SOUTH AFRICA CHRONOLOGY - TRENDS

Created: 4/13/1990

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South Africa110

This chioeiologyompdaDon of significant developments affecting Soulh AJnca and is drqnm largely from medtci munds.

(be initial euphoria ova Nelsceielease from prison fades, he and

President de Klerk face the cafficult task ofultitude of facOoos lo the riegouaong table in an effort tool.ucal corn premise arrestableapnty of Soulh Africans. De Klerk will ccticcrurace on calming while fears. ir*oring up his political base, maintaining law and order while keening ihe security forces in check, and capitalizing on foreign goodwill. For his part, Mandela must seek to resolve growing black-on-black unrest, reestablish grassroots ANC membership and organizational structures, and rosier unity among antiapanheid forccsTW*!^

As he enters his eighth month In office, de Klerk is scrambling io cope with the pobUCaJ fallout from hb bold reformist moves, including legalizing the ANCesurgence In black township violence, driven partly byekase.-sadd^gr^towtHefcana.vlLM^ potential tor large-scale clashes between buck protesters and police ihw could draw

.gf.iw.rrg -hite esiremisi activtues aad tanecascent whilee Klerks On ihe other land. what, art undc^hxedly pleased that the aery unveiled government budget contained some modest income tax relief,esult uf cullingercent from real defense"peace drvidencT from withdrawing from Namibia and Cutting back on while conscription requirement*.

De Klerk continues to exploit every opportunrty to improve South Africa's foreign relations, both in Africa and iniemauonally. The Namibian independence ceremony aftorrkdoreign relations bonanza In addition, Foreign Minister Pik Botha traveled to African and European counrrits. laying the groundwork lor travels by de Klerk io the coming raooihs.'Tstjp

The violence aa Natal Province and in the BUenpexsed Zulu homeland KwaZulu cciviinuej to flare periodically,erious challenge to de Klerk. Mandril, and KwiZuhi leader Buthclczi Although theooted partly to ideologKal differences between the ANC and Butheksu's Zulu-based Inkaiha movement, much of the violence has degenerated into turf battles among rival gangs. The seemingly Intractable nature of the violence has discouraged leaders from staking too much of their personal reputations on stopping ItTiift^

HlUmllOtO

A'MOVfurOlllltASf DIM IUI fin

Mandela, who personifies black poll Deal aspirations, will look for opportunitieshis personal Handing toroad aniiapartheid from thatfrom South African churches, homelands, unions, civic groups, and.without sacrificing principle, rival political organizations. Untilthe ANC have fully explored ihe prospects for alliance-building,wilh the govern mem are unlikely. Most recent indKauons suggestsubstantive talks mutt wall at least until after ihe ANC holds its now scheoukd for

1ANC president Oliver Tarabo travels to Sweden for medkal treatment for a

stroke suffered Us year.

oreign Miraster Pik Botha travels idins government DflDctak.

Unrest. South African Transport Services (SATS)0 strikers for participating in an eighi-week strike. At leasteople have died in irnkr-related violence.

ISSeven recenily released ANC leaders travelambiaeet wilh caned

ANC leaders.

ANC. ioeSlovo, Ocneral Secretary of the banned South African Communis!publicly claims his organization is shifting toward ihc idea of

Miliary When budget aits affect ihe South African Lavi fighter-jet project, Israeli engineers are dismissed.

ANC. Tbe ANCew office in Tokyo.

Jtauterj

Transvaal; polscc seal off the township of Khatsong in order toarge protest march by youth, againsi alleged police brutality.

January

Jailed ANC leader Nelson Mandela releases his proposed peace plan calling for negc*iarjons between ihe ANC and Pretoria.

Foreign. Cuba temporarily suspends iu uoop wiuSdrawai.from Angola following the deaths of four Cuban soldiers.

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January

Praermanufxirg.ash between morepponers of Ihe Urmed Oemocranc Prone (UDF) and Inkatha resulu in five deaths.

January

President de Klerkational meeting of police officers and declares that police suongarm tactics and involvement in political issues will not be talented,

January

1 February

Pretoria announce* plans toudicial commission of inquiry (the Harms commission) lo investigate allegations of police death squads following public demand for an independent investigation

HomuUnels. The Cnkn go^cinmcnstate of emergency in fo of its districts.

February

In President de Klerk's speech at the opening of parliament, he announces the imminent and unconditional release of Nelson Mandela, ihe unbanning of the ANC. PAC. SACP ind other anti-apartheidhe Wring of restrictions on UilemaJ organimooro. the lifting of many media restrictions, and the release tif detainees held because of iheir affiliation with affected orgsuiizauoni; he also proposes to restrict ihc use of ihe death penally. Dc Klerk's announcement receives widespread national and international praise, bul alsourge of whiteitem ist activism.

Uopliulhan*ana;eaceful protest march

for reintegration into South Africa.

Security, The South African Defense Raw coofirms it is systematicallyrom ownships with the esrepboo of certain Natal areas

February

AJexandra; police allegedly teargas and beat demonsuaioontish cnckei sour.

Ftbruaryebruary

Namibia. The Consiiuieni Assemblyonstittiiion.

Reform. Afterears irnprisonment. ANC leader Nelson Mandela Is unconditionally released from prison. Hepeechass rally in Cape Town aitrnded by over WJMOstn^icOers.

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laccup of violence in Natal townships results in as many aseaths in

twodays. Additional South African Defense Force troops arc sent in to help control [he umxst.

February

Johannesburg: Mandela's addresseople is considered moderate by government officials.

Lesotho: three military councilors are purged: General Metsing Lekronya remains chairman; King Mrishocsoocl relieved of his power,

Fibruary

A supreme court recount of the9 parliamentary election ballets for trreHuresmiih district resultsuling that the National Party won over the Conservative Party by five votes.

February

ANC leader Walter Sisulu travels to Natal toth Inkaiha leaders io discuss arcs unrest.

Ftbraary

Bntain lifts voluntary sanctions on new investment in South Africa.

A strike by the majority of Venda's civil servants over disproportionate salary increases fee senior officials brings the governmentirtual standstill.

February

Namibian police issue arrest warrants for three men in connection with the assassination of SWAPO official Anton Lubowjki. The thtee suspects are allegedly members of South Africa Defense Force's Civil Cooperation Bureauhich is linked to South African death squads.

Februaryebruary

Foreign. Cuba resumes its troop withdrawal from Angola.

AA*C. Mandela navels to Lusaka to meet with external ANC leaders. He also travels to Harare, Dares-Salaam, and Stcckholm.

Unrest. Natal; Despite Mandela's call for an end to violence, fierce fighting breaks out in Malagas between supporters of UDF and Inkaiha.esidents are left homeless whenharks art razed.

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Hamtlatdt.kiuOka* coup by ibe Cu*ei Defense Force put* Brig. Gen. J. Gocuo ai charje

Homtlamds. Pretoria sends security forces inca Ciskei at its request so heip murium ta* and orderg the coup. The homeland latertate of emergency.

Later. Alexandra.eachers strike over wage and working conditions.

Securuy. The head of Ihe CCB is anesicd in connection with ihe enm inal investigation by ihe Harms Commission into politically motivated murdeni and violence by security members.

Homtlandttate of emergency is declared in four districts and expanded to the entire homelandeek due to growing unrest incidents. Press reports alsourge in unrest in the Gazankulu homeland;eople are killed,ots razed, and workersavs smke.

Vnjru. Kathlehong. Fastally byeople and fierce clashes betweenuui operaoora leaveead.omeless families seek refugenations and demand increased security protection

Eeomomy.iscal budget is released andilitary budget declineercent In real terms and the creationpecial SIillion trust fund for social improvements (or blacks.

PoHacaL Pretoria setspril as the date for President de Klerk to meetelegation of internal and esttmal ANC leaders. The meeting is later posiponed.

UnrtzL Sebokeng, Natal; thousands of residents seek refuge at police stations and hospitals lollowing rumors of impending attacks by Zulus. Atesidents aic later killed and hundreds injured in clashes with pobce.

AA>C. Nelson Mandela returns to South AJrica.

FerrlgK. Pretoria reaps ihe bene/lis of iiuernatioaaJ contact *ith high-level foreign dignnanei transiting South Africa en route to Namibian independence celebraconi.

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March

Inoepeooeoce ii ccenrnemorsxed by ibe lowering of South Africa's frag and ihe raising of Namibia's flag. The celerxatkm guest list includes Souih Africa's President de Klerk, Soviei Foreign Minister Shevartnadre. US Secretary of Slate Baker. British Foreign Secretary Hurd, Finnish Foreign Minuter Paasio, and numerous African beads of state, including Presidents Kaunas and dot Santos.

Vim ii With varying degrees of success, blacks canyauonwide strike to ceearnemotate Sharpoilk Day;trongestPretoria and Durban areas.

March

Soweur. three limpet muse ei plosions occur bi the area, one at the city council chambers, onerivate bouse, and the thirdlectrical substaiion.

March

Derekorma South African spy. is appoiraed personal security chief for President Nujorna.

March

Mandela and Buthelex.oint ANCIiuutha rally for early April in anquell Natal area violence. Mandda.Ista cancels the rally.

March

Hungary plans toermanent interest representation office in Soath Africa, and Pretoria willeciprocal office in Budapest.

Vamt The rjrorubibon on gatherings (hat involve school and work boycotts is ei tended for one year.

UmrtthHomutanas. Four explosions near Veaaa's capittlquorarliamentlectricity subsubon, andhe business Castries.

I Maya,ay ItJumtmih

Dates ut May and June

mwmaUcnal Workers Day. .

Anniversary of the founding of the National Parry.

Republic Day. Anniversary of (he founding of the Republic of Southhe outbreak of the Soweto noes6 Aruiiversary of the ANC'i Freedom Charier

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