Created: 12/14/1989

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Terrorism Retiewl


Middle Eastern rerrorism: Retrospect imlb 3

International terroriit tncidenu perpetrated by Middle Eastern groups tif fllflcani-ly inereiied during the last half of, and, judging from developments In tbe laat two yean, we believe that ihc high rate will be sustained at lean into the. Although the partial sisiiulc* on Incidents aad casualties appear toowntnrn recently. strong indlcatMiu continue that tbe riitt to Western. Israeli, and moderate Arabs hlih as ever, the PatcttlolBn issue remains unsettled, and no near*tcrm hope for resolution exists by virtue of the iniVOdah or the US-PLO dialogue; Ubanon remains aa arena for factional fighting, terroroi training, and regional suites' reeruitmeni and development of terrorist surrogates; and Ira ai ids continue io view terroriimiinitieant policy

Although terroriim ba*actor In the Middle Eail throughouteview of statistics indicate*harp upsurge occurredeveral developments contributed to tbc range and destructive nets of terrorism5 and subsequent years:

Libya, Syria, and Iran save unprecedented backing to terrorist ircupi and, in some cases, naively particips>aH envoi operations and aniidiiiidcai anacks.

Tbe Abu Nidal organisation (ANOj grew more active operationally loan ever before.

Cairo Declaration, in which toe PLOan on terrorism outside Israel and the occupied territories, aroused even greater hostility among those who rejected any sign of softness toward lirael.

Despite Western effort* to bring pressure on state supporters of terrorism, displaced groups were able to find new iponsors ai circumstances required.

The radical Shia Hiiballah organiratlor. which bad grown out of the Iranian revolution and gained impetus from the Israeli invasion of Lebanonad by mid-decade developedature militia and terrorist organization. The group manifested lia antt-Wciicrn policy not onlycrici of hostage takings, hijackings, and bombings le the Middle East but also Uuougb bombings in Paris5 and


Figure 1

Intcrnaltonal Terrorist Inclfioitl in the Middle




Stale support, which wu probably the meat rignifiant factor in tbcto play anlewin thc latter half of thenjm*tJrol oricriortsm became leu active ot more discreetargely inWestern counterterroristlthough economic and diplomaticsvlth the US bombing of Tripoli In Aprilmuch to drive stateit continued to oca major corapeneot of Middle Eastern terrorism.Libya directly backed terrorist operations, and Syria and Iraq continuedterroriit groups with financial and togiitic assistance but ratcly. ifinvolved in operations. Other statca. Algeria and South Yemen,that employed urroriim to move freely within ibeir bordensajfaajgh* ^3

Throughout theEastern terrorists and theirhad ihown the capability to operate outside the region, especially lo Western Europe. In thc latter part of tbe decade, however, several radical groups showed that they could operateore nearly global capability:

a ANO gunman attacked an Alitalia crew bus at thc airport in Bombay, India. Two yean earlier. ANO operative* attempted toan Am aircraft in Karachi.effort tt.t' leftersona dead and more than hundredtht

expanded ils activities to East Alia. Africa, and Latin America.

Figure 2

World nlde Terroriit Incidents Resulting From Middle East


During ibe. attacks we believe to have been sponsored by Libya occurred in Pent. Colombia, and Costa Rka, as well a* In tie Middle East. Western Europe, and Africa.

iiballah hijackedKuwaiti airliner out of Bangkok. Thailand, and99 tbe group was linked to operational activity in Ivory Coast and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa.

be Japanese Red Armyased in thc Syrian-controlled area* of Lebanon, continued todetnouuatc its operational capability in Western Europe and Asia; information from thc arrestRA operative In New Jersey Indicated that the group was planning an attack in North America and had the capability to travel extensively In the United Si

The most dangerous development by the end of the decade wai tbc growing liaison between Iran and radical Pileitinianelationship that complements Tehran's lies to Its surrogate in Lebanon. Hiiballah. The liaison was mast likely responsible for the bombing of Pann1 nod for otter, less

destructive attacks against Wutern iniocafl in Europe.



Loot Inn Ahead

In owrhe links between Iranihr radical Palestinian* will potc (he

big ten threat againsi Western and moderate Arab Intereiu in ibe decade ahead.

Other threat* and terrorism-relatedatch in ihc IWOs include:

Thcram tadical Patotioian group* and Shia organization* bated In Lebanon. Hijacking* and eooiinuina threw, agalut Weitcmlhe poiiible idling of additionallikely a* radical*nfluence Woternarc,olicici. to make. andeure thef impriioned terrorlii groap member*:

Otowini contact* anion* radical oeganicatioM in Ubaaon may leadoint operation* and expanded tharlng of inieUiecncc. training fattlttlci, and iofraitruciures ouulde the region.

Expanding terrorist operational capabilities ia Scandinavia, Southeutand La'in America may result in further attack* agaiatl Weitern intercut.

Tne US-PLO dialogue may remit In greater violence by anti-Arafat group* if

perceivedr in fragmentationdealization of the PLO If perceivedailure.

Tbe course of the Intifadeh probably will affect tbc operational agenda ofI group* vying to influence iu direction.

State suppori for tcrroriim.

/ran. In addition to forging eloter linki to radical Palestinian group** surrogates to strike Weiiera Intereiu,ikely to continuecekand financial gain* through Iu role in Influencingf Western bo*Uie* in Lebanon.

Ubfu. Qadhafi baa recently shown lignsof cropping hi* facade of moderation In eoordinatins and facilitating terra nun Inbe Middle Eaat. Soutbeait Asia, and Central America and tbe Caribbeaa. Like several other state supporters. Libyaource of ooncera for possible traoafet*of eiemical and bJoJoglcat- weapon* capabilities to terrain groups.

'kely io continue providinc training and other facUitle* for terrorist groups In Syria and Syrian-eootro!led territory In Lebaaon but willirect rok in tbelr operation*.

Iraa. Bagbdad may decide lo rebuild It* tcrrorut capabilityounicrmca-sure to Iran and Syria and to increase Iraqi Influence among faction* in Lebanon.

South Yemen. Aden will probably supply more (ban poliiical luppon to radical Palestinian faction* and continue to provide tafebaven.

Algiers is likely to continue provjiion of tafehaven foryasaay ^

The above article U

Significant DcielopmeaU

Wad in Europe

Charged With MurtWr

nvestigation into thc attauinaiioa of three Kurdish diuidcnu in Vienna onuly baa prompted iu Ministry of Interior to charge ihree Iranians with murder. Ballistic rcporu led Investigator* to conclude thai tbc Iranian! presentih the disridenu at ifce lime of Ike atuck were theil currently in Auitria, has taken refuge at the Iranian Embassy. Mustafa Haji fled Austria Immediately after the asuiiinatiom, and Mohammad Djalari-Sabaroodi, Injured In tha atiack, was granted pcrmiislon io leave Vienna by Austrian officials.

Dtscorery of ETA Cache

French policearge arms cache belonainx to Batouc Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) in two' apartment* in southern Franceecember. Police arreatcd several Spanish Basque fugitive* during the raids Tbe cacheilogram* of Amonalevcialram package* of black powder, AO alarmetonators, ami automobile ciploriveiroainFTA malkingr, and oshcrair

aodoubledly adversely affect ETA Oprrationi in tbefaWnA 'O 3




US Ecibmy Boat Attacked

A US Embassy boat wai fire bombed near Istanbul la carl* December, eauiing

heavy damage but noroup called Warriors of thcune Orgaoiia-

U'on claimed responsibility and threatened funher action against US interests.Tbc

ew formation of Partisan Yolo, which diibanded last year Partisan

Yolu, In tuta, was formed from the Turkish People's Liberationromlnen:

terrorist organisation Inhat attacked several US business facilities in

Turkey. The chief target* of the violent Communist splinter group are US. Israeli.

androup ii

members from high icBools and universities. WmWfmmnWmmW'MmmMml'^ 16

Juae Organization is responsibleaih of bankftftmbingsovember In Is- J

tanbul JaaaaaaanaV 0

Assassinate* Bank Chairman

Tbe Red Army Faction (RAF) claimed responsibility for tbe bombing that killed Deutsche BaakChairman Alfrcd^Herrh*uscri_an^

| the bomb may havehaped charge concealed In the saddlebagsicycle proppedoad marker near Hcnhamcn'i residence outside

wired (a

electrical device hidden in nearby bushes and triggeredight beam thatthc rond 4mmP

Thc khat been quiescent since It* attempted assassination of Weil GermnMiniitry official Hani Tleimeyct InS.I

The technology us

in tbe Kcrrhatuca asaassfatailon appears to be more sophliticated than that used in previous RAF attacks; ii is not known whciher the RAF acquired the technology from mother terroriit group, aajj


Middle East

Palestinian Factions: Faci Financial Difficulties

Thc Terrorism Diary for February

lla Compendium af February doles of known or conceivable itfuficonee io ttrrorltti around ihr world. Our Inclusionair or event skould nol by Ititif or conllrued IO tuitnt lhal we expect orommemorative tirrorlu

I FebruaryReturn of Aysiollab Khomeiniran from eiile in Pari*.

Iaflbool Bull esecuted.

Kaibour Libcraiioa Front kii off two bombs to commemorate Butt's


J February viniry of Ba'ath Revolution.

4 FebruaryLanka, independence Day.

4 FebruaryBeginning of armed itiuigie against Portugal.

Revolution Day.

3acbin fodcpcodcncc ArmyA] Revolution Day.

6aitanjl Day (naiiooal day).

6 FebruaryFounding of Move enrol for Restoration of Democracy (MRD)

FebruaryFall of Weal Beirut to Muslim militias.

FebruaryIndependence Day.

Revolution Day.

at FebruaryDeath of Muia Khiabao, mujahedin leader.


II FebruaryDeath of Patrice Lumumba.

IS FebruaryDeclaration of establishment of Turkish Federated State of Cyprus.

ebruaryAttack on US Embassy in Tehran. One foreign Employee waa killed and a

Marine aceurily guard was wounded In the atiack. Tbe Embaiiybriefly occupied, and the US Ambassador was briefly held by the attacker*.


FettmmtyNational Labor Da..

Febreaey IfSSK. Independence Day.

FtltaaryIm-aiion by Chlneie iroop*ebruaryGambia. Independenee Day.

Ifepubhe ettablithed

19King Trlbhuan Mtmor ial Day.

rtf.tr,IrraaL Eachaaae ol amBauaete*.

ebnarjFound in< of RomanMn Woekeri' Party.

iin.ni,Democratic Front (or tlie Liberation of Pileiime founded.

ebruaryCoup d'etat tbai brouiht Shaikh Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thanl to power.

ebntarjLuria. Independenee Day.

ebnarjRepublic Day.

nvwNational Day.

abrmarjFirit Commumit

FebruaryLiberation Day.of

FatIndependenea Day

ebruaryurineDay of Liberation aod Renewal.

rlr.tr,Coraron Aquino iaaaaurated ai president

ebruarygtamablie. Iodepende<vc* Daj

nr.tr,Satire. Anniversary efemectaUC Arab Republicta lie

IS FebruaryUftiiu demoni'min* aaainstee lion fraud in Sanby lecurity farces; Popular League ofebruaryakca(hit event.

nformation Ii .

Chfonoloity of

Hi.rt dettrlbri lelected notrworihy foreltn ond International fttili laroli-mi irrrortui or the hit of trtrorut taellci. Thrir mull hava occurred or come to tight liter our loll tsttnt. Io lomecain. the perpetrator, and thrir WMiMi o, not heEvent, and devtlopneenn that hare already been dtierlbed elmhtre tn thti publieotlon are mar Ittluded aWT^


Turkey; Upe bomb dttonatei at US All Forte ta/nmiiiary in Itmir. No group hit claimed tripontibiluy^aajjajf

Soaim Fmiilnp molor in injured ni device on nallonolur dlitodget and explode! on read. Thcaihciianfliberty (ETA) claimed iciponilbillty.Jjg

Bomb damagei office of ruling. Motherland Forty heodamorreri In Inonbul. No group hu claimed rcapaajjlbllliy 0af

Spain: Bomb kill, eljeted drug dralee In Bilbao. ETA has claimed reaponalbllily


Ptnc Unidtit&td ittmcktri kitioarnitiu in VcAit*

Ttrrvehr* AvmAa on in San Ptdreimjtirimg thttt pefittmrM. No otic hai claimedJgf**


i*m lu4t+

C9hmUm Cattrioaity damngtt enmrtk infc< bc*nt>Wotriimordywiniu, Noocw hai claimed3

kiltingn* of ih< bom&^jq^ed at LbcChurch,

SculhI-4U! All


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