MOSCOW'S THIRD WORLD EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS: AN INVESTMENT IN POLITICAL INFLUENCE

Created: 7/1/1989

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Directorate of Intelligence

Moscow's Third World Educational Programs: An Investment in Political Influence

n Intelligence Aiwwmcal

CiA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM RELEASEAS9

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Moscow's ThirdEducational Programs: An Investment in Polilica) Influence

r

Mr*,

over Ihe years has developed an eticnsivc academic scholarship program thai is used in conjunctionoihcr cert and clandestine acliviiies lo lay Ihe groundwork for increased influence in ihe. Thudeview of the overall program

suggest Ihal Moscow's moiive for iniimtine and funding educational programs for foreign students remains political, with the ultimate goal of molding pro-Soviei activists who will assume Ihe reins of political power in their countries. The success of ihe program and lis low cosl will ensure that ii remain*mainstay of the Soviet nonmilitary aid effort in the Third World, even as Moscow pares back on overall aid commitments.

Wc estimate thai, since,tudentson-Communisi less developed countries ILDCs) have traveled to ihe Soviet Union for training, and0 are enrolled there now in training programs. The iraimne is conducted overtly bul contains considerable political indoctrination, with all students receiving an average ofours of political courscwork perelect group0 of Ihese students have also received clile political training at the CPSU Institute of Social Sciences, where they study Communist ideology, propaganda, o'oechniques, and undergo training in clandestine acliviiies.

the KGB closely

monitors every facet of the Soviei scholarship program to identifywho arc likely candidates for higher political training, who are willing to provide conduits for organizing and funding covert activities on their return home, and who will perform oilier clandestine services for Moscow. Because aboutercent of the scholarships offered annually arcby local Communis) parlies, trade unions, friendship societies, and other Soviet frontclandestinely -we believe the KGB uses these groups to identify the types of students desired.

The Soviet scholarship program has paid (he most dividends in Marxist client stales where Soviet-trained personnel now dominate the power structures. The Presidents of Afghanistan and Angola and the Prime Minister of Ethiopia were trained in ihe USSR, and Soviet-trained officials also hold high parly and government posiltons In Elhiopia. Nicaragua, and South Yemen. Nearly one-third or the scholarships awarded each year go io students from Marxist client slates, and these students in particular are subjected to intensive indoctrination ihrough required extracurricular

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activities. In addition to the training in ihc Soviet Union. Moscow has even designed programs for primary through advanced university study in these countries lo train youth in Marxisi-Leninisi principles

The scholarship program has also paid dividends in non-MarxisiIhe pasl five years as Soviet-trained officials moved slowly intoand policy-level posilrnsumber of counlries. Inand Guyana, gradualcs of ihe Soviet program havepositions. By the endore0 studenlsLDCs hadjclurncd home with degrees orSoviet instilmany of them

are employed in the civil service of ai leastd have attained policy-level positions in no lessrimarily in Africa

students arc probably saiisficd

with the Soviet program, but not all are happy with their experiences in ihc USSR. Some sludenis have returned home afterew weeks in the Soviet Union because of poor living conditions. Others complain of having been victimized by deceptive recruiting practices, or of heavyhanded KGB surveillance, travel restrictions, substandard housing, and racialThese problems affect iheir morale and their academicand many cornc away convinced that Marxism-Leninism is the wrong answer lo LDC problems. Negative perceptions are reinforced when students arc unable lo find work because Iheir Soviet degree is not respectct'

Dcspiie whatever shortcomings the program may have. Gorbachevbelieves thai iraining studenls from LDCs is beneficial on balance for the USSR. Indeed, ihe Kremlin hasarger number oflo Third World students during his lenure than ever before. We bdievc there arc compelling reasons for Gorbachev to maintain or increase Moscow's scholarship program:

Itow-cosl. low-risk, high-impact program. Ii requires little or no hard currency expenditure and diverts few resources from domestic economic activity. Unlike economic aid programs, it does noi draw criticism from ihe international community.

Il can be tightly controlled by Moscow. No money changes hands, and the USSR insists that gradualcs rclurn home after sludy is completed, hopefully to promote Soviet political and economic interests.

has been successful. Alumniumber of high-level officials sympathetic lo Moscow's views, as well as others who have permeated influential sectors of LDC governments and professions.

It burnishes Moscow's imageeaceful, public-spirited nation inteni onC economic conditions and permits Moscow to inflate claims about its aid to LDCs because the Soviets calculate the value of their scholarships by Western tuition costs.

provides continuity of contacts in LDCs thmiich former student societies and refresher courses in the USSR.

Kc, Ju.itmenu lit

Prolan, 1

Ihe

8

Moscow's Third World Educational Programs: An Inteeimenf in Political Influence

For more tlufiean, Moscow lui ased hi ie*denv ic scholarship program it* ton; unction *nhn and clandcaiiM aciiriiici to Uy the groundwork far increased influince in ihe Thirdo-iclactivity encompasses everything hornnd military aid programsstablishing (riendihip locictlea and engaging inactive measures Unlike most Soviet activities andowever, the academic scholarship program hai not drawnfrom the international community In fact,bat used the program successfully to protect aa imageeaceful, public-ipiriiod nation intent on improving LDC economic condition! by providing aa edit cat too too cannotestern education In an era of economic reform and closet scrutiny of caicraal spending, the Soviet educational program for students from LDCs provides Moscow withverylive and low-cost influence oiicalion.

So.iel

Moacow'i motrntroo in initiating and fendingprograms for foreign iludcnta has alwayswith the ultimate goal of molding prowho will aeons* ihenlilicalllieir

Soviet objective* todiy differ little, if any. from the original program goals to:

Create an educated elite among potential political nod economic leaden who will be favorably inclined toward Moscow.

Spot individuals who can be cultivated and trained ni agents of Influence to further Soviet polk in on thelt return home.

' IWHltlW prOff!in

-rnftaWtn. ntwk for PWTOHI% Itf" tlitilmvm al AfiSciSwln ftwl AH nirfl CiMMii Ihofcviumoiiwhca*taduT iht MiodSc Con

tructure of individuals through whom Moscow can maintain power during times ofturmoil or setbacks inssist Maraist allies in consolidating power. To achieve Ihese aims. Moscow has marshaled the resources of its huge school system lo offer training in morepecialtiesniversities, schools, and institutes in tbe USSR.

Ibe IducaiiooaJ Program

Moscow's program (or training foreign students has evolvedmall effort that began ia, when assorted revolt! tiMaric* were bcocghi to the Soviet Union strictly for party training,arge sophisticated educational strueiutc that incorporates academic trainingpolitical indoctrination. More recently, in light of Moaoow't reform efforts.hai calledestructuring of training la produce graduates who irend defending Mitumn

On the bail* of data from official and public sourort, we ralimaic ibat some IfcT.OOO studentsLDCs have uavclcd io the USSR for training sincend that0 are eurolled there now in training progne-third of these students come from Africa, followed by those from Use Middleouthnd Latinercent) By tbe end of IVII. moreromLDCs had returned home with droreca or certificates from Soviet institutions.1

Aboutercent of ihe LDC students who have iiudxd in tbe Soviei Union Una ihe same academic if ahuflg coarse* and attended the same amvenittea

' Sta ipfxoftm nmhno*4Unn-

C. nlinn) ia IM USSSt, .

l (Hi ol teasltfi'n<*iIntnuBHira

Academic Students From Noo-Couwaunhl ijxa BeingSSR and technical intitule*At Soviet cilircn. Audem-ic lialnmi fa cooducied overtly, but like ill edur.ii,-i* rK- in^jy^ onHilail(nation

atudeni* ere enrolled jn degree progum. uiuallr of five or iu yean' duration; ,be fin, of Wnlch i(

ucfiutvelytudying ibe. ration loteoursework. *hieh it conducted entirely ia Russian. In addiiioa. all mm thawngineeringother technical 1IIIMI aboutounyearpoiitieal MlnvLi

iv pragnai ofa, trainiaga *idc amrfor iktt Mew pkfa ap Ue cmktoffered ti Mllllkt

Lumumba People'. Friendship

Ike highest cooeeoir.tka. of ThirdfKlude:

Preparatory Ruuian (recuirernenl).

Agriculture.

Economics

. HealthHiitcey and Philology.Medkine.

Mathematics, aod Naiural Sciences

I-anguage Teaching. Studenu receiveen* scholarship^ including Imt-on. round Irip airfare, bousing,adieal care, aodstipendublesmonth forpeases. Io actuality.scholar-toip prof run rccaircs little Or do bard csmeacy outlay by Mow becauc students are transports to lae USSR oa AeroSc* flights aod iH programu.e* the nadeaM while ia tbe USSR are ia rubles.

ut. ia additioniojn|academic0 students from aoo-Communiii IPCs have received elite political training in tbe USSR, primarily al the CPSU Initi-lute ol Sodal Sciences (JSS> in Meaeo.-abo known asIhe International Lenin School, tbe International School of Marxum-LeninSsm, and tbe International

figure J. fault/ Iw'.mbo lliUt'ltly. Moscow

Soviet Engineering School Curriculum

Total

History of the Communist Party of the

Soviet Union Political economy Marxist-Uettnlsl philosophy Fundamentals of scientific communism Physical education Economics of construction Technology and organisation of construction

production Foreign languages Higher mathematics Chemlnry

Descriptive geometry and mechanical and

freehand drawing Organisation and planning of Construction Physics

Theoretical mechanics Engineering geodesy Building materials

Resistance of materials and fundamentals of tension and plasticity theory

A Sire-year curriculum.

Total

thermotechnics, gas, heat supply, and

of mttals and welding

machines. Including machine

mechanics

88

electroiechnics

of industrial and civil buildings

of hydraulics, water supply, and

geology

of soil and foundations

of eonslrvctlon

technology and enginrrrlng and

accounting

of automatics and automotlto-

of construction industry process

concrete and stone construction

and synthetic materials construction

construction

of safety and fire prevention

courses establilhed by the council

the higher education institution

School for Non-Bloc Communists. Administeied by Ihc Puny Central Commit letnternational Depart-ment. ihe ISS wai established in Moscow1 to Irain students sent by nonruling Third World Com-munts(oat student* are chosen fordeological commitment to Marxism, and more than SO LDCs have been represented at this school since Ihe. Wc estimate thattudents from ne*-Comim.nisi Third World countries study Communist ideology, propaganda, and organizational techniques each year ai this institute.

According uISS courses last from

itx month* to two years ano are designed toCommunist* in Soviet ideology and to assist them in Soviel-directed applications al home. Course* Tocu* oa the structure and organization of theparty, methodological problem* in Communist ideology, and the principle* and practices ofwork and propaganda. Students can also lake special courses in printing, journalism, radio,and youth movements to assist them In their clandestine and propaganda duties at horae.

Accordiocall ISS students are

required to undertake training in clandestine work administeredsecreteek during the academic year, andull month during the summer, students learn -conspiratorialeb as disguise, use of pseudonyms, infiltration and exfiltrat.on. small-arms marksmanship, and unarmed combataramilitary training site outsideThe secret school alio trains student) from outlawed Communistany pro-Sovietnow in power in client slates were trained by this faculty

Fmpbasls on tbe Marxist Clieat State.

Moscow's educational effort has been particularly intense in the Marrin clieni states of Afghanistan Angola. Ethiopia. Nicaragua, and South Yemen,

' Allib, VlllM lM _hll<

, ^

total Commumit piny

whose ruling regimes receive nearly one-third of the scholarships awarded each year. For enmple:

By the endhe number of Afghan students studying in ihe USSR each year had mote than doubled9 and now represents the largest LDC student contingent in the Soviet Union at more,

The number of Ethiopian students trained in the USSR increased fivefold since the military coup in

ithtudents currently studying In the Soviet Union.

Nicaraguan presence increasedtu-dents studying in the USSR9oday.

To accommodate the increase in the number of students from clieni stales. Moscow has allocated more scholarships rather than lake them from other pan* of the academic training program.

Students from Marxist LDC* in pariiculai areto intensive indoctrination through required extracurricular activities {2

3assigned to an Indoctrination group Tor (he duration of his stay in (he Soviet Union. The group, officially called ihe Sludent Croup for Study-ing the Soviel Way of Life. offered an "elective" course load that included Ihe philosophy ot* Marxism, political economy, and scientific Communism

In addition to training ihese students in ihe Soviet Union. Moscow has designed programs for primary school through advanced university study to train diem-state youth in their home countries in Marxist-Lcninisi principles. Party schools patterned after Moscow's CPSU Institute of Social Sciences have been established in all tbe Marxist client states as well as in Congo and Mali. According

ypical cuiriculumwo-year program at an LDC party school would include the following:

ours, seminars and lectures.

ours, seminars and lectures.Politicalours.

In-Coantry Programs: Trying Toom munitale

In ihr ivtOi. Moscow has hod ill first tmtloull range of educational srrvieelwith programs designed [orallies.

In ihese stales, the USSR has been oble lo field-test educational programs ihal It has used In lis own non-Russian republics to produce Ceenmuiuit-educaied cadrei la the Span of one generation The USSR's opproath towardew Communist elite in Marxist nates Includes both traditional anddementi, such as:

Providing advisers so foreign education mjmslries IO develop unified curriculum! that are politicallyevamped euiileulums include Russian-languageforeign languageiseconomies, and Maey-tlm-Leninism as required study. Moscow replaces eissting teaching materials and teiibooks wish direct translations from Russian lextl.

Establishing fully funded political schools wiihin clientbranches of ihe ISS in Moscow directed and siaffed by visiting Soviets who Instruct party cadres in Communlll philoso phy. political economy, lattlci, and orgoniiaUon.

Building and staffing teaihee training Institutes whose graduates will staff ihe new school system

Theory andours, seminars and lectures.

Special: study of the political and economic situa-lion of iheome country with student participation.

Moscow has used these elements in vorjtng degrees in Afghanistan. Antnla. Ethiopia. Nicaragua, and South Yemen.

Students loi Inflonxr and Training

KGB

ctovrlr mon"nriface* ot* the Sc-iel scbolaisbip

pin* ram

Ihey wete watched closely

by the Soviet sludcnii assigned to them astutors, most of whom renratcd to theslvJc nts at

each university and institute are organised intoUniversity Committees that arc supposedstudent concerns to university officials,reality arc vehicle* for pcoselyiiring newProvisional Committee ia beaded by astudent andovietBsupervises Ibe use ofv ihe Committee

overall purpose of Ihe

KGB0 identify indivadeali -ho are likely candid sir* for higher political training. The KGB also attempts to identify individuals who arc willing to provide conduits for organizing and funding coven activities oa ibeir tetara hoene. or who win" <xKorm other elsnccsiine odd jobs for Moscow.

In addition to spotting, assessing, anduudeni* studying in tbe USSR, ibeattempt to identify poccniial landidaies forrccrnitmrni in the process of awa.-ding- J. On Ibe basis ol

Soviei data publishednited NationtScientific and Cultural Organiialionof inter nationalcercent of tbe scholarships offereddistributed- often darsdcslincly -by localparlies, trade unions, friendship societies,Soviet from groups. We believe thatthe types of

Students desired.

at bavr refused or limited scholarthip offers. Moscow generally manage*ward alew ieholirsb:ps each year without ihe hostconsent through the above-mentioned gioups or directly through the Soviet Fmbassy. Of the0 Third World students amenity enrolkd in

Soviet*IWO IN

uudiing without the knowledge of llieii home govern-MH Toric

The USSR hat noclaiiOfft with Biriiiin and Honour at. and yet Several handled float eachi, have been edweated in the USSR tinre thelmost all of these Undents azt returned home after tramint In Honduras, upetcent of the faculty members at the National University ii Soviet trained.

ultural agreement between Iheand the USSR limits the numbei of Tilipino students eligible to study in ihc Soviel Union and requires ihc concurrence of the Department of Toreignhe Soviets have managed lOCir-canvxnt these regulations le*

fistimates of the numbcnkeaao iiudcni* leaving lo tiwdrhe USSR mihoui the sanction of then govcinmeni run as high atc' month

formal cultural exchanges between Chile and the Soviet Union were terminated afteroup, but Chilean students continue lo study itniumb*_U" .n

According to Nepalese Government off'eiallr sends abouttadon per yearoviet schools, but anotherStvd) in the USSR under the auspices of ilie World Peace Council, the Nepal Sovietnd other suchibe sanctum of then

According toihe methods lot non

sanctioned travel to the Somci Union arc fairly

itd..ii make Iheir -ayentral

they arc issued travel docwntenii.n many Mntsnccs. atadents travel an le-mstto destinations on which their rmcinnicaHt piste rva "ml restrictions bnt whwh meL> Aero lot Thebauv tl.cnil -iibontheir luiifamtlicin Iv board Jiroei fligliti tuihe Soviet Union luriherinoie. stu-itcnti fiomCs ace aW; in come nnd go freely

xitboui goveinincni imerleience because of la* Iwr dee controls Tjire. lor ettmple. docs not keep sccu rate travel records of ZsirUns who tross the Zaire/ Congo border, and Zairian students are able lo travel tofc onward travel to Ihe Soviet Union without bemg noticed or recorded.C

hai

local churches also pronde tomeihowt Ihc government'i knowledge Church oAVuh make all the necessary arrangements for these full scbotai tli'in and encourage pinmiui-in in Ihc Sonetpiograrr. by individuals wbobeen on bid terms with nr whn are opposed to Ihcii local govern menl. i

Aliening th* Program lattPfaM...

r'rcd-Clabli Ihc Soviet scholarship programmost dindenda ia the Mi'im client uncipin fix years.

dominated ilie power structures in each ol thealbeit with considerable Sonet assistanceof Afghanistan and Angola and theol Qlhiopil were trained tn the USSR,ujirrd oflkials also hold high parlythiopia. Nicarigui.A* eiairvnaiionof ibc careers of iheaem Maiaist states shuns that ibevaiih bighly inoiiiatcd eomactsanntercute liadriihip. long term Sonet ties atr (heby lex JI rdlicialtal XuSsijn andwith the "ity the"Inn th:

Sinten frWfftl Ihe Useneti. they found

ersonnel employed in the Afghn '

erics received iheir :ilining in rib)

itarts n.V

iei laaariMnMaitrt

Soviet-trained official* have moved slowly into policy-level positionsumber of countries. According io

officials are employed in the civil service of at leastountries and have attained policy-level positions in no less lhanlates, primarily in Africa.

Motto* has been successful in peoetralinr the influential Latin American medicaltraditionallyarge number or high government officials and heads ofoffering more medical scholarships than Ihe West. In Bolivia. Ecuador, and Guyana, graduates of Soviet mcdkal programs have attained ministerial positions.

Syrian graduates of Soviet institutions have become deputy ministers, university vice presidents, and high-level ruling party officials Soviet-trained tcachcri dominate Syrian university departments and faculties, andthai inoears ihey will probably occupy most high administrative positions.

At leastountries have student societies whose membership is composed of former Soviet-trained students

Even where the graduates of Soviet institutions may occupy only low-level positions in Iheir government, gainsbeen made In Congo, for example, the impact ol training up0 students per year in Ilic Soviet Union is significant. According tc-C

he vast mwity of all government,iry. and party posts are now held by personnel who have undergone training t'-ere. and many of the elite have largely been indoctrinated with Mariiiml.cnin

In addition,esult ol training programs. Soviet influence has increased significantly in local labot unions and opposition groups in at leastticuhfl) in Latin America. For examrJe. inlargesi labor confederation. UhiiaiyCentralCommunist majontyOf the too and midlcvel leaders in Ihc

Communist contingent have received cither medium-or long-term training in the Soviet Union or other Bloc countries and their influence is reportedly great, both within CUT Icadciship and within theof which tbey were kadcis before joining CUT.

Moscow has derived benefits from the ptogramcountries where Soviet diplomas are distrustedrccogniied by ihe local government,still infiltrate tbe local establishmentto overcome obstacles to employment. Forin Zaire indicates ndividuals have attainedin law. education, the media, scienceand the civil service, withoutAccording to *Jthe general skepticismense of solidarity among returnees.foi the stigma attached lo theirtend toelatively cohesivenetwork, whose members help each othercareers.oviel-traineda position of influence, for instance heother Soviet-trained Mautiianians and/oriheir advancement. Moscow olten receivesbenefits fioin the Soviet wives ofolicn work in the privatecontact with the local Soviet Embassy

Many studenls overall seem lo be satisfied witheducation Toroll ofirlmnces from Soviet schools foundihotc opposed to Marxism had aof the Soviet educational system and ofacademic degrees. Mosi returnees findand the Stigmaoviet education isdisapiwing in manyreportew Undents return fromstudies as committed Marxists: some haveto serve the KGBinor capacity, andparticularly graduates of the ISS,h'en ice*

the Third World: Selected

Najibullai. rrtstdent oftn

General Secretary of

Reported polllieal and Intelligence trailing In USSR,

C nstalled by the Soviets a,hief6 and residentandate from Moscow laolitical solution to the eMI war andovernment that ran lurvlvg Soviet troop withdrawal

late Ednardf dot Santos. President of Angela President of the Popolar Moretueni for the liberation of AagaloUbor Pare, (MPL4J

Graduated as petroleumatrice Isemtemba University,ember of UPLA1 . with Soirt support, became Foreign Minister5 and President

Fikre-Selasiit Wogierets, Prime Mlniste, of Ethiopia

Member, Politburo and Central Committee of the Workers Parry of

Ethiopia (WPE)

Institute of Social Sciences.econd In command to Presidentardliner. pro-Soviet.

Ugeste Atfaw. Member. Politburo and Secretariat of the WPE Emergency Admsniitraiee, Tlgeay Protince

Institute of Social Sciences.. returned dedicatedtrongly pro-Soviet, fiercely ideological end

elieved to beey contact In Ethiopian Covtrnmenichannel foe Soviei Influence Inesponsible for Indoctrinatingin Communist

Shlmells Moember, Politburo and Secretary of Central Committee of WpE Chairman, WPE Ideology Commiision

Crodueted long-teem academic training inttumed home toIn revolution.ommuted Martlit hardliner; one of the moil extreme pro-Soviet Politburodeologue of the WPE. enjoys Sovietntelligent andrites most of Menginu'i speeches

1

AlemaAvebe. Member. Pcllii.ro of WPE DIMturfm- Agriculture

Graduated as doctor of veterinary medicine. Moscow,eadedUnion Im Moscow. ou Cdmmunlit

r*-ty cadre and/or Soviet agent during ifufeitar slit

Ideologue; key player behind ike Red Terror purge that destroyed thousands of Menglstu; polllieal enemies during iheardliner;previously watchdog Jor unpartylike behavior.

Henry Rutt llernondet.andinlsta DirectorateNicaragua Mlaltler of foreign Cooperation

Studied at Patrice Lumumba University In Moscow,ervedguerrillasis experience and reputation serve asardliner on economic mailers;Marxlll and has

had the most orthodox Marxist training of all the FSLNolds Soviet! In hlfh regard and Is loyal toelieves In confiicalion of privatehas traveled extensively throughout ihe Communis' world IO gain economic and political support foe the Sandinlsia revolution.

Kkamiri, Candidate Membet of Politburo, South Yemen

Secretory of Yememl Socialist Peny(YSP) Central Commi tier fee Ideological Mailers Received doctorate In philosophy and social sciences.ld-line Marxist rr^tuUonaey:Joined the national liberation Frontirector of SIS.ctive Im politicising the armedro Soviet Martin.

Moacow has placed hint as adviser and speeehwettee icTnew

has Influenced policy In PDRY sinces Minister of State. Minister of Culture and Guidance. Acting Minister of Education. Minister ofand Scholarship Commlitec member

SayfSaysl Khelid. Candidate Member of ihet. of the Party Organization Committee of AdenIn Moscow, possibly Institute of Social Sciences,. servedof FDRY Embassy inro-Soviet

eader of Fatah faction of young, militantly pro-Soviet Marxllt-Lenlnlil officers In ihe parly and government who take ihe most radical line In policy debates dvocates Implementing party policy through educational programs In PliRY

USSR: Training School, Bull, in LDC,

Moscow's concerted tBorixpand Ul influencetraining facilities Ineveloping countries,

the Thud World goes beyond scholarship offersof thee facilities use Russian textbooks and

LDCs each year.6 the USSR hasstaffed by Sovietfor building, renovating, or equipping more than

Rtfeelher Training Program far Non-Communlu Ll>Ci

Moscow offers refresher training courses In the USSR for graduates of theirprograms. c

j the Soviets try to maintain the good will of Mauriianlan returnees by offering them paid trips to the Soviet Union every few years for short refresher courses. c

Moscow extendi simitar offers oftraining to former studenls in other LDCsInhe Soviet Arnbauador In 8awarded IS new scholarships forto Soviet-trained graduates and statednumber of awards would be Increased

Moscow also provides for postgraduate courseswithin LDCseans tocontact with high-level administratorsreceived some. If not all, of theirIn the Soviet Union. For example, theGovernment has recently signed onop-level Soviet experts lo organisecourses for Gulncan executives inmore than 80

percent of Gulneon administrators have received iheir higher education under Sovietin the Soviel Union and others under Soviet professors teaching locally

.And lb. MJiase*

Dcspiie Motow'i success with lis Third Worldftotrt nut. not all LDC students arcthe Soviet program and their eipciience inAccording lea. num-

ber ot* student*urned borne after only ain the USSR because of poor livingtesoene student* have

been vieiirniicd by deceptive returning practices, and many have complained about heavy handed KGBtravel restrictions, substandard bousing, and racial discri mi nation. These problems affect their morale and their academic per forename, causing some lo come away from the Soviet Union cooviDccd thaiiin. ii the wrong answer to LDC problems Negative perceptions arc reinforced when

Stc

ate unable lo find work in iheir specialty because their Soviet decree it oflcn not respected >n

mi LDCs.

Studenta have also tecounted instance* in which they were deceived by Soviei representative* regarding their intended field of study. Once lured to Ibe USSR, students have found thernselve* enrolledifferent program from what they bad ei peeled;

i" African students wet* toM thai they would be enrolled in programs pursuant to careers as physicians, biologists,and cacineen. bul after ibe first year of language training and ibe actual coursewoik began, they found they were being trained at hospital orderlies, vocational nurses, mechanics, plumbers, and electricians

deaerihe* Afghan students who were loto tbey would be going to medical or engineering school, but upon their arrival tn (Is* Soviet Union were assigned to programs such as musk and physical education

Acoorckaj Sosome scholar-ship recipients have suddenly found themselves in dueled into militnry liaining after arriving in ihe USSR. Ethiopian students, for instance, have been dtafted foe training as pilots and aircraft mechanics ai various Soviet Air Force training ccaten- laterecome eroctt in Iheir Force -after Wing told by Soviei representatives that they would beoviet university.

Although official Soviet tdeoat gy promotes anaititodc, Africanhave been theof racial discrimination in ihr Sovieiby other students and by SovieticAfrican students are

generally regarded with contempt and arc ftecurn.l. taarucd and harassed Moreover. Moscow's la socking of anids (Acquired Immune Deficiencycampaign and its testing of foreign studeme loi Hie AIDS rims have added new tensions to Motto*-'* relations with African slates, whose itu dent* have been singled out as AIDS carriers Those teatiag positive for ihe AIDS virus arc sent back home For curnptc. official reporting indicates thai S* Ugandan sludcms were deported from Ihr U'-M'.

for AIDS, and the controversy surrounding thisii slllltore point with Ugandans. The USSR now requires AIDS testing before students areto leave for study ia the Soviet Uniona high incidence of students testingfor thenottudent for Soviet (raining since the new policy was implemented

In some Wealcrn-leaning countries, students who have been educated in ihe USSR are widely *iewcd by their West crn-educated peers and some emaaayen in their home countries with disdain because ihcy were unable tocholarship elsewhete.C^

3eaample, in Tunisia the majority of undents who study abroad do to in western countries becauseenerat perception that tbe qualityestern education cannot behe Sovietimilar perception cuius among Costa Rican students wboesletn degree is more valuable and useful In fact, Soviet credentials arc regarded with suspicion and relatively few graduates of Soviet institution) are accepted by local professional associations or nnd work at local universities. In Uganda, graduates of Soviet universities or institute* arc not rupecicd and their degrees are or tittle value in finding jabi because cmployeit ire mistrustful of any Soviet training.

InCs. graduate* of Soviei educationalftrsd on returning borne that tbey rnutt lake additional training because they cannot meet skill level leQuiicmenls foi jobs in their career field Tor instance, in leftist Burkina, Soviet-trained graduates mast be "recycled" through French or other Western scbools lot suTtnemenul turning before starting

emplonncni. according UEven in

hiopia. which hat the largest numberenrolled in the USSR among AfricanIhal Soviet degrees are

viewed wad great skepticism among Westernh.tvarj because many of laca io to the USSR do not meet the admission standard! for entry Into local universities. Interestingly, although the Hhiopiaa revolution isean old. moil of Ihe (acuity ancmben and adtniaisirators in Ltaxv-i* higher (durational institutions are still graduates ol Western universities

Soviet Degree, and Ccrtificaiei How They Correspondoreign Standard!

oreign student hoi satisfactorilyount of Sludlet in ihe USSR, he receives orecord of groduotion or of the degreeon him. The Diploma of Higher Education, which hot ihc same form for all institutions of higher learning, testifies to the completion of the course of studies at an establishment of higher education in the USSR on* contains the name of the Institute or university the date of enrollment and graduoilnn. and ihc specialty and qualification acquired.

The diploma has an accertnpanying certificate ihat gives the name of the Institute or university, the term of Instruction, ihe name of the specialty and the graduates specialisation In accordance with the curist of the subjects studied throughout the course and the ratings foe each, thr theme of the diploma profectist of the graduation aamiaa. lions with the ratings received,istciical itudiei and indusirial training with an indication of 'he profession and the qualification acquired. If ihe graduate's ratingser/em "excelltnt" nod the rest -good, "and if he got an "txcelleat" mark for hi, diploma pro/ret and graduationtntitledloma With Honors.

The degree of Candidate of Science alongiploma of Candidate ofOrtfeircd on persont who have successfully presented aihe us The diploma Indicates the science in which the candidate has spedaUied. The degree of Doctor of Science II conferred on persons "ho already have the degree af Candidate of Science or the rank of professor and have presented thtlr doctor'soctor of Scienceiploma of Doctor of Science, which Indicate, hi, specific field.

To enable foreigners with Soviet document, of edtrea Hon and scientific degreesstablish the equivalent.

In llirli home countries, the following measure! have

been taken:

' Document, indicating the completion of itudiei at higher educational establishment, and advanced training courses ore writtenoreign language, os well as in Russian.

- The Soviet educational system combine, thedegree concept Into one program, which Katcow maintains surpassesaster's degree In other countries. Each student ii Instructed In general and specialised subjects and silt for tests and examinations, while oho -Peking on several course papers or projects thai are completed by preparing and publicly pee-senting befoee the State Examination Board, a

diploma tht,is Or project.

Thr degree of Doctor of Philosophys conft'ied on all foreign tiliiens who have succeit-fullyandidate's thesis. The diploma that accompanies it is filled out in English and is Hgntd by the Chairman and the Secretary of the Hither Certifying Commission of the USSR

Ptlawel agreements or protocols have been signed wiih ihe pwpote of establishing more exocifw Sovie, diploma,.

aitrn education Is widely regarded by many LDC, a, far superioroviet one. Mouow maintains that Soviet degrees arc equivalent to.'enniversity degree requirements In Oihti Countries. The USSR has diploma recognition nereemcms "iih at leasthird World countries

Outlook

W< beliehescholarship program will

remain one of ihe mainstays of ihc Soviet nrximilitaiy aidn ihc Third World, even at Mososw trie* to pare back overall aid commitments lo non-Commun'i The Ktcrnlia hasarief nenv ber of scholarship* lo Third Woild students during Gorbachev's tenure than ever before, in spite of Soviet internal economic difficultiesS Moscow hat signed more thanew educational agreements aad protocols, and (he number of rico Communis! LDC students studying in the Soviet Union has doubled in ibc last eight yean. Aa of0 students from non-CommunisI LDCs were being trained in the USSR, coups red00 rurthermore.esult of Gorbachev's morestyle and advocacy of glainoii. the Soviet image has improved considerably and Moscow's educational program is looking moreto qualifiedin the Third World.

Moscow's eagernessccept large numbers of siu-dents when given tbe ooportunity- -as has happened with tbe Marxist ebentto theimportance assigned to the sehoUrship program We estimate thai Mcrtcow accepted more0 new studenls from non-Communist LDCs forstudy inchool year, an increase of sltrvosiercent over the number acceptednd the highest level of new students to date. Accordingecent article in World Sludeni

:ublication of the Soviet -coat rollednal Union ofUSSR is iocreasiag Ihe number of scholatsbip sludenu studying in Ih- Srttigg Union over Ibe nest few years by JO percent

There ik compelling reasons for Gorbachev toor increase Moscow's scholar ship program

Iio*-casl, low-risk, high impact program Ii rrriuiies little or no hard currency expenditure and divrits few resources from domestic eoonomicUnlike economic aid programs, ii does not draw crmcitm front the international coattrnun-tr

It can be tightly controlled by Moscow. No money changes hands, and Ihe USSR insists (bai graduates return home after study is completed, hopefully io promote Soviet political and economic inieiriii

Ii hai been successful. Alumniumber of high-level officials sympathetic lo Moscowiews, as well as others who have permeated influential sectors of LDC governments and professions

Il burnishes Moscow's imageeaceful, public tpi'itci nation intent on improving LDC economic conditions and permits Mcaeow to inflalc claims about its aid lo LDCs because (be Soviets calculate the value of tbeir scholarships using Western tuition levels

It provides continuity at contact* in LDCs through fortudent societies and refresher couiset in the

llv.n.

9rm(

appendix

slvdtnts fromdci trilikd in tht ussr, ims*

io4.

il

no

.cos

AH.

VM0

140

AHfaitk Siutau Froma ibt USSR.*

Of filtlfai

3

Original document.

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