f Major Article*
MlWfc jUwm SAKtHtVSB* XV**
tftHIrtTRIES fiF ASIA: STATE foi.KTSMALL BUSINESS
' 'JL^LS-AKIIIN X- V.
i tksratnt couMrio Ihr stale actively alWrvncf small enicrpriic.inor evutution for all sector* of economy.of aelivilica. as concerns rfctivrnes ofaJtoci-wi of in*crt mrr.iv training ofand ihe uiaiioo. both direct aadineetiiii, raf rnsorilary deveiopc-rut of ari-
trxr- and capital-inicuiivc braiichei whichnaythemselves ta Ihe hang run. devr*opirig countries of Alia finally MKCred ia findingompramrseihii furmct* in the long-termoin of hvrrraiing uuantiiict of living andedaied on combination ofapital- and aocnce-intenWvr productions and ialended Tor wcll-halancrd growth uf amalMcale. big capitalist and atale lectori.
From thri point, the cipcrience of Aiian counlriei itofa certain importance for developing imall (in partkular.ertor in the USSR. Tbe rcccnily adopied taws en the stale enterprise, the co-operaiioa and Ihe individBil labour activinesegal arknowkdgc-nscnl of wch objective reality ai the multi-sector nature of Soviet economy However, ihe pemtroyha in general hii not shaken the monopoly of stale property, and thi* makes possible negative processes in economy lo glow nilhout hindrance. The slate sector still stays apart from any rompclilion. Only secondary rales are alio assigned to cooperative and self-employed workers. In the earning conditions they arc not able to organirc any important production while eo-operalors couldiillr enwirc. formall-scriet production of mim-iraclors.lectronsc equipment and clectrolechnicalsas the small enierpriics perform this function in practically all countries of Asia. But Ihi* way i* still firmly blockedogma inhai nnidaimcd ihe uaic property toriori the height of perfecison.
STANDARD OF NON-CAPITALIST DEVEUIP. MENT
One could not deny Ihal the building of socialism in rnajorily of social ici-oricn led Males waa realixed under strong innucnce of ihe Soviei advocated by our theorist* as the bask model of socialnm They wrote pile* of works pretending to give analyst* of the noo-eapiialm way of oevrw^aneni la Centra! Asian Soviet republics, rerwmmeadedan. dard for young ualea ef the -thirdowever, these work* were compklcly out of touch wiih reality, assuring earning problems and difficulties. Hut
' sshru mncdrUialsoa* of tnciafctl ptirtviplr* in Sox art Asian rcpuNKi innse ia light, they pur/led many nhvonufW social soence* and parts aorkcrv unmasked compkaily and coal radklf the real socsalrim and tes ways.
ba thepinion, we ahould admit ihal prohlemt artnaUy faced by the republics of Central Asia andare atmilar ko those of developing countnes an* Ihe East (in aorae eatent this include* alio countries which develop en the capitalistangers that nhreatea these neopk* ht general are aannecicd withncei4entcd path of hnloocil development, negative inllacnec nf the wbok aackrde^vtopment in the prc-aocialisl period, the herilnge of feudalism. The articleey problem ofation and functioning of the traditional society in Soviet Asian rr pa bias.
The socialism built under Stalin's direction wasodel of feudal community. Its features were pater, naliim. hierarchic and caste structure, sue ofa powerful compulstoa machinery. In Central Asian republics ihe hierarchy of Stalin'* social 1am joined Ihe hierarchy of Ihe old feudal lystrm. Institutes of traditional society which still remain atlraclivc forn Ihe epoch ofsiag-nairooood camouflage for money-grubbing and corruption. Forcibly spread wage-It veiling alio con-iributed to ihe conservation of the feudal type commu-any. The wagv-kveiiing of ihe barrack-like socialism was close by nature lo ihe feudal levelling and Iherefore easily look root in mass conicience.
AFRICA. DIFFERENT ORIENTATIONS AND COMMON PROBLEMS. ON SOCIAL ANDPOLICY IN COUNTRIES OFORIENTATIONS
Scepticism toward* possibilities of sntfalisl-orirnicu1 policy in developing eountiks. which hecamclairly among Sovieisn uf retroactive reaction lo Ihe overruimaicd realitic* in Ihe pail. However, considering the capitalist and the socialist onent..ikmt of development wc should not exaggerate Iheir diftermcc. which it strict enough in the noiMscal and ideological firhl hul i* leu important in tln-tocial and economic sphere. Thi* is quite natural.he main tasks of overcoming backwardness faced by devcHsping countries arc similar if not soVnikal. Their essence is ihe accelerated ereaiion of the potential for ihi* overcoming, an rsotaibk developmentoth material and human. Thi* circumitanee inevitably reduce* ihe social and economic difference between the two alternative lines to nonsignificant vnnatmn* in proportions of certain aim* and methods nfountries of hoth orieniaiioni at the presentThi* thesis i* confirmed in the artiekevkw af the policy of African stales on main prohlem* dealing with vital pronk't. Uk- ctwntial. human compnnenl of productive force*.
for Re AUG
V shvadatsoa ofindmuatioo oo (heeaauiacai ia ITOv aa OKI atamly with objectiven caaaoiwnlj by lhe Bociahti-orietJcdchieved ta rawjainct af
ang by fctaeiof ee the em.
ofa aaM reeaaomscbwosik arewar of the l. amis- aot necessarily aerdeaawaant. and lhe a> of political leadenoaortcalfor awttasutsbo.
TURKISH ASPECTS OF TRUMAN DOCTRINE AND SOME MISTAKES OF STALINIST
While Crtefc evrali and lhe aiiuaiion ahoal Tartey arerc lhe iaaran io proclaim ihe dneirine. In Creek and Tartu* aapeeiiKenpecial subject of stud? ta oar coaairy. However, the Tnrucial rote in Arrserieais-Ttrrkish ihe eWr or Tartey of rts |
laoas as wen. The prianraes of the doctrine nil May Hatf bilaierat rttauoaa between Tartey aad the USA.
Southern and Easiern Siberia From Ihe ftihrk sc rvaaacs begai lo form mdiury. pohlieal am) ttaseof tribes, tha their territories wriiiew lean were created. aWhwg with shamanism, saaddhnm. Man Brtaeinm aad Christianity. The *Oop.ro- of Islam by Tart, at Clwaral Aaat argaa ia iOth eestiary. ban thn
agjh, feawaaf aaVafflla^ LW Waal Cf Hi VThtTl
is avaalablr tar Hudyiag ihesr pre-tnratcsssa are written by rwakc. M.orn and Usgwur sersptt. They isselude special rrli tpowi teils (prayers, hymsts. instructions and aormt of etAigiout behavioMrl aa well at hicrary works (epitaphs, hitlraical aad heroic poems, awdactir parables aad
A twotl peevlisr fealurc of ihete works is lhe interaciion of various religious and mythological Iradiliont. Sha-manic lean are influenced by lhe Mamcharan religion (tbe ruBH> fortune-tellingnniehacan hymni are created under ihe in floe ace of Buddhnm. Them of Manichaean aad Buddhist idtai and notion! reachet ibe level where Mam it identified wilh Buddha Maaichacism receives as well anbritiiaaiiy:
Tarkie Chnuiaa teats were influenced by (the ritual formats of apace deaenptutn) and schaeosm whichts lara tome feature, of
af the Truman doctrine, ii ia aarfal to show hr LV. Stalia and hrt Ibe 11
The Soviet-Turkish relationsevel ofduring first post-war years. In course of the sreond world wsr Turkey took in factoviet post-
" afler lhe war Ihe Soviet gorcrnmcnl
de noa need the Trealy on friendship and neutrality between lhe two countries, signed in Paris inand Mtamed ioew trealy. However. Soviet proposals lhat followed, aggravated even moreai-real reiaions. eon in but ed to the westernof Turkey. Wuh approval of Slafaet. Georgia aad Armenia po* at eaunu on Ihe adjacent pans ofTarkiah terrise-y.
of the Btaek
SYNCRFT1SM OF RFJJORHJS AND
K'ALCtWrCtPTS OF PKE-MOSLTJ4 TURKS
I V Ml .
The indeal, wilh latoffKirnily eapanred reoMrrn of varnso* rrhfiftui aad mstbraVaural prr-Iilam tysirnit arhich tunes timed ansossgTurkic nesiptetof t'eatral Asia.
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL VIEWS OFHASAN AL-MAWARDI (NEW TRENDS OF STUDIES)
Workicrealed bylbii eminent Moslem medieval lawyer, eipert on problemi of ihe Mate, have been tiutliedong time by orientalists. Modern islamim inierprrl the hrriitgr of al Mawardi. this distinguished Iheoriil of the itlamicas being purely theocratic eon.
ey plaee in hit eipUnaiion to Ihe ciistence and
Mutual hominy lahcreni in people hy taatssrr rrtiusret Iheill ewer of power to rontoiidair Ihis union using the "religion"l-Mawardi reconiulers ihe mMuui of "religion- interpreting it as any set of srsciei)mn m. aad rules, including etrn "Utdmaeuv" (tnlr) if il
ferfccnss the function of uniting people. Nomu of ihe "rrlqiew" interpreted in thii way are obligatory both for auhyrcu tnd thethe wprerne ruler> take measures to roa re the eommunny lite.
The article caSi ia awrslioa the atwlnrihip of thelortl-knoan trea.rsc whotca kept in the National Library of Fans traditionally attributed ko al-Ma-nrdi.
^janOLC OF SCALES OF TIME AND WAtT INLUNC OF HISTORICAL PROCESS
" CI POMF RANTS
Rationality or irrationality of Ihe utttoryairal oa Ihe arak appliedhai idea was pat forward4 by F_ Kins who noted the trendll world poll lira! unification F. Sthkfel. kanin| npnn th* Indian experience, argued thai there were notime; each great culture arm the nay from revelation to rational tonstructioni kadingost of creative impulse andecline. The model by Kant, in the final analysis, can be traced back to Augustus and Jewish promise of Messiah, and Use model byts the laoo-European myihokaursn of tour centuries ipseilver, copper andhese modcfi arc not mutually eidvding.i on cal movementompki inner ttnacturenanber ef movr-anrros each of ihem being evidentertain teak of articulation of hiaiorkal time aad apace The article tUstinguiihes five scales ef the time and Ihe Mateof teaks for the cultural space. On the taper-large scale of Indian mythology, the hiiiory in general is an Illusion and only eternity is real.lohal large teak accumulated changes Igrowth of productise ferret, of population,on of society and intellect: Browing alienation, ecological icnsronrc first andiddle global teak discerns wave move-meats. Ihe "eternalhe revival of archaicia the Middle Ages and of the chunks ia the modem krsiory. In Chinese aiuormgranhy ibis is eiprrned br an alternation ofdynaatieiand iu-iddle local scale the most important are cycles of rise and aVchne nf various cultures. These rnowrsucuts, sshik they arc different enough, ran be crmsidrred ai being rational, easily modelled. They are opposed to caraoaive movements di rededharismaticeber) ara group of. Gumilyovj. Here only anihremomorphous acak it possibk. There are no ivu-aaajl lata plain Mongolian cannurus besides thosein Gcngis Khan's peraonalrly. ll is imnoaaaek lo anreaec svhat new "passionary- (Hitler. Khomeini) sviU fraairate aJI plana olaobci-minded people However, the coarse of time smoothes away trace* of ci raowon*altan togknfestored ta a* ngnit
FUTURE OF ECONOMIC IILSTORY OF THE EAST
Parikinanii: NA.. VIDYASOVA, LS. VASItVIEV. YU.O.. DIKAR YUV.SM. AKIMOV
Tho Raawet Tabk roncerns nronka, nf arvetopmrni ol" the eeonumsc hrstory oflhc East la the IfSSA. Thr arisck by am Prtrwv "New Tank* of Aarteal Science and home Materials far Study af Economk llratory of the, Noave rise la the present diseasiion. Tae partkipant* nut the nuesinn: what ia Ihr reason ofagthe field (hitiory of economy) which aa. traditionally caaaidered by the aaoraiai arirnceumber ofaggmted la the aathors' aainlna. tae af aunnuiative method* would aaow us reject tome aVagma* artuehe revkwed. rg lW dogma afrhe -robbery- of the Eastoarcvof primary capo aim aeramulairoa. The eeoaomk anch-wardaeat nf the Eastirst ofetntt of theof eiaiisi economy so ensure the ntrnded resnudactmn. and not that of the "colon.al rabbcry.-
A negative iaflntnee on the East, cacrled by the West, was rather thai Ihe East actively rejected all western elements becoming more and more archak. However, one should not consider thaiation of the eastern economy it inevitably to lead to Ihe dcaih of traditional structures pre-irsduilrial civlliraiion. The at vdy of economk hhnory of the East awuld help under-aUadiag rconomk problems of the USSF..
Remits of the Hady of economk history could be applied for foreran ing treads in the fallowing fields: global problems, studies of economk growth and analysis of precedents.
UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECTS <UFO| IN ANCIENT CHINA
The process of emancipation of thought u* (hints particularly impressive after the spiritual vacuum of the epoch of "culturalhe thirst of Ihe whole society for knontedge based oaake*ambcr of cases the form of anenTrcial aevenot. Aa eaampk of such orgaairaiioas it Ihe ackaiifk socklie* of UFO lancer* withperiod Kali aa the revue "Feidk Tansuo"of Flyinghe effort* by Chinese scknthui to find in anckni Chi new tnarce* "biatoeical evidenecs" of UFO' existence arc of partkular inierrsi far Sirsotogisli and eapert* in science of arkner. The acilviiks of adherent* of tail newe ml in China demon*irale utrtaodofogy and laik* of thehiuooeal ark net in general.
The artkarambcr nf concvcir modem acrtaoo* nf natrerarUlion ef hvatenenl maienah nn nimnrdiaary flyingamhrr of works criiairing Ihr atlcmptl soruoraeal ham antler Ihi* pnnwem.vk. does not dispute thr mam modern omccpl of UFOroduct of alien mind.
tytew. Jm rW. anarf a> araaaaa* aV feuaawa/arj "run--frmmwl mttmmtx U. aWjriaf aat gewrafco bar* faV'awraaar. TVtatay jfacwiweWwrmiee> of emmmmtrti aoMdjf rte (aaM aauthr Hem aaaa aaraaaViriofa*Famrlet rW aacavwavW ta aw aaaaaayAr rr-aaAtri-aawrtVi (aircrew* aaMaaAtnoartm-TVgafaWaartienfrtrao>aai faaaY> evtrrvra*
TV aaa Mia r. ot" aocialitt orieaiat>oa eaaraaaat Both of aVveloprrtcairiental itudiet of lax. Deb* laat that piaaanii at Bar Oriental Stadia tnitiu Africa aaaMaaeofIV USSR AcademyawArraf artictri pobinhcd ia tV page* of Ar, HAACOYFRIKA OOMYAOVAYAI IXINAROOHYYE OTNOSHENIYA*aaaaaaaatal looicalit) aad -n^ -rJopcd nature
TV rworawMl quant it> of DCW milenali lhaf*MT fiaall>
aeccauaar to reaearcnm and the caxwnuooy io rapreu aanrlf opealy aad boootly and taa ihe pro* aaaae* Oati were cJoaed before hareCed to reriew aaaay of the view* on tV moaf ddT-cutin* tV aataaaataaaj coaaina Utat hireuw an-aauh of oVrooaaneat.
tailrea thaiatajorityof dtr
-fAtace of tbe USSR,
n- .r. aied aatioaa aau and it tanueace frora uteart piipaaalid by oajr aaodd for theofhr ataadtrd- TV of Uar Ceaural Aaian repoblicidid not aadrnjo tV auajr af lain ot aV foaadatiaa. Maauttaiai of writ tea ra whuO lhe ana raaitiliaiaVft-ofat rat Aaianrd and rerwaaawrnaVdwnirwr fat aV aa WorW enur.Mwv Al e* Ihrar wiatv mbw> fron eontrnona eworremtn
ll taati Vthai tV probtemi fating theCcntral Atiaakhtlan today are largely airjrtlar lo tV dilT>cwlik* thaieveJotiing treign Ortral arc eaperimcing (ai relairt^arily aa IV eaauiirirt that have choarn iV Vvetoeenent path at aei).
ad tried io eeatviaee a* lhat iVaf tV Oriraial repubfict of iVen radically from iht evolution of IV aocialnl-aeienicd roanlriet of Ibe Orient. Acute eonflietiational, economic, political and cultural nature have kbcea detected today, however, thaioateouracerofoaad procrtatt AM ar have aarceatfaayyet to over that whoV iwae. Someto actnowledge Dai Tajiliitiaa. for et ample.ping republic xth pntarmi lhat are common to ik- Thjrd World. Theyigh birth. aeanantioa. aad IV problemarpluihat it annua ted with ii. at well at IV tradkioaal aocWty founded aa tV fcu-daJ-lypetone ra liane* aad the ealry of warn ii anal "irwowl anetal Mracaareia aaodem aafrattrvetare. TVte aaaan have been farted aa the Canute ofhave laaea paace in Taptnuan. Uabetrtlaa Bad TaeWnia and Vve been artWeiedV af IVpreaa
TV BtajraTly ofrngaged with Ihcac proMenn are coming to aV coactuuei. that IV ewcJej,-rl lying in wan for wiaflttaad Ibe aaatdmgewanrirty tt aVlermiaedV -fctraujhi-ewaag out" af tVerl% tV ovrran bxi ta*IVlalist aa-riod and the -farihmarlt nfhile acrepting thn piont tn* viev. ininikl like to atircct the reader'i atlrnlKV In one of ifs lev ekinenlv--Original document.