Created: 4/20/1990

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DocumentJan 90



Report& Techn

ReportSubdivision: COMPUTERS


pr 90



Dr. Jochen Kinkier, VEB Robotron-Elektromk Dresden] Report Name: Europe

Headline: CAD Software forS Computer Described

Source Lino: ast Berlin RECHENTECHNIK-DATEHVERARBEITUNG in German Hoan

Subslug: (Article by Dr. Jochen Winkler, VE3 Robotron-Elektronik Dresden]


[Article by Dr. Jochen Winkler, VEB Robotron-Elektronik Dresden]

[Text]5 computer and its variety of peripheral equipment enables the user to format complicated and efficient CAD/CAM application solutions, the effective development of which can be achieved with the following basic graphic and geometric software:

) /l/ Implementation of the Graphic Core System (GKS) corresponding to2 and) Implementation of the Graphic Core System for Three Dimensions (GKS-3D) corresponding to5 andeometric modeling software (border and CSG display) in polyhedroneometric modeling system for linear and circular geometry;omplex CAD basic system forechanical construction.

Theontinues the trend in the GDR to provide the application programmerniform, internationally standard graphic interface in all Robotron-produced computers. Tn addition, graphic data can be exchanged between various systems using themage data set. Various complex geometric modeling tools were

Approvsd (or

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developed usingEMO, andhe most comprehensive system is it supports modeling, storage, processing, visualization, drawing preparation, and piece list generation of complicatedeometric objects in volume presentation. The following is an overview of the aloremcnticmed software.

S. OKSieOO )

Tha Graphic Core System (GKS) has been the international standard5 for defining the graphic interface between an application programraphic system.

tandardized implementation on th*omputers with therperating Belected a* the language shell. The following device* are currently integrated into

--Intelligent Graphic Terminalntelligent Graphic Terminal A2 Plotteri:. A3 DigitizerK*trix PrinterO Plotter DGFnd--selectedic*s.

Although the integration of additional devices is being planned, the user can also choose to add on devices himself.

the maximum GKS performance level, level 2c ariant at level oa Is also available for applications with few passive requirements.

In addition to the functions defined in the GKS-Standard. theontains numerous options for generating display elements These include:

ype fonts (includingeriphircular arcs, sectors, or segments (filled inllipticalectors, or segments (filled inisjoint polylolygon (filled in selectively) and--rectangle (filled in selectively).

Th*mage data set corresponds todd-on of th*. Two codes (ASCII. RVS internal code) areata transfers, which were already produced withrre also possible for GKS image data sets.

s th* result of close cooperation between Milhelm-Pieck university Rostock and Robotron Dresden.

15. GKS1BO0 )

1*. Three-dimensional functionality is becoming increasingly necessary for many application solutions. Becauseias only limited applicability here, this task has been accomplished by thepward compatibility to the GKS-Standard is guaranteed by the fact thatubset of CKS-3D. Every application programnterface can immediately be run onmplementations. Considerable expansions of thever there:

isplayill field sequence (display element with borderystem and transformation of coordinates including projection transformations;to connect with processes for removing hidden surfaces and edges (HLHSR).

sD system. Although it also containsrimitives for running application programsKS connection, these are immediately converted intoisplay elements. In this way it is also possible tolanar object and subsequently manipulate itD space.

The following display elements are stipulated:

--continuous line (sequence ofoints that are extended toolymarka (sequence ofoints, each with an allocated centeredext (character sequenceefined positionefined plane within theill field (planar polygonal surface (hollow, colored, patterned, or hatched)efined plane within theill field sequence (number of polygonal surfaceslane of thepace, which are processed together, with alternative display of theell matrix (madearallelogram composed of single-olzed and monochrome cellsefined plane within thopace);

and--generalized display element 1VDEL) for using specific device intelligence for such things as circular or elliptical arcs.

The visibility of edges can be controlled using the fill field sequence displayill field sequence can contain gaps; it also may not be continuous.

The number of attributes for the display elements was expanded compared with GKS-2D.ontains, for example, not only border attributes, but also the new attributes HLHSR-flagging, HLSR-mode. and projection-index, which are allocated to every output primitive. HLHSR-flagging ia used to create classes for HLHSR processing.

Depending on the work station, the HLHSR-mode attribute controls tho selection of appropriate processes to solve the problem of hidden

edges and surfaces. Depending on the work area, the projection-index describes the standpoint and line of sight of the observer, as well as Che type of projection. parallel,nd the clip volume of thecene.

34. ontains fiveoordinate systems.

--world coordinatetandardized coordinaterojection coordinatetandardised projection coordinate system;evice coordinate system.

Transition between the coordinate systems is accomplished with the following transformations:

2T. he standardizing transformations are used ln composing various partial images, which are described in their own (world) coordinate systemommon standardized coordinate system.

29. he segment transformation is an imago within the Standardized Coordinate Syatem. whereby defined Images (segments) can be inserted in accordance with the desired size and the arrangement of the partial images to one another.

J. The standpoint and line of sight of the observer of thecene is determined by the projection coordinate system. The projection orientation transformation is implemented with every point of the graphic display elements using matrix multiplication.ontains help functions for producing the necessary 4x4 transformation matrix. The projection orientation transformation is followed by the projection image transformation, which supports the parallel or perspective projections. This transformation is also implemented using homogeneous coordinates by meansatrixD projection window.

he device transformations are images of thetandardized projection coordinate system in the respective specificevice coordinate system. Because the graphic output devices allow only two-dimensional displays, oordinate is disregarded afLer balny used selectively in the HLHSR-processing.

upports the same input classes and modes aslocator, line giver, value giver, selector, picker, texthe difference lies in theunctionality. Analogous to the output pipeline, all inverse transformations are also images betweenoordinate systems. The projection index and the standardizing transformation number characterize the inverse transformations. Tha results correspond to those of the 0ES-2D. except for the input classes of locator and Line giver. If there la nonput device

available.oordinate can also be input via the keyboard or the value giver.)tandardized. It is completely upward compatible to the) is available for thend0 will be available for tbes well. The) was developed Jointly by Robotron-Elektronik Dresden and Hilhelm-Pieck university Rostock.

The modeling systemasic software for modelingeometric objects in border and CSO displays. Itpecial purpose language for defining, storing, modifying, and graphically displaying geometriconsists of three building blocks: the language portion, the geometry portion, and the output portion for passive graphic display. Thes the graphic interface, and the operating system is.

D modeler for bodies with flat surfaces and borders. Set operations (union, avarage, difference) are defined on these objects.

The output portion contains sight and projection

transformations.. the atandpoint and line of sight of the observer of thecene can be selected as desired. Sorre views are already predefined (horizontal and vertical projection, side elevation, orthogonal projection, orthogonal axonometry (isometry,avalieridden edges can be extracted.

In addition to the operations for defining and modifying geometric objects, rotation and translation operations are also possible.

One can work off GEXO18Q0 both In conversational and batch processing. It was developed by the Technical University Dresden.


Theubprogram package is used to model, calculate, and construct geometric objectsD space. It consists of three components:

modules for unitmodules for set-theoretical operations withmodules for rotation objects).

with theubprogram, calculations can be made between geometric objects . parallelism, section formation, distance


calculation) and constructions. of verticals and tangents).

theubprograms one can model any kind of

flat-surfaced, bordered geometric objects by means of modified set operations on elementary polyhedrons. parallelepipedons. prisms) and the bodies resulting from them. The description of the objects occurs ln border representation.

With theubprograms one can model surfaces or bodies of rotation, which are composed of cone, cylinder, or torus portions.ncludes the following geometric objects in the modeling:

urve (straight, segment, progression, circle, circularurface (polygonal surface, contoured surface, circular area, gliding plane, surface ofncluding cylinder, cone, and torusolyhedralnd--bodies (polyhedron, sphere, gliding planes, body ofcylinder, truncated cone, torus).

The available operations include:

--relationships test (incidence, parallelism,

etric unit operations: . distance determination, angleeometric unit operations (connecting, cutting, constructing parallels, verticals, andransformations (translation, rotation, scaling, nd--modified set operations (union, average, difference).

GSM01SOO does not contain any display routines.

The user receives the GEMO subprograms in the form of an object module library. They are written innd the operating system ists geometry interface is the IGOO Interfaceasic software, thean be used to rationally develop CAD user software. It was developed by the Technical University Dresden.

The geometric modular systemAD system, whose high efficiency makes it suitable for solving challenging tasks in the construction of spatial mechanical parts and componentry. It can be used in machine construction, automobile manufacture, equipment and plant engineering, in light industry and civil engineering. The GBSlSOO's integrated data bank system can store geometric, technical, and technological data.ossesses numerous functions for modeling, visualization, dimensioning, drawing preparation, calculation, data management, piece list generation, provision of NC


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data, and product data exchange (IQB8 Interlace) of technicalbjects.

an be uaed immediately urnkey interactive system. Dialog is supported by menu and window technology as -ell aa by extensive information and help services.

an be connected directly to its own application solutions via lto language interface. Because of the availability of all internal GBS routines, the language is highly functional, understands FORTRAN instructions, and runs via the intornal data structure-

SS. The functions of there particularly numerous in its Cmpseityolume-oriented CAD system for the modeling of geometric objects (CSG and bordern addition to the exact analytical description of the objects, thereolyhedral convergence of the object surface in the data base, particularly for th* support of graphic interaction.

Thentegrates the following object class**i

progression, circular arcs.urves, contours, bezels, roundings. construction subsidiaryclosed curves, flat surfac*s. polyhedral *urf*ces, BSZIER surfaces, rotation and translationodies (prisms, cylinders, cones, bodies of rotation and translation,nveloping volumes with free-form surfacend--drawings (combination of. componentry).

Creating parameters for geometric objects is also possible, such as performing Bet operations (union, average, difference).

The construction of mechanical piece parts is supported by many construction aids, whereby construction elements such as planes, vectors, axes, centers, lengths, factors, radii, and angles are used. Auxiliary constructions. medians, mean perpendicular-verticals, normal lines, projections, and intersecting points) are also suited for this.

rovides an efficient visualization of geometric objects, including:

5t. efinition of up toight sources androjectionsny standpoint and lin* ofarallel or

perspective projections, including the us* of predefinedg. horizontal, side, and vertical projection, axonomatric

projections, central projections, panoramic projections,

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Concatenated JPRSf 8

elective extraction of hidden edges with lattice-sidedolored, tinted display of bodies using Oouraudariable partitioning of the screen to dieplay several projectionsnteractive work in every projection through inverse visual transformation; and--zoom and pan functions.

A CAD-system for mechanical construction would be incomplete if it did not also contain user-friendly functions for dimensioning and drawing preparation. The following functions are available for dimensioning:

dimensioning with direct transfer of the dimension drawings from the object dataifferent measurement methods {circular, lino, diameter, radius, and angletext and symbolpecif ication of tolerances andbility to edit the dimensioning, including standard values and symbolreation of one's own and modification of already existing characternd--large number of graphic attributes. line width, line type, seriph, text justification) for displaying dimensioned drawings.

The further usage of dimensioned objects to make complete construction drawings is also supported. In this way, drawing frames and title blocks can be defined and dimensioned objects can be positioned on the drawing as desired. Drawings can be stored separately, changed later, or transferredlot data set for output.

S3. To support the design engineer, there are calculation functions to determine geometric (point coordinates, distances, angle, circumstance) and integral characteristics of objects (curve length, surface contents, volume, mass, center of gravity, moment ofollision test is also possible.

ontains its own data management system for temporary and long-term storage of technicalbjects and drawings. This includes depositing data in various hierarchically arranged data bases, which belongertain subproject or to an overriding project. Objects of general interest. standard tables, dimensioning tables, character sets, symbol tables) are stored in specific data bases.rovides the definition of access rights for reading and writing on the specific data bases, soigh degree of data security is achieved. The principle of referencing subobjects is applied in the data bases in order to avoid multiple storage.

The following modules are available for communicating with other systems:

Concatenated .IPHS Rcportn.


for connecting with the VDA-FSfor connecting with thenterfacedata exchange; and--module for transferring standarda standard parts library.

A module for connection with the FEM io under development. Also planned are an expanded free-form surface modulo and modules for realizing NC-Interfaces for boring, rotating,xis milling as well as J-xis milling of free-form surfaces.

The technical device prerequisites are the0S computers (atByte general memory andByte external memory) with the SVPiBOO operating system. Th* graphic Display" color monitor) and/or the0 personal computers with appropriate coupling software ar* used for graphic interaction. In addition, plotters produced by Robotron and suitable imported devices were integrated. Theeometric modular systemoint effort by Robotron-Elektronlk Dresden, the Central Institute for Cybernetics and Information Processes, tbe GDRf Sciences' Institute for Data Processing and Computer Technology, and wilhelm-pieck university. It is currently being upgraded with additional expansion levels.

All the aforementioned software packages can be obtained from Robotron Berlin/Magdeburg factory,


ultiple authors: Graphic Corepplication Programingnformationnstructions for the systems analyst nstructions for the programmer

B--output advice

Multiple authors: geometricodeler, version

pplicationrogrammingB7 .

ultiple authors:eometric modeling system--applicationrogrammingfor th*8

ultiple authors: GBSieoo basic system, application systemser9 (developmental version)

S.- Urban,raphic core systemTB 32

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1 Information Processing Systems-Computer Graphics. Graphical Kernel Syatemanguage Bindings Part li FORTRAN Part 2; PASCAL Part 3: ADA Part 4: C

7. 2 Information Processing Systems-Computer Graphics. Graphical Kernel SystemunctionalS

he image data set of theTB 12 ) 4. pp.

9. 5 Information Processing Systeaw-Computer Graphics. Graphical Kernel System for Three Diaension* International Standard ager.D Modeling with GEKO, research texts, computer geometryublication series MBZ/IV of the Technical universityudwig, Ml; Richter,nterface for geometric objects and operations (IGOO), Preprint Technical University Dresden,6 Information Processing Systems-Computer Graphics. Graphical Kernel System for Three Dimensions anguage Bindings PartORTRAN PartASCAL PartDA Part1 Graphic Core SystemD Graphics; Language Links, FORTRAN3 Information Processing Terms and Definitions for Computer Graphicsraphic Core System (GKS), raphic Core System for Three Dimensions (GKS-3D)

Original document.

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