POLITICAL INTELLIGENCE WEERLK
POLITICAL INTELLIGENCE WEEKLY
French-Alliedounter-Invasion Mcoauitsine; liecline uf Du'rh Nn< tonal ijx-;larn: Belgian ITralci around Rallinail
CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPB 4
(Urmin narp Morale finnil'i- Plmu Oemony*nd -Jie Fuior* ol Hungary
SOUTHERN EUROPE AND THE NEAR EAST
Italian itesuUtnrt M'j-emecil. Plans (or New Greek Gcneroatent in exile:
THE FAR EAST
uspicion n: Soilet Uiuon. Oandhl Releuca; Purge ot Indo-
rir-iUn* in KBt
YV KSTKHN EUROPE
Relations between tho Allies and tho French National Committee appear to have reached another impasse with (he breakdown otconcerning tbe civil administration ol France after invasion. French hopes ol an agreement on this issue had soared foUowing Secretary Hulls radio addresspril; the Committee bad Instructed French press and radio services not U> comment on "delicate" political questions, and the tone ol such often critical organs as Radio BranavlUe had dia-Unctiy moderated The British ban on code communication lo and from tbe British Isles has, however,apture ol negotiations andarked deterioration of the political atmosphere.
WhOe reccgnlrlng that the British action was dictated by security reasons. French observers cvtdrntiy (rlt itude blow. Officials at Algiers churned that the ban plactd the FCNLeculiarlyposition, since, unlike most of the exiled administra-ignj. it did not have its scat in Oreat Britain and therefore especially needed to communicate abroad Indeed, the Impossibility of privet* communication between London and Algiers was given as the Immediate reason tor the French Ocneral Koenlg's breaking off discussion* with Ocneral
The British restriction has Irritated the FCNL for other reasons The necessity ot falling back on British communication channels has largely cot off communication between the FCNL and the resistancerance; even before the Committee's formal statement, Interior Commissioner d'AsUer de la Vlgrrie pointed out that the British action "makes it difficult for us lo direct Resistance and tends to weaken Resistanceactor in therobably the chief reason behind therastic step, however. Is the blow to the already acute French national sensitivity While the French object to using British code and channels on the ground that they arc oTertcaded and slow, they object much Toore on grounds of national pride, tbe British requirementto thrra as an infringement of French honor and sovereignty. mv ptytng that the Committee is still not regarded asrovtsKeuU governmentJLthat France la classed among the small Europeanet cad of among the great world powers is cosndrlcred too plain to be overlooked.
Counter-Invasion Measures tn France
Reports from the continent Indicate that the Germans feelfear of French popular uprising at the time or Invasion by Allied forces. German authorities in Vichy are said to calculate that aproportion of their available divisions will be required for Internal control ot France, In addition lo Uie troops necessary to combat the invading army Advance measure* are currently being taken to prevent the adult male population of tlio large cities from actively aiding the
Allied cause: several special "assembly centers" are said to be underId the Pans area. At tbe same time, in an attempt to remove more men of lighting age fromncreasing itsurther labor deportations- Several report* have referredemand by labor Commissioner Sauckel for one million additional workershile an official document states that Vkhy has agreed to sendontingents0 men each.
In support of Oerman counter-invasion measures, the Vichy regime has declared that the French people must maintain "absolute respect for the armisticehe event of Allied landing; "Frenchmust not only forbid any French participation in battle, but must also abstain from any cooperation with invasion forces, establishing only indispensable relations for the protection of local Frencholice control in France is now said to be entirely in the hands of the Gestapo, aided by the Mllice of Joseph Damand. According to reliable Information, the occupying authorities have Issued an order that In no circumstances should the gendarmerie or Garde MObde be employed for Internal security purposes; In some cases, the order continues, the members of these bodies should be disarmed because of ties with the resistance movement.
The campaign of the Gestapo against the French Resistance appears recently to have been stepped up, again suggesting uneasiness over the an Li-Nasi underground. The widespread character of resistanceis Indicated by the substantial numbers of arrests ofn numerous regions of France. According to an admission of the Paris Matin, the Auvergne region and parts of the Dordogne are controlled by the maquUardt to the extent af excluding penetration by Vichy representatives
landestine source which quotes Vkhy figures It appears that the resistance movement has paid heavily for lis successes.0 arrests by the Gestapo are repotted. Of thesere known to have been2 imprisoned for varying periods,2 releasedew months; the fate of the remainder is not known Other recent estimates hare placed executions by the Germans since0 armistice as high. It now appears confirmed thai the resistance delegate to the Consultative Assembly, Medertc. was apprehended by the Gestaporip back to France and committed suicide while In custody.
A new Vichy law increases the penalties for aiding resistancePenalties of two to are years Imprisonment, forced labor, and fines uprancs are provided for membership in secret groups,of industrial or agricultural production, Inciting others to disobey the government, participation la disorders, or providing meeting places for subversive groups.
Finally, the Oerman-con trolled press and radio of Parts and Vichy are engagedropaganda effort to discredit the Resistance In the popular mind. The theme of this effort is the "terroristic" character of
resistance activities; newspapers carry prom merit photographs ofat tberain wreck, while stories are circulated of the maquis reign of terror In Haute-Savoic. It would appear that at least some of the activities referred to are not carried on by the Resistance but by bogus "resistance" groups formed or sponsored by the Germans and cotlabora tionisl*
Decline of Dutch National SoctalUm
Recent indicattceis point to considerable disintegration within the Netherlands National Socialist Party The NSB organ Zwarte Soldaat (Black Soldier) admits that the defense section of the Party (the Weerhose rnesnbers were at one time the most vociferous of all Dutchs suffering not onlyhinning of Its ranks but alsoeakening of Ha fighting spirit Deterioration of morale appears, in i^ be spreading throughout the National Socialist movement Two intra oerty espionage agencies have been set up to curb defection, and party leaders have established an over-all Investigation committee for the same purpose This committee, headed by prominent Dutch Nasia has tbe function of deciding whether persons found guilty of disloyal acts can remain In the Party "without lowering the Party'she USB leader. Anton Mussert, has also redefined rules for ad mission to NSB political and paramilitary formations The preamble to Mussert's measure, stating that It is issued "In the interest of maintenance of order and discipline In the NSB and to protect II againstlearlythe falling health of the Dutch Nasi organisation.
fleiirlan Underground Railroad
Information recently receired from London representatives of the Belgian resistance movement shod* light on the development andof the underground railroad long maintained In clandestine cpponLon to the German occupation. Coming Lnto ee&tencc immediately after the capitulation ot the Belgian Army0 and operatingong time without outside help, the system had as Its primary objective the escape of Belgians to Allied countries. At present its main function Is the return of grounded Allied airmen to England.
The network now comprises two distinct units, one to rescue and harbor Allied refugees, the other to arrange their escape. Tbe flrst unit retains custody ot an airman until contact ls established with London and the Individual's Identity confirmed. When this security measure has been accomplished, he is transferred to the second group tor forwarding toepresentative of the underground ls currently in England conducting negotiations looking to speedier identification. The efTective-ness of the system of clandestine communication between Belgium and the British Isles Is attested by the expanding activity of the underground railroad, the German penalties Imposed for aiding: Allied personnel, and the recent Increases In Nazi rewards for the surrender of Allied airmen to the Wehrmacht authorities.
CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE
German Troop Morale Remains Firm
An unuiytl.itter* written during November, December end January by Gentian soldier* at the fronts and on leaveirmer attitude than that shown In Oerman civilian correspondence during the same period The soldiers' letters contain numerous complaints of bat lie conditions and ahow eome concern over home tronl bombings. On tbe other hand, they indicate little desire to be taken prisoner or to criticise Oerman leadership, and ahow alight susceptibility to Allied propaganda.
Letters from the Zastem Front do not rrprraa hopepeedy nctory over the USSR, as they did before Ust summer, bat they reveal no slackening In the will to resist. Men on leave, even the wounded,Urn same attitude They continue loeeling ot solidarity with comrades at theentiment which apparently isy the experience of home front conditions
Letters from Oeimaii soldiers in the Balkanseeling of isolation. In ten tilled by Partisan disruptions of postal connections. This trend, confirmed by Interrogations of Oerman prisoners captured In Ihe Balkans. Is reminiscent of the conviction of Isolation which influenced the Oerman debacle In Tunisia last year.
German Propaganda and the Neutrals
In the fare of Allied pressure for greater cooperation from thenations. Oerman propaganda appears lo be following an indirect and essentially defensive policy Current Nasi procedure seems to be directed towards winning the postponement of all dm lilmi by the neutrals lest they develop to Germany's disfavor.scuaon Is made, Kan propagandato recognise it as final ot unlimited In
With Portugal and Sweden, Germany now Is following the first course. Oerman propaganda pressure is veiled and Indirect In the case of Portugal. Nails propagandists stress Portuguese concern lest acceptance of the British demands could be considered an inimical act by Berlin Constant Oerman references to Allied pressure on Portugal and tonervousness suggest that the Germans have little confidence In the outcome..
With regard lo Sweden, the Germans are arguing thai acquiescence in Allied demands for embargoes wouldiolation ofhere the appeal la basically on moral grounds
In reference to Turkey and Spain, which have already yielded to Allied pressure, the Oermans are endeavoring to minimise theof the agreement* reached. While masting that Turkey has not been forgiven for suspending chrome deliveries. Berlin Is trying to make It clear that thia act represents no Impediment to continued tradeTurkey is even being courted in the political field. The country Is
described by TrarukonOntnt Preue ss"distant member of theuropean "factor" claiming "equalelted to recorV side: Its present alliance aith Britain in near ol the fact that -Germany pairsue* no aim which Turkey could condcVa as aimed against her."
In oontraat to tho strong diplomatic protest of the Berlin Foreign Office against recent Spanish concessions to the Allies, the Oerman propaganda reaction ha* been confined to Indirect and restricted criti-dsm Spain is psctured aa victimised by the Allies, rather than disloyal to bar honor and neutrality. German propaganda treatment of the Spanish situation is notable for Its implicit admission that Alliedtoday Is stronger than European solidarity.
Tiber Eckhardt and the Future of Hungary
Ttbor Eckhardt. former leader of the Hungarian Smallholder. Party, has put forward the namesumber of Hungarians whom he con-siders competent and disposed to cooperate with tht United Slates and Oreai Britain. Th* net include, fouraneral Rudolf Andorke. Ocneral VUmos Nagy, General Naray-Saabo and Oeneral Alajc* Betdv With the exception of Beldy. director of the rauamllltary Lew.lv Youth organisation, all are general staff officer* Andorkaormer minister to Madrid, andormer minister of war. All except Beldy areby Eckhardt a* anti-Nan; Beldy he picture* as an apparentwhoctually pro-Brittth and pro-American Oeneral Nagyeported by independent source* loungarian Nationalist with liberal leanings
Two scholars on Eckhardt'a roster are Endre Fall, former university professor and now director of the Hungarian League for Revision, and Professor Oyula Ssearu. the forenxwt living Hungarianowever, describe Fanro-Kan Ssefcfu. aald by Eckhardt to be th* former editor of the liberal dally Afoffpar Nemtet.said by other source* tohristian legitimist historian who Isa liberal In Hungary.
Eckhardt himself has been proposed as beadungariancommittee. It is reported, however, that be would not be likely to acceptost, and thai bis selection would not have Allied approval. The Allies, for the present at least, do not appaar to be encouraging the formation of any Free Hungarian movement This Is reported to be due to th* fact thai so tar no concrete evidence of resistance in Hungary has emerged, and no efJeeUve liaison aeeras to have developed between home front elements and Hungarians abroad. Th* future Soviet attitude toward free Hungarian* has also not yet been indicated. However, each of the Allies appears lo be canvassing the opportunities which may ap. pear for fostering Hungarian resistance in the future, and devollng some attention to variou* potential leaders.
SOUTHERN EUROPE AND THE NEAR EAST
Italian Resistance Movement
lie poll* from Oerman occupied Italy at leal the continued vitality of the local guerrilla movement directedhe oeo-FaacUtand the Oerman occupying force* Severalew ^aliooal Resistance ComroiUec-ed in the Sbust ia notnown whether this Committeeonnected with the north Italian Committee* of National Liberation, which have acted a* spearhead* of the resistance movement Hitherto the Liberationhare concerned themselves mainly with political organisation, while associated "Committees of Agitation" have been charged with fomenting resistance on the Labor front. The new organisation may have been created to satisfy the recognised needentral directive body to coordinate guerrilla actionroup would be wri: suited to establish closer cooperation between the partisan movement and the new government in southern Italy.
Extent!re Catholic participation In the north Italian resistance movement la reported from many sources, both hostile and friendly. Some rrpirsentauve* of the tower clergy have long been active inand assist nig partisans and escaped prisoners of war. Member* of the Christian Democratic Party and tbe Italian Cathofac Actionare also directly engaged in resistance activity, according toreport*
The neo-Fasclst authorities, whose efforts al forcible suppression of tbe guerrillas have had utile success, haveigorousand propaganda campaign aimed al persuading tha naaoiiu tighten to return to their homes In contrast with earner Fascist efforts to identify the resistance movement with foreign influence, the present aim Ls apparently lo discourage partisan reliance on outside help The Rome radio and press confidently assert that the Allies will discontinue supplying "money and arma" to the partisans because they no longer consider their activities to be of military or political value.
Plan* Jot New Greek Oovernment-ln-BxUe
The Oreek Ctovernment in exiles delay In broadening the base of its representation has resulted not only In the now suppressed mutiny butncreased restl ranees on the part of gurrrllla group* inside Oreece It is reported that onpril KAli bands attacked and dispersed on RKKA detachment. Colonel Psarros. commander of EKKA. was killed and his orgajur.nlion in now regarded as defunct. The EAM attack was appaicntly motivated by the rejection of terms it had offered to EKKA in connection with XKKA's alleged pto-Oerman activities The Germans have already begun to exploit this Incident for psychological warfare, and high British sources regard the situation as extremely serious.
Meanwhile. Premier Papandrmu. with strong Allied support for his position, is reported to be attacking his government's problems more vigorously than did his predecessor. The leaders of the Liberal (Venl-zclist) Party In Cairo remain unreconciled to the new premier, whom they regardritish toot, and have made no efTort to conceal their displeasure over the British pressure whkh compelled Veniselos toNevertheless, Venrsekm was at length persuaded onpril totatement supporting Papandreou and his attempt toovernment of national unity.
The British expect the forthcoming conference for the expansion of the Oovemment to be held in Syria or Lebanon, thus avoiding thefrom local Oreek activity which might bo expected in Egypl ot Palestine. Ambassador Leeper will be present in order to adviseespecially In regard to the guerrillas, but the British will take no other part In the conferences except to insure security. Publicity will bc heldinimum.
The program which Papandreou will present includesof the Oreek armed forces In the Middle East; amalgamation of the guerrilla bandsnified government; Insistence upon adequate relief during tbe German occupation; maintenance of order with Allied aid, both during and after tbe period of liberation, In order to Insure the people freedom to choose their own government and constitution; economic rehabilitation of Oroece with the eud of tbe Allies, andrestoration and stabilisation of the country's frontiers
This program, Papandreou believes, has so wide an appeal thai few of the delegates from Oroece will care to oppose it. especially If they know iheir opposition will bc reported to tho GreeSLS and to the world It appears to meet lite fundumenlui demands of tlir haw and Ihc pksia (the KAM'; politicallways provided that Papandreou plans to include EAM or I'-eea representatives In the new cabinet. The main difficulty. as Papandreou himself foresees, ilea In the implementation of theseEach faction may be expected to covet the key posts for its own representatives, with the command of the guerrillas and theof Greek civil affairs occasioning the strongest rivalry. There ls no indication that the PBEA, which has already made far-reaching plans for the administration of Greece, can be persuaded to relinquish Its present hold or its plans for the future. The atmosphere for the negotiB' Uons has not been Improved by the publicity emphasising Papan-drcou's Impatience with the EAM and his acceptability to the British, who are resolutely opposed to the bam.
The Russian attitude toward recent Greek developments may be reflected by the diplomatic correspondent of the London Dally Worker, who described the anti-Russian Papandrcou's appointment as apoliIlealn the other hand, Foreign Commissar Molotov has now answered Mr. Churchill's protest against Sovlct>ncwspapcT
article* favoring the GreeJc mutineers, stating that the USSR has* too little Information on Greece to warrant tbe expression of an opinion. The Taas Agency, he explained, has the tight to publish articles such as those In question, since they were based on reports from reliablebut in deference to Churchill's wishes the Agency has been ordered to be more careful In checking its facts. However, despite this apparent acquiescence to the British, II Is not unlikely that the Soviets hare already achieved the effect they desired among the Oreeks by making clear their attitude in favor of the EAM and the mutineers.
A fresh crisis in Franco-Lebanese relations has been precipitated by the riot ofpril In Beirut. In the presencearge crowd gathered toewly-elected deputy to Ihe Lebanese parliament, aSyrian member of the French air forcerench nag over the entrance to the parliament building The apparent purpose wasere the new deputy and others to pass under the flagoken oi submission, In the ensuing melee, the Syrian and five Others were kilted, twenty were Injured, and the French flag was trampled upon During the session of parliament immediately following, the French authorities were accused of complicity in the Incident.
Onpril Beynel, the FCNL Delegate Oenerul, addressed ato the Lebanese government, casting the blame for theon the Lebanese police, who were said to have fired into the crowd, and requesting assurances that the reported affronts to French dignity were due merely to individual actions which had escaped the control of the Lebanese government The Lebaneae replyay rejected theae contentions and placed full resprj^Hy for the incident on the French authorities
Lebaneae governments well as certain Anglo-American observers, are Inclined lo believe that the Incident was parteliberate plot to discredit the native government and possibly to remove It from office. The situation is complicated by the fact that there are. In effect, two confiicllng French policies in the Levant today. Official FCNL policy, as established by Cairoux alter the dismissal of Heheu. Is baaed on cooperation with the native governments and plans for their eventual Independencetrongly rightist group of local French officers and civilthis policy as British-dictated, and fears that It will result In the abolition of French vestedhe Levant This group Is reported during recent months to haveeries of incidents dealgned to undermine the authority of the Lebaneseand to fumuh an excuse for perpetuating French control It appears, moreover, that Beynet himself ha* been Increasingly influenced by these local French officials, upon whom he must depend for edv.ee and for the execution of bis directives
THE FAR EAST
Chinese Suspu-lon of Soviet Union
Fear ol active collaboration between the Chinese Communist* and Soviet Ruaata appears torowing preoceupaucei ol Chlneee foreign policy Reliable repot* reveal an increasing effort on the part of Chinese leaders to enlist American (jropathy fee China'* tfffttM w" to the Soviet Union The Chlneee have steadily insisted to United State* efrVltls that th* recent border Incident In Sinai*tig was part ofconcerted plan among the USSR Japan, and the Chinese Communists to still* China's vital lnlereet* Chiang himself is reported to hare afflrmed the eslstence Ofhree-party anti-Chinese agreement. Similarly. Ambassador Wei exhibited great personal emotion over tbe menace of RussianIn the Far Cast, which he thought Indicated by the recent SovMt-Japunese Sakhalin agreement.
The British India Office last week announced the unconditional release ofandhl. aged leader of the Indian National Congrea* party, from his imrsrtscaunent at Pootia Held with about fifty other leaders since2 forivil disobedience campaign unkas immediate Indian independence was granted. OandM has suffered ntremety poor health for several months His condition was pronounced critical by Bombay Government physicians whohim onpril Various influential groups In Bombay had recently urgedreleaseumanitarian gesture Colvtlle. Ooremor of Bombay Province, k* reliably reported to have been the rhlef instrument Of pressure on Ismdon and Delhi authorities The official announcement stated categorically that the release was authorised exclusively on "medicalndicating that no alteration of British policy was Involved.
British officials undoubtedly feared that Gandhi's death In prison would permanently consolidate his positionopular martyr and arouse rearntrnent that might load to Illegal demonstrations Nationalist Indians Insist that tb* British would have been held responsible for the tragedy and that British and Indians could nevar afterwards have reached an understanding However, even Congrea* extremist* admit* saw disturbance of saw and order Is unlikely as things now stand. Independent ooserrtrs suggest that ptiboc approval of the ceftcial economic administration in India has Increased tooint that the Government could safelyolicy of releasing all tbe Congress mteri.eea. Absence of political unrest following the release In4 of Mrs NUdU. active and outspoken member of the CongressCommittee, probably tended to reassure the Oovemment as to the feasibility of freeing Gandhi.
Purge of Indonesian* in NE1
Japanese broadcasts last week indicated that the MilitaryIn the Netherlands East indies has been forced to take steps against non-cooperative Indonesian civil servants. Tokyo Informed the home audience that "cases arc to be frequently found" In whKh higher Indonesian government officials "lack sincerity" in fulfilling theirroadcast to Java announced as remedy for thisprovincial investigation system" designed to remove non-cooperative Indonesians from office and to select more zealous collaborators.
Japanese occupation policy In the Indies has aimed from theat changing Indonesian government personnel as little as possible Many Indonesian officials formerly loyal to the Netherlands Bast Indies Government have undoubtedly carried on their jobs. Therefore, open evidence of non-cooperation among this group at present must Indicate Increasing resentment toward Japanesehorough purge In the higher ranks of the Indonesians would, however,erious administrative problem, since no Japanese-trained government employees are yet available. In this situation, announcement of themay well be intended to intimidate disaffected elements In advance rather than to carryeorganization of the administrative system. In either case, armouncement of the purgeymptom offailure to secure satisfactory collaboration among NEI Indonesian*.Original document.