significant support to the ea-iremut Shia Hizballah movement responsible for the kidnaping and detention of foreign hostages and has conducied terrorist attacks againsi Western interests, particularly the United States and France.ot ccmpteiely controlled by Iran, but Tehran has substantial influence over tbe group's activities and provides financial assistance as jell as weapon! and training;

Following lhe arrest In7error til Important to Hiiballah. two Germanwere abducted in BeiruL Tbe terrorist.Hammadi. who was arrested at Frankfurt Airport trying to smuggle liquid eaptosi'ca into the country, bad been caw of the hijacker* of TWA Fill

Onanuary. French fouraalisi Roger Aequo was abducted in Beirut. No group claimed hisAuqee was released, allegedly by theJustice Organization. In November.

Onarre*-y. Cbereh of England envoy Terry Waite was kidnaped in Beirut whileission to contact ih* terrorists holding several US hostages. No group Los claimed his abduction.

Onanuary, gunmen seized foar professors, including three Americans, from thc BeirutCollegereviously unknown group called die Islamic Jihad for lhe Liberation of(LILP) claimed the kldnaplngt.P saidommunique released shortly after thelhal ll would murder alt four hostageseek if several hundred Palestinian prisoncn bead in Israeli jaib were not freed and if Muhammad Hammadi were not released.

Shia terrorists in Letanoa bead five other US hostages al yearced. including Terry Anderson and

_ David Sutherland. On Christmasape was released shewing Anderson, in it he linked Ihe bosugca' (ate to tint ofhis terrorists held in Kuwait- ajp, -y

During the next few months, thc press and sources of varying reliability -cported ihreala lo the hostages as well as promises of their imminent release. Press reports claimed ihai Terry Watte was accused ofransmit tee lo bis meeting srilh hosts gcbal he had been woundedhootout between rival hostsge-taking factions, aad Ihat he was dead. Other report* alleged lhaluatages had been moved to Tehran for trials on spy charges and that one of the BUC hostages was crying. AtfoHowiog the release* la October and Novemberoutherman, aad two Frenchrumors circulated lhal Hizballah would release one or scvrral hostagesoodwill gosiure. No hostages were released. The statements were probably intended by the hostage holders lo Increase pleasure on ihe

hostages' governments in hope* ol*eal forhich, according io presseen paid in other hostage)

The degree of Iranian invcrtvcmenl jn (hehas *aried widely. Iran probably was notin Ihe kidnapings of the. Westernin early

Aa>erican

joumaas"in Leba non allegedly lo interview Lebanese leaden as well as individuab involved in the TWA FlightTehran was, hrjvrever, apparently instmmental in arranging (he releases of tbe two French hostagesermsn hostage in November.

Ia Search of America

Tehran almost certainly consider* sabotage andas important oprions in its con frononUnited Slates in thc Persun Gulf, la IheTehran and its Shia allies forced tbeUS military farces from Lebanon, humiliatingStates and bringing Into question thc ideacould use its military forces todevelopments in tbc Middle East.leaders cite thc US withdrawal as proofcan break US resolve.lt nStates began to implement its deci.onKuwaiti oil tanker* and increase itsin the Persian Qulf, Iranian leadersdrcw.-yarallcls between events in Lebanonaadbombings of the US(he Marinecurrenttbe Persian Gulf. Iranian leaders abo warnedatuck aay Gulf port that offeredilitary. In August, following (be killingpilgrims in Mecca during anTehran baked thc United States to Sauditactics Tbe accusation was probably intendedto provide additional juitifccatton forthc United State* No Iranian-backed terroratucks were launched against specific US

Tehran,

however, apparently was not linked to thc hijacking in Switzerland of an Air Afrique airliner onuly. Tbe hijackerebanese male who claimed loember of Hizballah. Among bis confused act of demands was the release of Muhammad Hammed; and other Hiibalfali-linked terrorists inrance. One Frenchman was murdered before lbc hijacker

1 ' H Hta- I -]

' - - ooklag for Dissidents

a4

Iran, like Libya, has made suppression ofat home andocui of HsIranian agents bare hunted downin Earopc, the Unitedheand Asia. Inefector who hadpilot for Iranian Assembly bead Rafsanjaniin West Germany. Otber Iranianprominent dissidents, were murderedthe United Kingdom, Switzerland, andAH told, seven dissidents were murdered andtwo others were bombed or threatened inyear. In July, pro-Khomeiniof thc Revolutionaryfacilities used by membersIranian oppcaUtion Mujahcdin el-Khalq Inin Queue, Pakistan. Three pcrsont were killedmany were injured .

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The Response of Southto Middle

leaden; of southern Europe have gcncral-ly been reluctant to implement tough meaiurca against Middle Eastern terrorism. Because of history, culture, and geography, Ihey believe their countriespodal rede ss intermediaries between tbc Arab world and Europe. These regimes are also motivatedense of vulnerability because of Iheir geographic rrroairnity and Ihe presence of limbic Middle Eastern populations within their borders, as well as by tceetonsse selfEven though good relations with radical states have not always shielded them from Utcroaubnal terrorism, most will remain cautious In their approach toward countries accused of aiding,

PJsurwasaan wf She Threaii

Middle Lnstern violence has affected the southern-tier states to varying degrees. Several high-profile terrorist attacks have occurred in the southern tier in recent years, even though international terrorism in Westernlargely by Syria. Libya, andbeen generally dexlining-

The Abu Nidal organisation (ANO)t the Rome airport

Suipectod ANO terrorists killedorshipersynagogue In Istanbul inad Libyan -sponsored terrorists were stopped before they oould carry out an attack on the US officers dub In Ankara in

Inell-known Libyan dissident wasinnd an Iraqi dtpaoenai was wounded In an asussination attempt inLO official was murdered innd in5 an ANO grenade attachold In an Athens suburb injuredritish tourists.

Portugal has not experienced Middle Eastern -origin terrorism in recent years, bulLO leader was asssssinatcd and Armenians assaulted lhe Turkltli Embassy in Lisbon.

Early7 Milan airport officialsebanese national attempting to smuggle plastic eapiosivea Into Italy, and Inibyanwas shot and killed in Rome.

reran at

h

A number of Libyan diplomats were expelled from Spain6 for planning terrorist operations,elf-proclaimed member of the Abu Musa group of Fatah dissidents was arrested for planning the bombing of an El Al aircraft at the Mad.id arrpori in June 19

Threats of retaliation against governments refusing to free jailed Arab terrorists have generated fearsew cycle of violence. Countries with sizable Middle Eastern communities consider themselves particularly vulnerable to terrorist attacks a"

b3 4

National Interest and Policy Concents Southern-lie- countries, sympalisetk to Arab and Palestinian causes, aspirepecial rtaaiionship with thc Arab nations, primarily to maintainlinks. Oil imports and arms sales are important

II

The southern-tier governments have also beento take strong measures against states exporting terrorism, becauseesire to protect thousands of their citizens working In such countries as Libya. South European governments maintain cordial rela-(tdss with Syria. Iran, and Libya, even (Ijough all three have beenerrorist inddenu In

Governmenu accept the necessity to preempt or re-spond to terrorist moves, but the greater concern will remain indlgenoui sources of terror

matore direct threat to stability.1

States in southern Europe have toleeeicd activity by

foreignecause of ideologicalhics with some movements.I

This cautious approach has conformed with public attitudes Moat West Europeans favor diplomatic pressure or workingively in lbc EC or the Council of Europe rather than more forceful actions, such as military retaliation, flans* fy

taut leek

Southern Europe probably will remain an area in which foreign terrorists can operate easily, despite efforts by -jme governments to strengthen border controls and to monitor foreign populations*

Even when individual lerrorisu an prosecuted and convicted, however, we believe governments wiU avcad implicating patron nates. The historic tiesude links that bind these countries to tbc Middk East argue against eitremc measures thai would endanger rhose interests. Economic linkages almost certainly will remain significant in shaping eouatenerrorist policy flaVsas $

In the near term, wc bclkvc governments will have little incentive to pursue new initiatives againat inter-national terrorism, partly because patron states have pulled back somewhat from their Involvement in terrorism. Strained relations between Syria andPalestinian factions, for example, arc partially responsibleemporary reduction la tbe number ol[terrorist opera lions Wc also eapoct government leaden will have publK support In allowing narrowly perceived national InteresU to override cou ntcr terror-isl considerations. Thus, leaders on occasion may not be above making deals with groups or sponsoring states if Ibey can minimize thetucataor prornote economic and poliiical policy goal

Slant

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bl 0

Tbe Terrorism Diary for A

I April

IS

I0

1

April

2pril mi

400

9

6

54 t

ompendium of April dales of known or conceivable titnificance lo lecToruls around ike world. Our Inclusionose or event ihtmld mot by liielf ht conijraed io lu/gesi ihai we expect orommemorative lerrorist evenlAfM

to

ArmwnioMx. The moenh of April it dedicated by Armenian groups to ihc memory of ibe maatacre ol Armenian* by Toil* during World War I.

Cyprus. EOKA (National OrganiatJon of Hx Cype wr Strangle) Day. lie;f guerrilla struggle for Creek Cypriot IndeperKlcoce.

El Salradot. Founding of Popular Libcratkxi Forces (FPL).

'tram, labunic Republic Day. Commerocrilc* lafahaa riot*.

El Salvador. US Cultural Centra in San Salvador bombed and strafed by lhe Popular Liberation Fcecea (FPL).

El Salnidoe. Rochet aad gun attack on US Embassy by FPL.

Jewish world. Peaach. First day of Passover.

4rgcau.ee, United Ki.gd.ee. Argentina invades Falkland*.

Greece. Bomb aboard TWAilled four US diitens. including one infant.

Hu*fry. Liberation Day.

Syria. Founding of Bath

NATO. NATO ew.Meshed. Stnttal. InderjendeiKC Day.

Foktitan.uttkar AH Bhuttobc terrorist group Al ZuUikar. founded by bis two sons, is named after biav

China. Tiananmen riots In wake of Zhou Entail death.

Wtrt Gtrmtamy. Bomb at la Belle discothoque in West BerlinS soldi orurkish woman,econd US serviceman later died of his wounds.

ivt

Afrit

I

Chair)ounding of Thai reyal dynast*

rrlami. Beginning of inspection thai led to Independence

4!

Republic Day. Conacrernoeaio adoption of torrent cetnsuiutlon

IV.

Student revolution.

7

Founding or raling Ba"th Patty.

April

world. Last day of Passover.

1

proclamation of Croatian independence.

1

ft

1

Lebanon Israeli raid on Beirul that killed several high-ranking Palestinian terrorists.

April

Founding of Popular Front for the Li bora two of Paioiirse-Genersl Ccaoeriind (PFLP-OCl

*,*

4

Attack by PFLP-GC on Qiryat Shemona leavesead,ounded

9

Liberation Day Fall of Ida Amfn.

0

National Redemption Day. Celebrates coup overthrowing Tolbert government.

9

Guru Gobind Singh founds Sikhlsmilitaristic reJigkm.

9

Brituh troops lire on Indian civilians in Anvritsar. Coenmernoraied as "Jalltao Wala Garden Massacre."

S

Phalangeack bus. triggering Lebaneac aril war. .

i

President Nimeiri ousted in coup.

April

world. Approiimate dale beginning Ramadan, the month of raiting.

9

try Independence Day

0

446

America. Pan-American Day. First international conference of American itstcs.

ssumptioa ofy by Gen. Gnassirrgbc Evade ma Niter. Accessioet to power of President Kountche.

Libya. US planes bomb TripolJ snd Benghni in retaliation for Libyan Involvement in inii-US terrorism.

ISJ IS6

*

0

61

S4

6

9 It9

4

It3 It6

0

10

Karen. Birthday ofreland. Easter u| riling Sndem. UScommaiiicalor wounded ia Khartoum, i

Jemalim, West Bank. Palestinian Prisoners' Day.ependence Day.

ir De ferae Day. CommerDorate* Air Force success againsi Bay of Pigs invader*.

Cambodia Liberalion Day. Kilmer Rouge victory

Libpa, Ualird Kingdom Libyan radicals fire oa protesters outsideureau in Load on. killing aand woundingthers; start of* siege by Brllish security forcoi.

Lebanon Bodies ofr. bonage Peter Kit turn and two British hostages discovered in Beirut

Untied Kingdom. P* kali man Nexar Hlndawi attempts tol aircraft by placing device in Irish girl friend's luggage.

IreUnd Inaugurauoo of republic

Panama, United Stain US ratification of Panama Canal Treaty. Zlmhmbm. Indcpervdcnce Day.

US Embassy bcenbed by lsUssucJ ,

Tariry Two Libyans arrested attempting grenade attack on US officers dub in

Ankara.

Namibia Founding of South-West Africa Peopk's CHgnnuatna (SWAPO).

Searib Korea Unrest iriggered by student uprising forced President Syngman Rhee to resign and leave country. Usually commemorated by student demo nitrations.

Cuae. Day of Victory at Playa Giro* (Bay of Pigs)

Colombia Populist group National Popular Alliance (ANAPO) did poorly in rialionti election

1

3

6

II7pril

S5

9 It$

74

2 IS6

April

6

trout Prod* mi lion of republic

ColomUn Populwl group ANAPO eiuereirah of April Movement

Tot key. Three Palestinians arrested urfclim US airbase and US duzen*an*.

Grteor. National Radiance Day. Anniversary of miliury roup

mrid. Alhura. Shia Muslims eraaunernoraie (he death of Huaaeia wit*plays and Klf-flaiefUuon Survru Shi* rivalries often flare.

Armenians. National Day of Sorrow. Coniraernoratu Turkish massacrc.

Dominican Htpatlle. Beginning of dvil war.

The Gomhit Republic Day.

liafy. Liberal ton Day.

Swaziland. Kingdom ooratiiuied.

r-ertntal. Revolution Day. Liberty Day. Celebrate* miliury coup that overthrew rightist fwrnmeiit and paved way for democratically elected aovertaraest. Leflvriog terrorul group Popular Forcas ofpriltkea iu name from this date

Ftppt, lirarlay. Commemorate* Uracil withdrawal. North Yemen USwounded In Sanaa

trrtl Cornmerooritioc of tbe Holocaust.

Jordan. Trsnijordan becoroes Haihemite Kingdom of Jordan.

Tanzania. Uniied Republic of Tanunls formed through union of Republic of Tanganyika and People's Republic of Zaaiibar.

Anuria Second Republic estiHnhed

rag* Independence Day.

Sierra Itoni. Independence Day.

Aftkaatitaa Coniervatlve Daoud regime ousted by left wing coup.

21

April1S3 It47

3

SO0 X

SB12

Birthday of Saddam Hussyn.

Domlnlean Republic USim,

Columbia Death9 leader Jaime Bateman in pune crash.

Upetm Fjnperor Hitohtiobirthday.

Founding of People's Liberation Army'I

Sikhoctatc IrKlependeot republic of Khaliaun at Grades Temple in Am ri tsar rnilhanU eapcliod from temple neit day.

Vietnam Norlh Vietnamese capture Saigon.

Valtei Kingiom Iranian Embassy iciied by radieali: hostage* eventually rescued by British Specisl Air Service team.

Cnatrmnln Bombing of storage tank of US oil company In Guatemala Qty by the II January Popular Front

Gmarrmetl: Bombing of US fast-food restaurant in Guatemala City by tbe FP-JI.

* ;

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Chronology of

ore described noteworthy foreign ond international events Involving terrorists, or the use of terrorist tactics, which have occurred or come to light since our last issue. In some coses, the perpetrators and their motivations may not be known. Events and developments ihat have already been described elsewhere la this publication are not in: .

latin: Unidentified gunmen kill two tenterjol lee otfitiali as they Jog^

Babbar Khalsa Sikh terrorists are believed resnonslbte.'l

totter release eight NaxtJllt prisoners in esehangt for si* Tba officials -ere ambusned aad taken hostage Ibe

Chile: Explosion at power pylon am San Cristobal hill causes partial Santiago. No ooe claimed responsibility for ibe bomb,

Chile: Bomb tszptodts In street near Infantry school in San Bernardo, coming

minor damage but no casualties. No group claimed responsibility for lhe bombing. *

Kingdoms: Iraqi builnessman Is poisoned while dining trlih other Iraqi

nationals. British security officials are Investigating ' illing was committed by tbc Iraqi Government for poliiical reason igJBhs

ilitary Judge sentences fone Moremett of lhe Revolutionary Leftto lift In prison. They were found guilty ofolicexnan daringattackonument in Santia ;

Philippines: New People's Army (NPA) members quack Jeep nearn Oroni, Bataam. nod Mil j

ami - ,>

Northern Ireland: Large ear bomb tiplodn la downtown Belfast. TheRepublican Army (PIRAlUsok responsibility fee Ibe bomnarning of lhe

El Selvaden Farmhands Marti National Uberaiian Front (FMLN/ terrorim booth Ahaatkapan tteothermutlplant aa nan eoateeative days, eaaiiag aa iajaifei la either iaeidemt-,

Esplasloa aa nbarmy in Santiago camlet major damage but am casual Ipersonsomb onxploded inside ibe lunnel at ablo?

Car hmmh npiadet im imtrneh af Batmmmyo ml ammse eeempiedf thm African National Congress <ANC% killing mat pman mad injuring leveral others Zimbabwean offrdaU believe the victims were targeted by South African agcnuafJfc

Fhilipplmes: NPAmstmnimaiimm aaW Mils three all duty poiieemrn mauide store

In Forme, Fampangn. The victims were killed in retaliation for abuses allegedly I ^

inflicted on local residentsy

Lebanon Unidentified gmatnem assassinate miliiary official of the Islamic Unification Movement in Sldom. No one has daimed rcaponsibilii

ir pines: Fremeh Ambaiiuder Ii larger of assassination attempt as he leaves French Embassy Im Manila The Ambassador, riding la his bulletproof car. was not bun No motive hai been established, and no (roup has claimed responsibility.

Sadam: Espiotioas kill mm persons aad seriously Injurethers laborder Two mines esplotted, several hours apart. Mar dvilian vehiclesthe same area of tbe town. There was no dam of?

Argentina: Bomb explodes al Maemoa church Im Arellaneda, eaaiiag minor

damage bat am cmsmmltlei. There was no daim ofp

Northern Ireland: Caamen momad member of Ulilcr Defense Regiment (VDHj outilde kit home In Coanty Tyrone. The man, who died of his woundi the following, day, was the hrsi fatality in Northern Ireland from sectarian violence le

intm+M

b5

11

anuary

I

r Matr-er. hh wife, mad three seas ta ardaspar la Pmnjmb. One aonjipected terroriit. No one hai claimed Pr*

responsibility

Politeerra bmllei-riastled hmdia Im Jamdlmlm rilltge, Amritser. No one hu claimed iesponvbility tor the incident SMB*

Northern Irrlaad. Tee men die la shootingember of the UDR ami ihot -. alking with hu girl fcieod.atbolie man wu murdered in bit bocne by several attackers. No ironps took credit for Ihe murders, the second and third in Ulitcr in

Spat* Bomb explodes ml Citrate dealership In Lagroia, ensuing dammit bat ma eataattiet. Basque Fatherland and Libert. (ETA) claimed respcnsitalityommaniqae charging French Government aad ba tineas interests with exploit*f the Spanish cCLeiomyafflf

ladle: Sesmrity/arte, arrest seta Sihh terroritit Im Amtritsmt, imetmdiat erne milk Urewmrd afupee,or hit,

Pkllippiaes: Crude bomb ixtAooetarbershop eatstde Sable Bay Nasaldebris bet causing me easaaltlet. Authorities have no suspects but Ubomblnj was Intended to disrupt local

mammae, 4

ammer,

Bomb uptodts at aome of German imm!great, There were iwO rCuportod injuries and no claimsmiit, jgfjs;.

ad: PIRA el si mi mpoaiibillty far mardee of mem It alienedolice Informer. Accordini to tbc group, the victims former member of PIRAaTataV-

Iodic Settrriry faeces kill nam imspected rrmrim dmrimg mm ememmmterThe sulhoritica also captured weapons and

aaaary

he Bfelon

Revolutionary Army claimed responsibility for Ihe bombings, saying iUoppcnition to French Government attempts lo eradicate ihc Celtk language. Lwere no injuries.

Pkillpeimei: Muslim guerrillas lie, minibus in Banian and kidnapilipino

CanTu, - .

Imdlat 1mrmtd anallami kill rice ptttidtnt of Bharatiya Jamau Party lectian

im Lmdhtana, Punjab The attacker, tvrfon motorad ao group

claimed reipoRiibtllty for thc incident

ludta: Six usuatniilud niiailnntt fvt indlicrimlnatrlr on crowdpark Im Samgrar, killingertoru mmd serioutly tremruilmg oar. Two perioni were killad and two injured ia separate ahooting irtddenu in Amriuar and Gordaipur ia Punjab No one hu daimod responsibility (U)

India: Armed retell sneer and Ull farmer Im Meneeeenal milage. Amritior. No group hat claimedp

Moumbloat: Memberi of ike National geitstanec Monrment attack GmLfa la lonthrrn Moznmbiame. Government authorities daim thc rebels (rolled about TO persons and set fire to several buddings la the town,chool hospital.

fCmnicuM teyurullet, hem*oeont holiday rill as la AJatxio am* leart rigotd tracti la lhe wreckage. Although there were no injuries, eight of Ihc homes were totally destroyed. Authorities view the bombing*murgcjsce of Ihc scparaiiii campaign to force property owners from thc mainland to qait Corsica.

W

b?

Sri Lanka: Nine Liberation Titers of Tamil Eelam (LTTBJ memberi tu reenter to

the Indian Peacekeeping Force im Jaffna The Indian forces alsoplosives l.

and ammunition al several locations la lbc Jaffna Peninsula

CAffe: Bomb txmledtt ml mnnicipal parking tot im Valparalio, destroying at leastehteltt. Two unidentified men may have sprayed thc vehldcslammable liquid before placing Ihc bomb There were no Injuries, and no group ha* daimed reapcntibility flj_

Extremist,f. family Im KoJetkar. tillage.

dltirltt TheNpinuK tiw, It inrxoM.fV'

Northern litlamd; Director af comtttmeston firm dolmg -or* fee iteurity force, fa Northern Ireland Ii killed by two gimme* wkll, working ml kli dttk. No ireup IS eUimed responsibility, but PIRA hat targeted companies providing services lo ihr il? police and Army in Utter.

Exploiloe Im Samilssgo kllli MaJ. Julieelt, kted ef pellet special

unit, end nvearfr two ether ptrlletmtm. Tbe MIR ha. claimed

ha> claimed

reapoeaibllity for lbc I

Frmmtt: Folic* ahrtil lis suspected Btuemt itparetltts, Imelmdimg emen mod kli twift, during rtidt mter Iht tor dir.all four of Ihe suspects are lo be flown to Paris for questioning on flaaqu.atttckt Ineacherasque school in Bayonac was arrettedelatedJfa>

e land: Omt peJicemom I, killed mod two wounded to grenade attachrthlclt ihllt patrolling Im Btlfasl Two civilians, including5-year-oldwere wounded In the attack, which took placehildren's bcepital.claimed responsibility for killing most ofeJiceoen who have died InIreland since ibe resurgence cf vsoleiKt ia

reland: Three poiicemen and three clrllltts ore sromndtd la earoutride Belfast policeelephone caller claiming to represent aveminutc warning of the bit itp

Chile: Feme bombi explode Im Conception, causing terieui damage but ma

imjurltt. Members of ihe Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front arc suspected in the

incidents7

Chile: Bembtmti occur Im tomts of Cancepdon, TalcaJtaano, Lota, andhere were no reported casualties, and no group has claimed rcapoiuibilUya'tt. />

mm Basguti impeded of ImMiieaaent la ETA are expelled from Frame*Thc two were arretted by border police al Saint Jean de Luz. Oneofember erf Ihe Ooyerri Commando, formerly active around ASebastian'

Wtti Bonk: Unknown attailonti firebomb car with Jewish settler In It, leatlmg ricilm Im critical condition

33

Frmmta Tt'tt bomla directedmttttt la AJac.ua tirade aad caaoe Mamas, mat aa cauaaltle. Two explosion, occurred at lac caucca aad toe other al the apartment ofIdrxommurucalioni offldnL National Fronl for the Liberation of ConiCa (FLNC1 pamphleu were found near tbe rcilonal tdeeoov munk* lions headquarters, which received coniidcrable dat

egamlutlam claim, Udaayia, efUhyamami Im Beirutelephone celloreign newt agency,apctaamaji for (he poop at- U2 ciaacd the kidnap victim of working for Libyan inidlitence.ojuajjr.

/tauter iViet aurrsruaecle. Batame icpmraiiut im three raid, aver SweVr ww.oi'deeiiifsed at Menuvehomlo have beeneadernother of those derated aval found in thc ome ol an ETA roembti who had been expelled "rom Frinco lo EcvdoorfMr' '

aaafaaWJaneat Imue laieHar Mlalsttr Sarmi, ml. 'SUyaMiseeca Bed'harm, bat bis brother -as Kiikd.etkfhh

la tmiU,ataeax,lat

Syriem lajcil,trace office ami tlimlc aVfaeg (egSyria* Arab ^mocrmtic

Parry. Tbe ttpkaioo canted ptdperty damage id near^

was-KMIil AlriLaWGrotlpW lUtflM1rd (WpodaibJllty for (he

aVlret it derated ly exymmitret expert la ta.itd withlot rams of explosives, the car wu parked hear tbe Ait FrtticeAn*

ItrrCstJiatiod birnderwaywhether Ibe bcttbylrapped eu.rU' Ib'eone

mal aecenryhilled Im cm boom* etgloaUm Im Wmechcialt boobyUappcd car detoeticd In front Of hi. house ia lbc Karat 1aiea. No croup hat claimed

Original document.

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