TWio American* ia Dae
The threat from the Communist Ne-my (NPA) to US personnel will remain high over theeveral months. We believe the Communists -ill attempt to assassinate or kidnap US officials to disrupt base negotiation talksbetween the United Slates and the Philippine* further erode government stability dissuade foreign investment, and raise the moral* of their supporters. While preferring mgb-rsnking targets, the NPA will not bestial* lo assassinate io-er-rankmg personnel. Ncmomcial Amencans also are at nsk. eapecully if tbc NPAhain of command breaks down, or if the Communists launch indiscriminate allacks in the gamble ihat rlghtwing soldiers will be blamed. US citizens in thc Philippines would generally be at riskoop attempt. aasaaatv Jo 3
_Jthey already have carried out several attacks againsiUS pcrsoonel and property over the past few months:
cesTtber ihc NPA fired rocket grenadesS residential compound In Manila*sod strafed thc United Slates Information Service (US1S) office ia Davaa
laomb detonated outside the US IS office in Davno, causae minor
In laic February thc NPA killed an American tWOkstntJ and his FUipino wife and fathcr-iB an ambush
NPA probably was targeting :l- tatIn-law for not paying revolutionary taiea.
earlyS rancher in the central Philippines -as slain by the NPA for
i to pay Commurusi uieteagaaj,
r Goals include disrupting the Military Bate Agreement ricgotialions set lo begin in April, hastening the downfall of the Aquino government, and making up for tbeailure to take advantage of the chaos during the coup attempt inuccessful tnsnianitw also would bolster thc morale of ihc Cornmunsst rank and file, damaged last year by military setbacks and the arrests of key leaders tjMp- j, 3
T TJ Pr0mPI ,hC NPAnoaccesMbic than senior
S^l'l^TrTIl'"-kdecide io kill US
alliens in the beliefhtwin8 soldiers will be Warned, ano- local NPA
comrrunders rray make such decisions, rcf ardlen of iheir orders,as happened
had hoped ihai miliury dtssrdenis would be held responsible.
Thrtal From Military Dbsittenti In additionbe NPA. dissident tkmtnu of (be armed force* of Ihc Philippines remain aniry al perceived USoi President Aquino during the coop attempt on^
I We believe thai, innoilierroup attempt, some dissident soldiers would attack US is reels if ihe United State) were perceivedave intervened Many of these soldiers arc welt armed, highly trained, and capable of independent action. Other soldiers, while not actively supportive of the dissidents, may not be willing to provide adequate security support to US faeilitKS or mar be slowespond to requests for assistance Manilaedicated cost avertm unit to assist US personnel in the eventajor terroriit incident.
HI* Milan Ttrroehl
A French court sentenced pro-Iranian terrorist Fuad Saleharch toean )r> prison for matt cratedave of bombings in Paris56 thai killedeople and oounded. Eight of Saleh's accomplicca alio received sentences ranging from Ave toears Ininth suspect was freed beousc of imuffscient evidence Saleh and the other members of the pro-Iraizballah network were charged in this (rial only with conspiracy and illegal possession of eaptosivei: Saleh and several others will face murderonnection with the bombing campaign later this rear. During tbe trial, tbe prosecution stated that Iran wai behind ihe bombing campaign but that it lacked judicially admissible evidence implicating Tehran.)
Solidarity Marden Doctor
In ils first claimed assassination. Revolutionary Solidarity murderedMarie* Mstates onebruary in Athens as be was walking to was (hoi with a mm pistol The police
also reported that thcthens newspapers onwritten on the same typewriter as thai sited for the group's lastthe bombingrench bank in Athens onhe claimMaratot was killed because of his work oa drug cases at the Kordalloshaderrorist target pre* iousli -onhcgroup claimed responsibility for bombing his car and planting anotherhla
Usmcbcs Letter Bomb Campaign
Thc Spanish terrorist group Baaqise Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) claimed responsibilityeries of letter bomb* that injured three people. Thc attack]as ETA's political arm. Harri Batasuna,all for peace talks with the Spanish Government. Interior Minister Corcstcra has reiterated that no dialogue will lake place until ETAute-fire. ETA hardliners may believe lhat the terrorist campaign will improve the group's bargaining position If lalks resume. As of mid-March, largets for attack indaded the followsng:
6 Mart* Police eaptotrvc eapcrtsetter bomb addressed lo Spanish Minister of Interior. Jose Luisal the Congress of Deputies in Madrid.
ibraarv. Policeackage bomb received at the homeistrict atlorssey assigned io the Spanish National High Court of Criminal Justice. The packageeturn address from the director general of the Spanish penitentiary system
emale postall (be main pent office in Madrid -a. tc riousry injured -hen iheetter relumed ai undrliverable. The letter bad been addressedrison functionary assigned to temporary duty at thela-Meco prison near Madrid who had since departed tha area.ackage bomb addressedetired Spanish Army supply lieutenant in Valencia detonated while police attempted lo deactivate it. The blastol.ee vehicle,olcerrun standing nearby was treated for an car concussion caused by the shock wares.
ackage bombnjured the President of in* Spanish National High Court of Justice in Madrid.
5 February. Policeetter bomb receivedpanish policeman in BatauriJ2,
Fostr Atsassiaatioaa la Tar dry
Turkish lerrorisu cUtmed responsibility for threemay have carried out aIstanbul and Ankara betweenanuaryarch
etired officer of the Tuihish National Intelligence Org anit reordered outs.ee his apartment-as
an expert on Armenian affairs and may have been killed by an Armenian group No organiiation has claimed responsibility.
anuary. Revolutionary Left (Dtv Sol) claimed itoliceman because he fired on demonstrators In
anuary, the Islamic Action Organization claimed resceoisibility for killing the president of tbc Turkish La- Asaoc.aticm in Ankara. Thc group said Maammcr Aksoy was targeted because he did not permit female scudenu to wear Islamic headdresaca in class rooms
7 March. Cetlm Emec. editor of the "Hurriyet" newipaper, was asaassinat-ed. The Union of Turkish Islamic Commandos told three newspapers that ll bad killed Emec because hc was "an enemy ofhe MarsUt-Leninist Armed Propaganda Unit abo claimed responsibility for tbe
The astessiftaiiom indicate that Turkish terrorist groups are returningevel of violence reminiscent io that of thend that Islamic fundshallenging Ankara's secular government. Since the mid-lMfM. almost all atucks by Turkish groups have been bombings designed to avoid injuries; however, tbc frequency of such aiucki has increasedhe eipenue dcmoastraied in the four murders indteatea tba lerrorisu have significantly improved their capamliiun. If Islamic estremois were feaeemsiWe. lhe Aksoy- aad Emec murders indicate growing fmeres wiihin Turkishonly between tbe political .left and right but also bei-eeo secularists and religious^
Latin America Costa Rka
Terrorltl Campaign CoalI
The Rod Army Faction (RAF) hardcore apparently aborted aa stuck against West German Agriculture Minuter Ignasz Kicchk plannedirthday pan* at his bornearch. Kieehle it tbe first ferJeril mimsicr to be targeted by the group. West German news agencies received two claim letters: tbe rirti claimedfor an atuck. ihc second explained that the original claim teller Jut! been mailed prematurely andhe attack had been aborted because innoceni casualties wouldesulted. RAF miUUnts claimed responsibility for an arsoa atuck against ihe Siemens communication and technical school in Bonn-Bad Codes berg over theiweekend offhat be! no casualties atnanaant ^3
Both targets areh the RAFa avowed cppDsjtionlo "itni jiid Wet JJo economic Integra lion.'
I group tho criticized We: German firms, includingoolDentscbe Bank, andlatter three have been Urgeit of recent RAFcapiuhtt exploiution.
mpeded members of the radical
Sanuwere arrested in February tn cemnec-tion with bombing attacks against (he USponiulate in6 and theUSrw-nalional center in8 All II allegedly received .terrorist training in Libya.
The OFS and olher radical Com Ricaa leftist groups posemlicd tcnorisi threat, lo USbe groups lack strong dcxasestK supponvetV desxtoped infrastructure, despite limited outside support from Libya. Ccba. and "'
Theparrowi: Birds of. -1
urban assassin learns in Iheommonly called sparrows, are likely to continue iheir activity ai about ihe lame rue ihn year as in ihe last several. Since their reaetivation in ihe, lhe sparro-vs hava killed moreear, mosi of tbera low- or middle-ranking Philippineand miliury crfBcials The Communists believe these killings create the image that they aredemonstrate the Philippine military'sand weaken public support for ihe Aquino gov-Although tough security measures and within the Communist Party have prevented the sparrows fromrge number of senior
PfutipyliRi officials or US personnel, we beheve ihat
Ihe sparrows will continue to inrget high-ranking officials and . US personnel tothe continued viability of the Communist move-
In thehe Communist Pany of the Pbilippinei |CPP) decided io resume armed warfare in major cities and established special armed groups to carry out assassinations.1 the party's leaders reactivated tbc arban under ground, -bids had carried out bombings and assassinations ia thcnd
The local media branded the reaenvated assassins "sparrows" because of their swift hit-and-run attacks. The sparrows also are called political assassination teairs and armed city partisan units Tbe Communists believed these atucks would ereaic an atmosphere of lawlasneas and vwtesee. undermining Ibe public'she government.4 ihc CPP hadlandestineeat ion t. logistic, and intelligence network in Manila capable ofustained campaign of urban3
4 toparrow atucks often were indescriminau. killingcivilian and military personnel and, on occasion, senior governmcni mem-ben. Among thcost prominent victims was
the superintendent of thc northern ManilaGen.who was gunned down
i -VI i, resuurani In1
Osi sparrows also carriedrief seriesa northern Luton, where South Korean, constructing roads were seized and released only after their companyansom.7 sparrows killed the Secretary of Local Government. Jaime Ferrer, ihe highest government official to be assassinated by tha Communists "tM
Tbe indiscriminate murders eventually provedThe excessive violence alienated the public and spurred government efToria to form ami-Comm^nisi civilian defense.
People's Armymilitary srittg of Ihcto question the propriety ofpersons not involved in the government's counter, insurgency open.. mjmff-
Over the past two years the Communists haverandom killings in favor of carefully selected irtdrviduab Although high-ranking government offi-ciah remain Ihe sparrows' primary targets, themake few attempts against tbcm because of stringent security. Intended vktlmi are chosen be-cause of their political "ofTcntes" and "crimes against the people"
Most sparrow victims in IMS9 -ere low-level police and miliury official,ossa-tenerrorrst ope rat ions Some midlcvel official* also -ere
ajj)MMIVlllt'mG lhe iparrowi'lOiTTitunasiyeai were the police chiefs of Makati and Paranaquc and the mayors of several small towns.
Tin sparrows have largeied and kilted several US personnel mi addition lo Ftlipinoi Ai us 9ib plenumhc CPP declared that all foicignersthe jovet nmer.i'i counter insurgencyia "etl at foreign managers ot targets for assassination.
uly US airmenetired one7S Army colonel9
In recent momhs thc sparrows have i
f US dl'"ns- VaWpHpiatarra sparrow unii was spotted lasl November in Anpeles C
Soarrow urdls operate ihroughoui lhe Philippines bui ate eoncenlrated in the Manila are
j-Jlasi yeariury ,dcnt3!eoT15fls sparrow bate, in
"anyhicburingcease-^rebeiween ihc government and
Th*ir VVmgj B>
The Paulipcane miliury ind police raveoadi ir. combating lhe sparrows "aTssftlt"
particularly inhurt by ihe arrests of key leaden and rami on u'ebouses The government Last year was aided by the defection of some ABB mem-ben who broke wiih lhe Communist* because of iheir disgust with assassinalions Nonetbeleat. thehai not petmaner-tN crippled the iparrow struc-lurei.
Atucks by thc sparrows almost certainly will continue at the pace of previous years, particularly against tow-level and midlevel Philippine offlelals. most of whom take few or no security precautions La* security at
many government facilities and Manila's crowded streets and traffic jams provide countlessfor assassina iion*
We believe that senior US personnel in the Philippines wiU remain the priority US urgcu. Although the sparrows have been frustrated in recent months by US security measures, they will continue to look for opportunities to strike, most likely in the chaos of another coup attempt. Other US personnel also are at high risk. Lower-ranking military personnel near Clarknd ihc Subic Bay Naval Base arc
sparrows aiso may target US businessmen, who, they claim, arethc Philippine worker;
inoa: Who Murdered .'resident
Lebanon's Syrian-backed Presidem Rene Muawadkilled bybomb on Indct
We believe 'Awn iioodain the mostremoval. Muawad'i death.'Awn's main rival for political legilimaey andto 'Awn within the Christianbelieve thai Muawad's death
pnraartly to torpedo lhe Ta'if prcees. of national reconciliatmn In addition, the removal of the Syrian-backed Pre. idem wai probably ia leaded tolow to Syrian prance and rntitically weaken Chrb> Uans who adyrjcated comprocme and accommodatron with Lebanon*
'Awn had in place the infrattructurenconventional attacks in
The Tc^lf Accord
The Saudi-sponsored meeting ofa.n At Ta if. Saudi Arabia, produced new but frattle mope /or Lebanon After severalangling the legislator, reached alo as the ToVmirrored earlier political compromise, that LttHsnem's Christian, had refected The importance of the Ta if accord was not Its content, howr-er. but the process by which It came about. The mere fact that representatives ofnormally fratricidal sects were able lo coma lo termsower-sharing agreement Is an Indication that the civil war is not tutcessarily Interminable. The commitment of Christian legislators lo share power wtth their Muslim counterpartsnified Lebanese state could represent the beginning ofa new political order ThJ, processormidable challenge to those actor. In Ubonese politics who benefit from Ihe continuation of the status auo and the militia
Other players in Lebanon have come under suspicion in lbc murder of Muawad, although they are far leu likely than "Awn to have been involved:
Thc Lebanese Forces militia's eipposition to Syria's intrusion into Christian affairs and expertise In ear bombmi make them suspect. At the time oT Muawad's death, however, the political arm of the Lebanese Forces was supporting the Tair process and probably would have foreseen the political setback it suffered within the Christian enclaveesult ofeath.
ranians and Huballah seek toyr> dec ia Lebanontep toward establishing an Islam* republic Hiiballah. however,takes credit for iuhas been no claim of rcaponsibility for the Muawad bombing. Although Ihc Iranians may have calculated ihateath would promote their tnieresu inevelation of Iranian complicity would jeopardize Tehran'a strategically Important relationship wiihTehran has been unwilling to do
Syria is highly unlikely to have killed Muawad, someyrian security personnel also died In the
Con* lus lun
The Terrorism Diary for May0}
Belowompendium of Me, Join o/ know* orntfieonce uj ie"orim around ihe world. Our intluiioaale or event should not by itself be construed lo suggest thai we exrommr moral! vf lerrorlsi
t May It Si
4 May lf7>
Salvador The brsiof May con Hint several dales important to tef twins and rightwing elements; consequently, poliiical violence lends io peak during this period
Socialist World. May Day (commemorates labor violence in Chicago).
Pen. Destruction of electoral material in Chuschi. Caagatlo Province, marks beginning of armed struggle by Sendero Luminoso; anniversary is commemorated by acts of violence throughout May but eapecially onay.
Jordan King Hussein assumes constitutional power.
tion of lhe Holocaust.
Islamic World. Ouds Day or Jerusalemprotest Israeli occupation of Jerusalem.
Jewish World Comm
Sri Lanka Air Lattkn jetliner bombed by Tamil separatists al Colombo eirrson;ersons killed.ther* wounded.
Israel. Independence Day.
Namibia. Kasiaga Day (commemorates raid by South African forces ihat left hundreds dead).
Japan. Chukaku-ha (Nucleus Faction) fires five homemade rockets at opening economic summit; no casualties.
Mexico. Cinco de Mayo (commemorates victory over forces of Ntpoieaathiopia Libera Iran Day Netherlands. Liberation Day.
Wttt Germany. West Germany become* member of NATO
Northern Ireland Death of Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) member Bobby Sands in hunger strike.
Birthday of AvatoUah Rubcllah Khomeini
Czeehoilawakia. Libcrillon Day.
East Gtrmaay Liberation Day.
Wtst Germany. Capitulation of Third Reich.
Libya. Armedack Qadhaft's Arlzriya barracks.
Romania Independence Da.
Albania Victory Day.
Poland Victory Day.
VSSK. Victory Da,.
Yugoitaria. Victory Day.
West Germany Suic.de in prison of Ulrike Mcinhof foot-ding member of Rod Army Faction (RAF).
Jordan. Arab Resistance Day.
Israel Independence Day.
India. Night of Sikh bombings leavesounded in New Delhi. Other
Paraguay Iisdcpendcnce Day
hrael. Independence declared.
Middle Hait. Beginning of first Arab-liracli war.
Palestinian! Palestine Day (end of UN mandates; IJ Mayon9 by remnant of Special Operations Croup of Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLPl takea iu name from thla event.
Sudan. Founding of Sudanese People's Liberation Army (SPLA) aad Liberation Movement (SPLML
Norway. Constitution Day.
rail Signing of troop withdrawal accord (known as 17
Saatb Korea. Civilian uprising in Kwangju against military rule; usually marked by student demonstrations
- '* UaSaoA >
I* MayIreland Death of PIRA hunger striker Raymond McCreesh
ayDeath of Jose Marti.
ayGermany Proclamation of federal repubhe.
H MayTibet declared to be under Chinese sovereignly.
74World Birthday of Gautama Buddha
it MayBeginning of revolution agaiasl Spain.
ayBlrlhday of Joslp Broz Tito.
ayConstitutional monarchy esiabliihed.
ayAfrican Freedom Day. Day of Afrka (founding of Organization of
ayFounding of Communist Party of Colombia/Marxist-Leninin.of lerrorist group People's Liberation Army.
21Bermuda Day (Constitution adopted..
ribbce* Caribbean Revolutionary Allianceoordinated bombings.
KeyaUic Liberty Day (assasa.naiior, of Gen Raphael Trujillol.
SO MayDeclaration of independence by Biafra.
SO MayAsaassination of Ziaur Rahman.
II MayAfrica. Union Day (fourmerged to form Union of South Africa)
JIAfrica. Proclamation of' -. '
deiertbed lelected nottwarthy foreign and international eventsterroristi or tke use of terrorist tattles These events have occurred or come to light since our lair issue In some eases, tke per per tt or, and their motivations may not be kmemm. Events and development, that have eUtady been described rtie-kere In iht, publication at not^
United Kingdom. Bomb damages Royal Army rtermillug office ia Halifax. Tbe ftemsional Irilb Republican Array claimed responsibility omgm, yj
Belgium: Ethnic Albanian who seas prtsldent of "Committee foe the Defense of Human Rights inbj two gunmen white driving Us ear. No claims have been/
Germanr Pallet dI teener vtbicle ladtn witb explosives near Deutsche Bank in Eshbom The "Febe Elisabeth CombairobabirRed Army Faction (RAF) militant group, claimed responsibility.
Germany*Arsonists attack Siemens communication and technical ichoal ir Bonn-Bad Codes berg with molotov cocktails. The medialaim letter believed written by RAFas ngncd -Fightia* Unit Haeseyin Huesmse ErogluV, }
Greece: Security men defuse too devices floured under pallet car la Artikl. The
anarchist organisation Mikhail Kallexas claimed rctoceaubility. i
" '"at heading far Hot Adar it fire hombed im Qaiammai.
Israel: Bomb explode, or henliyya central bus station, coating ao injuries
Ubanon: Skaykk Kkalil ALBarati. head of tht Muslim Ultma League, is skat and seriously woaaded hy unknown gunmen Im
BamK- Flrtbomb ikrown ai en Israeli bus in tht Sharafah Qttarttr af3
Gats, Strip: One inspected collaborator Is killed and another Is beaten I, At Buroyjrefugee
West Bank; Maikta4 individual! kill woman suspected af collaborating la
Sosfth/East Asia II February
Boob,trapped car explodes in lb* Qasaai area of Beirul. injuria! 17
lllbaak branch bombed im Buenos Aires, earning minor damage.uevara Britide claimed responsibility.
Guatemala: Police disarm bomb aa pedestrian cnwrpass ta Gamteatala Clly. The bomb was.left by ihe Guatemalan National Revolutionary
Chile: Papular Laaiara RaroUiiamoty Farces fire rocket aad amiomatic meapooi at miliiary court ia Santiago, foaling minor damage af)1 . -
Panama. Grenade killi one American and injuresthers in Panama Clly. The Organization for the Liberation of Panama claimed reap 11
Perm: Bomb damages offices of Amnesty IsaesrsmioaUuamage. No group has claimed reaponubiliiy ^
Chile: Unknown terrorists bomb Mormon Church I'm
omb explodes in frami af Phnom Penh hotel frequented byfeeaigaers. "No damage or Injuries were rer<
^ * r OS*
olice defuse time bomb at Mahal! shopping center. The device consistedhoe boa containing twoxplosive and the otherlastic bag. with tbe warning 'Don't touch, time bomb" taped to it. No one has claimed respcenibtliiy.ejfcOriginal document.