MEMORANDUM FOR: Members, DCI Security Forum FROM:
5LAMMER:Interim Report <U)
As members will recall. Project SLAMMER is an innovative Community research program using state-of-the-art behavioral science techniques. -The intent is to better understand and deter espionage through the direct assessment of convicted American spies. The interim report attached reflects much of the more recent work of the group engaged in the project. This program is conducted under the sponsorship of the Personnel Security Committee (PSC) of the Advisory Group/Security Countermeasuresith personnel from the various Community organizations participating. The report is provided to Forum members for information, with the permission of the Chairman, PSC. Any cojrgjentsyou wish to offer are welcomed and may be submitted toor through CCISCMO.
Project slammer Submitted tc Chairman, FersoerHVX Security Coa*lt IS9
Thla la an later la presentation of observations developing In tha progress ofSlaaaer, an Intelligencesponsored atudy of espionage. Thla raaaarch examinee eeplonsge by interviewing and psychologically assessing actual espionage subjects. Additionally, persons knowledgeable of subjects are contacted to better understand the subjects' private lives and how they are perceived by others while conductinghis "Clanaer-gTaa- brieflysubjects1 self-perceptions and eoae of tha Implications that aight be considered in view of these Inelghte. To date, cesee studied have Involved onlyaubjects, the aajorlty of who* were volunteers In initiating espionage. The following observations are offered with the caveat that this le work lnach leeue le worthy of continuing study and will be reported in greater depth ln the next fossul report scheduled for release in
HO* THZ ESPIONAGE STJBJICTBIHSfXP (at the tlae he Initiates aeplonage) He believesi
Re is special, even unique.
Be Is deserving.
Rls eltustlon le not satisfactory.
He hae no other (easier) option (than to engage in espionage).
He ia only doing whet othere frequently do.
He laad person.
His performance in his governstent job lif presently employed) Is separate froa espionage; espionage doea not (really) discount hla contribution in the workplace.
Security procedure! do not (really) apply to hla.
Security prograaariefings) have no aaanlng for hla, unless they connect with soaething with which he can personelly identify.
Hi feels Isolated froa the consequencee of bla actions i
eeee hia situationontext in which ha faces continually narrowing optlona, until espionage aaaa*
Thathat evolvee into espionage reducea barriers, making it eeeentlallyy" to Initiate tha crime.
He aeea espionageVictimless" crime.
Once he coneldars espionage, ha figures out how ha might do lt. These ara mutually reinforcing, often simultaneous events.
Re finds that it ia easy toround aecurlty eafeguarde (he ia able to eolve that problem). Be ballttlaa the security ayetem, feeling that if tha lnroraatlon waa really important espionage would be hard to do (the information would really
be batter protected). This "Baee of accomplishment" further relnforcea hia reaolwe.
He ettempta to cope with eaplonage actleltyi
Re la anxloua onS contact (soete alao feel thrill and excitement).
alatlonahlp with espionage activity and BOXS develops, the procesa becomee much more bearable, espionage continues (even flourishes).
in the course of long tera activity subjects Bay reconalder their involvement.
Some oonaider breaking their role to become an operative for the government. Thia occura when access to claaalfled information la loat or thereerceived need to prove themselves, or both.
Othere find that espionage activity becomea atraasful, they no longer want It- Glamour (if present earlier) aubaldes. They ara reluctant to continue. They may even break contact.
Sometimes they consider telling authorities what they have done. Thoae wanting to reverae their role aren't confeeelng, they're negotiating. Those who era "Stressed out" want to confess. Neither wants punlahment. Both attempt to minimise or avoid punlahment.
60HT THOUGHTS ABOOT IMPLICATIONS
The security measure that waa consistently aoat effective was the polygraph.
Aside froa polygraph, security procedures ere aot viewed as obstacles to espionage. Security procedures sre seen by subjects only as Inconveniences.
Changea in affluence or travel abroad are oaaily (although falsely) explained. Bxplanatlona are rarely challenged! if so the reesons given ara accepted by those who inquire.
Espionage subjects don't see theaaelvea as trsltora. Their sets ara usually sustained with soae Measure of comfort and self justification.
The eecurlty briefings' thst seea to have any impact on this group have something ln the aeseage with, which the subject can personally identify. Among the areas subjects have suggested are, the acknowledgement of espionage aa appearingreasonable to those who do it, that (ln tlae) the honeymoon
la over and glamour turna to threat, end that eoaa aubjecte amy want to com in froa the cold, but they don't know how to do that (withouteep plunge into punlehaent).
Zt ie not until after they have been apprehended that they feel remorse, which ia perceived In personal terse, such as their own stress and pain caused to loved ones. National security Issues are of little or no relevance.
Subjects soaetlaaa do think about turning theaaelvee in, but they are not aura how to do that. Trying to find
out (how) has risks so high thst they can ba scared sway.
The community aay wish to consider procedures so that subjects
can (froa their perspective) store resdlly epproech suthorltles.
often tell people close to thea what they
are doing, and aoaetlaes even engage associates ln the process. Former Intimates (spouses, lovers, closeeople with vhoa theyood deal of tlae)otentially isxjortant source of Information in all investigations.
alaoat invariably conceive of coaaittlng espionage sftar they areosition of trust. While initial acreenlng continue* to be Important, focusing on apdata
aad monitoring procedures sees* Increasingly worthvMlm.Original document.