Created: 5/15/1943

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OFFICE OP STRATEGIC SERVICES Research and Analysis Branch




Declassify- in pan and excise( )< )( ).



f WWii coocorrence


Copy No,






I* The 1

Theater of

of Muslims (withand Map of the Islamic


Effect of Islan.

. D. "Geopolitical" Importance .

E. Dominant Trends In

and Japanese Psychological. 4

A. Political Value of Pan-Islam. . 4

tia The Value of Pan-Islam to Japan , .

Account of Japanese Infiltration Among



V* Degree of Suocess V



c. is

Middle 15

:iear 16

VI. Suggested Counteract i


(To follow)


The Near '


III* The Motherlands Indies


Soviet Russia


itkkss [Is,

t$ as



Muelin^vorld comprises more

adherents whouge area of enormous strategic and industrial importance. The goodwill of these peopleIncalculable political advantageo. Japan la in an unequaled position to capture that goodwill. Thus far Japan has net with aignal suoceae in the pursuance of this program. She has expended on it many years oflabor and has assigned to it some of her ablestand military leadera. Her cunning andher flexible approach and unscrupulousof the facts have borne fruit in many lands. To date, there have been no effeotive countemeasures on our part. Our apathy in this reapeot has been due to our failure to see the pioturehole. Much harm has already been done and there is more in store. The matter is urgent. It callsomprehensive, over-all polioy, backed up by determined action.




Onhe attention of theorld waa fixed on the capital of Japan. The occasion waa the dedicationaoeque, the firet of ita kind to be opened In Tokyo. Itotable ocoasion In more ways than one. killful build-up had commenced months in advance. Delegates had been Invited fromvarious Islamic oountrlee, with all expenses covered. Representative Japaneae wore in attendance to extend to the gueeta the official welcome of the Government. The date was bound to lraprese itself on the memory of many millione of Muslims all over the world, for It coincided with the birthday ofhus the birth of the Prophet and the dawnew era for Ielam under Japan had been brought into auggeetlve association.

Three years earlier another noa'que had been pened in Kobe. Japan could also point to two foreign-language Muslim periodicals, one in Arabic and the. other in Turkish, not to mention several in Japanese. oasted en Arabic press whlah printed and distributed, free of charge, copies of the Koran, the Muslim Holy Writ. There was, besides, in Tokyo the Society for Islamic Culture, one of eeveral similar bodies, which enjoyed Government recognition and pursued culturalwith noteworthy seal and vigor.

All thla iniereet In Islam might aeea tothe presence in Japanarge and highly in-fluential Muslim community. Yet preolaely the opposite, is true. One of the chief eponeore of the Tokyo mosque made-publicheae revealing figures! total num> be? of Muslims resident in Japansix hundred; number, of native MuBllmahree or "four. It Is plain, then, that Japan's elaborately pro-islamic aotivitiee have little relation to the demand at home, but must be aimed at bigger and more promising targete abroad. rief review of the theater of operations will show how really big and promising theae targets

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In general, Islam stands out by reason of (l) tbe number of Itsta enormous geographlond the variety of peoples and raoea whloh It has unitedense of aplrltual kinship and solidarity. Moreover, (k) taany areas whloh are solidly Muslin have vital strategic significance and no leas vital natural deposits. alam Is notsllglon. It isocial end politioal philosophy sensitive to secular alms and Influences.

of Mop lias

On the basis of most recent figures andthe total number of Muslims throughout the world is now vail. In the following table countrlea with Muslim majorities are Hated in capital letters, while an. asterisk:iven figure callsto the few instances where there existsreater than usual margin of error.


One can travel from the westernmost tip of Africa to the very center oflatanoe of-aome ten thousand mllea, without once getting out of oompaotly Muslim territory. Yet tens of millions of1 devotedof Islam live outside this contiguous expanse. In crowded Bengal, and the Hetherlanda East Indies, in the Caucasus end the Balkans. Countries or- territories with solid Muslim populations or large Muallm aejorltlea Include Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, the Anglo-Bgyp-tian Sudan, the various political eub-divialone of the Arabian peninsula, Egypt, Gambia, Iran, Iraq, the Levant States, Libya, Moroooo (French and.alestine, Rio d'e Oro, Somaliland (British, Prenoh, andrans Jordan, Tunlala, and Turkey,, Besides, ve haveMuslim minorities in such widely separated regions as Nigeria, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, Soviet Russia, China, and India. It la worth stressing that the MuallmIn India,ereer cent of the country's total, exceeds, nevertheleaa, the entire population of Japan or the Greater Reloh.

0. Unifying Effect of Islam

In this multitude of geographic and politioal unite thereorresponding variety of peoplea and races: Arabs, Albanians and Serbs,ranians, Indiana, Chinese, Negroes, Mongols, and Indonesians. But such la the sense of klnahlp end solidarity inspired by the teachings and praotloea of Islamonflict in Morocco or Palestine vlll stir up the passions of Muslims In Siberia or the Philippines. Tha premlae that all Muslims are brothers leiving truth In Islam.

D. "Geopolitical" Importance

The vaat eoamunlty of Ialam covers aome of tha world'a most critical crossroads and border areas. Muslims oooupy two-thlrda of the coaat of Africa, from Dakar to

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3uei, and thence south through Adenoint clo seNo tho island of Madagascar. Arabs and Turks line the greater part of the Mediterranean and half of the Aegean and Black Sea shores. The borders of Rueela from Turkey to China are In predominantly Mualijn territory. The same is true of both the eastern end vestern frontiers of India. Islamic countries command the most Important oontral water routes: the Mediterranean, at the Straits of Gibraltar (Moroccan coast) and the Sues Canal; the Par Eastern, at the Straits of Malaccand the Black Sea route from Europe to.Southern Russia, ot the Dardanelles, Marmora, and the Bosphorue. In Malaya and the Netherlands IndMea, which lie apart from the Muslim belt proper, Islam dominatesegion of vital material significance. But the Muslim belt, too, is notable for its natural resources. Overer cent of all the oil produced outelde the Western Hemisphere comes from solidly Muslim areas.

E. Dominant Trends In Islam

The fact that Islam has succeeded in expanding over so many areas of vital economic and politicalInhabitedultitude of peoplee and races, la proof of the dynamic nature of its creed and its philosophy of life. Because Islam la notreed butoolal and political body. Muslin solidarity Is much stronger than Jewish, Chriatlan, or Buddhist solidarity. This Is dueariety of faotora, Islam laay religion, free from the restrictive Influencelerlcal hierarchy. It is alsodeaooretlo, untroubled by raolal and social bias. egro from ffigerla, for example, baa served aa the Chief of the General Staff of Ion Baud, the most powerful personality of modern Arabia. At the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, which brlnga together men of all lands and tongues and oultares, rich end poor alike must wear identical clothingymbol of equality, Inspired by this realizationommon heritage, these pilgrims go back to their homes as zealous witnesses of Islamic eolidarlty, which helps to maintain Islamigorously missionary creed.

But the ohlef reason for the politicalof Ielam is the tenet that the people of Allah should not be ruled by adherente of other religionsj mundane administration oould not be left In non-Muslim hands without preventing the community from leading the true Islamic life. This helps to account for the aeute nationalism vhloh domlnatee today many of the Muslim lands, except where the Muslimsinority which nationalism threatens with submergenoe. This nationalism is dlreoted necessarily against western lmperialista. It has made all westerners suspect if not invariably unpopular. Where religion and nationalism appear to be in conflict, nationalism is likely to 3ut suoh conflicts are no more than superficial, beaause Islam Is noteligion. More often than not, nationalism and pan-Islam have oooaslonoramon cauae, aa in joint opposition to western imperialism or communist anti-religious agitation. In such instances the far-flung world of Islam canoat formidable foe. Herein lies the outstandingof Islamheater for psychological warfare.


Value of Pan-Islam

The fundamental tenets of Islam and the fsot of Islamic solidarity form the Joint basis of the pan-Islamic movement which has been usedsychological factor in international politics for the past seventy-five years. The principal sponsors of' this movement have been swayed by ulterior rather than apirltual motives. Sultan Abdul Hanld II (in power6ade shrewd use of pan-Islam to restore the Caliphateeans of reviving the fortunes of the Ottoman Empire. Great Britain lent support to Abdul Hamld's pretensions In the hope of thus setting up an Islamic front against Russian expansion. Kaiser Wilhelm II took up the pious ory aa his slogan in Germany's pressurend Mussolini has strutted with much pomp as tha self-styled Proteotor of Islam. It has remained for' Japan, however, to make the most oon-oerted and effective use of this playball of International politics.

Value of Pan-Ialam to Japan

In courting the Muslims with ever-increasing fervor Japan has been (l) guided by ambitious objectives, in the pursuit of which she hasided bypsychologicalhere and whenthere have been adjustments of method and shifts in emphasis.

Russia and Chine, Japan'shave aggressive and strategicallyminoritiesistory of opposition toelements. The winning over of thesefacilitate Japan's expanalonist alma. In theMalaya, and particularly the Netherlandsof immense economic importanoe, vast numbershave lived under the rule of Westerndiscontent In these territories could notavoved Japanese policy, India's hugewould form the largest Blngla group in afront. The friendship of Afghanistan, Iran,Turkey, the four signatories of the so-calledholda out the promiseorresponding decrease

in Russian and British influence. The rest of the Near East end the Muslim half of Africa offers tempting trade advantagesinimum, apart from the ever-presentof causing added embarrassment to western

Tactically andavored position to carry appeal to thecan enlist the cooperation of the nationalist asthe religious elements within the Islamlo world. have been persistent in broadcasting theirpolioy to the Muslims and In proclaimingas members of the Asiatic or "colored" front,emphasis depending on theact, also, that Japan's anti-communist policy

la gratifying to Muslim religious sensibilities. But the subtlest advantage on which-Japan has capitalized

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In her dealings with Islam springs from the character of her own religion. For Shinto, In its aspecttate creed, la an excellent Instrument for the purpose.

Because Its authority does not rest on any set of oanonical writings, Shintolsm is formless and flexible. It la aleo, not unlikeolitical as mucheligioua oreed. The-emphasis rests on devotion to thehich is symbolized by the Emperor. Byaithful servant of the State, the Japanese can be a* good polltleal Shlntoist regardless of his personal religion. Even conversion, whether ostensible or real, to other religlona ia meritorious from the atandpoiat of Shinto so long astop la in the Interest of patriotism. Christianity, ie powerless to compete agalnat .this type of opposition,

has thus the evidence to iopreaa Islam with her record of religious tolerance. She oan appeal at the same time, to Muslim missionary zeal by hinting the opportunity of. large-scale conversions among the Japanese. Instead of posing as the magnanimous pro-teotor of Islam, Japan oanlausible showing as an eager seeker after the truth. Under theserumors judioiously planted here and there that the Emperor himself might consider turning Muslim, are bound to take root and spread. Millions of sanguine believers have fallen for the promise that Islam la about to become the world's greatest power with the Mikado as Caliph.

5. Methods. Owing to the expanse of the Islamic worldhole, some port of it is always liable to important changes. Japan's policy toward Ialam has, accordingly, been subject to local readjustments in tune with the changing conditions. Where TBarist Russia, for example, could be undermined by ethnic agitation, the argument against Communist Russiaa religious slant. When pan-Islam had lost its charm for modern Turkey, the racial emphasis was brought to the fore. Nationalism eouldseful weapon In Iron or Afghanistan, but it mightoomerang in the case of the Indian Muslims; stress on religioua equality ia therefore the leading motif in this The approach has always been individual rather than atllted and stereotyped.

In the following comprehensive account of.infiltration among-the Muslinsmall portion of the available material could bo utilized. The aim has been merely to illustrate the auccess of thepolicy on the basis of aeleoted examples. The facta cited havealngled out from the detailed and amply documented regional studies on the subject which will appear in full In the form of special annexes.


A. Prior5

Japan's Interest In pan-Islam goea back to tbe early phases of that movement aa manipulated by Sultan Abdul Hanld II. Anything that helped to check Russian expansion also helped Japan. The Ottoman propaganda vas addressed to the Turkic and Tatar groups whloh lined Bussla'e southern borders and dotted her eastern provinces, the appeal resting on religious(pan-Islam) and ethnic affinityusale atood to be the loser on either count. From her convenient vantage point Japan could hardly look on vlth indlfforence.

When Japan emerged from the Slno-Japanese Warajor power with major continentalshe was prompt to graep the wider Implicationsriendly Islamic front; This time it was the Chinese Muslims who were ripe for recruitmentilling. If unwitting, tool of Toyko's aggression, omprehensive "Muslim policy" began to take shape. When6rader muoh travelled In Muslim lands, embraced the Muslim faith, his conversion was placed In Its trueby the following telltale remarkapanese work: 'Vhat ie oalled the Japanese Islam of Mr. Aruga springs from the abiding spirit of patriotism of thet does away with the superficial and petty rules and regulations which are followed blindly by the Turks.and Arabs." The tlreleae investigators sent out by Japan throughout the Islamic world bed done their work and had evidently come home with favorable reports. Shinto vaa awake to the limitless potentialitiesarnessed Ialam.


The successful conclusion of the Russo-Japanese War5 left Japan with greatly Increased prestige,and aspirations. Muslim and colored groups have visionsew champion. All this Is reflectedors confident and purposeful Muslim' policy. Looking ahead, Tokyo now courts the Muslims openly/ remaining careful, however, to cover up the real political objectives with an abundance of oultural camouflage. Muslim mlsalonary zeal la played upon with consummate-skill. One' finds Baron Hlkl embracing Islam expressly "for the good that this-can'do Japan." But pictures of euoh converslone are sent to the leading Tatar newspapers In RusBla where they do not fall to have theeffeot deelred, The slight core of fact is persistently blown up by rumor. Tokyo is said to have witnessed thousands of conversions within the apaceew months. Word Is circulated as early6 that the Mikado is preparing to elevate Ialam to the statustate religion; excited anticipation isIn India, Egypt, and Turkey, while an apprehensive note is echoed" in Oermany and England. News is also current that Japan is to have .Islamic schools, cultural sooleties, publications, and the like. This calculated blend of ambiguous faot and gross deception is to bea generation later, when the original dose

had been forgotten, as aeeralngly brand-new proof ofInclination to Islam,

The new Muelio policy was sponsored, if not actually conducted, by leaders working through special socieites, such as the fanatically patriotic Blaok Dragon Society, which was founded1 and centered from Its Inception around Ochida and Toyama, The latter, now in hie nineties, is generally regarded as the moat fateful individual Influence in the history of modern Japan. On the Muslim Bide the leading collaborator was Abdurrashid Ibrahim (oommonly referred to aaistinguished pan-Islamio writer and preacher "who had helped thewith his religion during the Russo-Japanesehe Importance of the policy was solemnized by the Muslim paot at which an oath was signed to the effect that the participants were to promote faith in Islam and would spare no efforts to accomplish this task. The date of this event, which took; place Jn Tokyo, is not absolutely certain. It is placed by someut circumstantial evidence points rather Its significance may be gauged from the names of the signers, which Include Toyama, uchlda, Inukai (future Premier, assassinatednd others. The religious content waa supplied by Ibrahim. Ve thus have here an ominous alliance between fanatical Japanese patriotism and Muslim ethno-religioua fanaticism. The bearing of this alliance may be appreciated from such published admissions as that "the Muslim peoples of Central Asia had established cooperation with Japan to free the Central Asiatic peoples from Russiannd hints that the policy has been suoeaaBful In India, Iran, and Central Asia, Japanese Interests are now furthered by reputable Turnc-Tatar publicists like Ayas Is-haql and Yuauf Akohura, and Japanese agents oan adopt the disguise and enjoy the relative Immunity of Muslim mullahs.

Suitable "cultural" backing springs up In Japan in the form of publications. 8 Tokyo canhinese Muslim periodioal whichame meaning "Muslims Awake" and ia gotten outandful of Chinese Muslim students, fully five years before the millions of Muslims in China Itself are moved to establish aof their own. 0 the Islamic Fraternity begins publication in Tokyo, with the avowed purpose of uniting Muslim countriesapan oonverted to Islam. The publisher is Muhammad Barakatullah, an Indian destined to prove useful to Japan in the years to come. Hiatestifies to the ever-broadening scope of Tokyo's Muslim policy.

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The warad three major consequenoes for the Islamic world: (l) Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, whicherious aetback to the political prestige of Islam. adical upturn in nationalist and anti-western feeling among tho Muslims. to communism arising from Soviet Russia's anti-religious policy. Each of these three developments played straight into Japan's hands. She was prepared and eager to move into the breaoh left by the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate. Tho anti-western ferment in

Mualim-landa'was Inevitably to the advantage of the one expansionist orientalastly, Japan's wellfriendship for Islam could now pay dividends in the form of Muslim support against Irreligious Russia.

The energy and resourcefulness with which Japan has handled the latest phase of her Islamic policy show plainly the value whloh she attaches to the prize at stake. An enlarged and modernised arsenal of psychological weapons Is now In judicious use. Social, racial, political, and economic pressures are applied alongalde. the oultural and religious, the precise mode of attaok varying with the sensibilities of the given individual sector. Since the full repertory is never on display in any single region, the underlying objectives are not Immediately apparent. Politically restless and. disunited, the iBlaralo countries are lll?equipped to withstand Japanese Infiltration.

1. Cultural and rel'-gious pressures. Because the history and traditions or islam form the bond that holds the Muslim world together, Japan continues to base her appeal to the Muslims on.religious and oultural grounds. Pan-Islam, with the dazzling promise of "Japanlslam" over held in readiness, remains the one oommon denominator. This psychological argument ie now all the more insidious because of Its newly acquired flexibility. It can-bewithlight shift of emphasis, to speclfio regional' trends, such as pan-Arab or pan-Turkicolder twlet may even help to Identify Islam with the cause of universal religious amity; attempts to this effect have been, witnessed in India. Clever manipulation is apt to yield plausible results.

The efforts to capitalize on the missionaryof Islam are stepped up greatly. Once again word spreade abroad that thousands of Japanese have gone over to Islam, that Japanhole is ripe for conversion, and--that the Mikado himself is on the verge of embracing the vigorous faith of Muhammad. Ho one seems to realize that ell this.ale retold, having first been heard at.the beginning of the century, eu voices caution against the more manifest exaggerations. But millions of eager Muslims the world over, from learned theologian to the -humblest deckhand and mule driver, believe these stories because -theym to be true,

' One: reason for the extraordinary success of these fantastib reports is that they are now set against the background of tangible Japanese enterprise in the form of Inspired aocietlea and publications. Thus about the3 there la established inuslim evangelical, center known as the Society of Light. Its founder Sakuraa had studied Islam In China, Slnklang, Indie, and the Near East. Mast Illuminating In thia connection la the fact that thesehich began shortly afte* the-Muslim Peat, had been Instigated by. the Black Dragonlear proof that SaJcuma's activities' were guided by political motives. For this reason one item la Sakuma's program la particularly significant', namely, that, China should bring' Ielam to Japan; There was' obviously nothingin Islam's discovery of Japan as fertile ground for* missionary endeavor. Islam was meant to-make just this discovery.

Two periodicals make their appearance Inwith the Society of Lighti first the Snglish-Chlnest Asiatic Weeklyn4he Light of Islam, vhich presented articles in English, flhinose, and Japanese. . Peking oomee uponthly in Japanese called Islam, publiehedociety for the Investigation of Ieian. Theae periodicals and their sponsoring societies *roof moreorgans of Japanese propaganda for Muslims which are to be planted In the oooupied territoriee of China

The launching by Japan of herultural program in Chinaignal for the home front tosuit. 5 Tokyo witnesses the foundation of the Society for Ielanlo Culture. Ite president is Muhammad Abd el-Hay, commonly known as Qurban All. ifted scholar and theologian, of Tatar atook, he came to Japan0ecord of subversive activity against Soviet Russia, The Society ia promptly accorded offioial aupport. 0 It eatabliahee an lelamlo press, having imported the necessary .type from Turkey. Three years later it begins the publicationeview in Turklah under the name of Yspon Mukhblrl The Japanese Informant.- * the Institute for Studies In the Sphere of Islam inaugurates tbe free distribution of copies of tbe Koran, the occasion being markedestive gathering of politioal and literary luminariesecture by the aaoe Ibrahim who played euoh an Important role in the Muslim Paot. The following year Japan dedicatee her first mosque, the one at.Kobe. 8 there appeara ineview in Arablo called Nippon. Significantly enough, it carries no name of director or editor, but la lavlehly gotten up, evidently at government expense. Thle round of feverleh doingsitting crescendo in the opening of the Tokyo mosque onay of the same year. The enormous strides which Japan's Muslim policy had mode are reflected In the large and distinguished delegation from tbe Hear East, including Prince Huseln of Yemen, whose broadcast to'the Arab world from Tokyo, under offioial auspices, inaugurated Japan's radio propaganda to the.Arabs, Toyama himself out the tapo-at the entrance to the mosque, while Ibrahim led tbe prayer. Ho need to ask any.longer whether their solemn pacteneration ago had led to worthwhile resulte.

One other aspeot of cultural.pressure oalla for speoial mention. For years Tokyo has been successful in attracting to Japan Muslim students from suoh areas bb East Asia, India, and Afghanistan. Within the past deoade the program has been accelerated and expanded to.take In the Near East. roup of Japanese profeeaorB tour the Arab countries for. the statedof distributing to worthy0 eoholarshlpa for study In Japan, At the same time contaot iswith tho leading Muslim university, the al-Axher of Cairo,teady trickle of students from Japan. Ho surprise Is shown, therefore, when Tokyo asks al-Azhar,o send en Islaalo specialist toew months later, the same institution is requested to furnish an imam, or religious leader, for the Tokyo mosque; the Arab press register pleased recognition.


toward politics. But the Muslims are on the whole neither prepared nor willing to question Japan's good faith.

2. Politioal pressures. This phase of Japaneseamong tho Muslimsloae connection with the underlying cultural-religious campaign. Indeed, It la easy enough to. see through tha pomp and olroumatancetbe dedication of the Tokyo mosque and cone away with the conviction that In her dealings with Ialam Japan has nixed religion with polltlos to narked: advantage; It should be- remembered that Islam laolitical as well as'a religious system. emberapanese niaeion to Afghanistan contrives to'turn Muslim with .much ostentation, he isolitioo-religious directive that had come into effeot.

The accent la chiefly on polltlos, however, when Japan bolsters her embassy in Ankara with legations in Kabul, Teheran, and Cairo, complemented by consular offloes In Beirut and Jerusalem. That all this isuestion of ordinary diplomacy alone nay be judged from Tokyo's haste toegation In Baghdad shortly after the outbreak of war It la but anothereries of moves to strengthen Japan's political fenoes In the"eal Near Eastern area.

A Side by aide with these open moves there is evidence of persistent undercover activity on the part of Tokyo. eeult, the Muslim territories of Russia and China have felt the impact of subversive operations enjoying the bleaalng of Japan. The Inflammatory mixture employed In acme of theso instances was strengthened by theof the racial Ingredient. Since the Tureo-Tatar and Mongol elementa in Central Asia were conscious of their kinship with Independent Turkey, and since the Turkey of Mustapha Kernel emphasized nationalism at the expense of religion, the racial angle promised increased returns. Accordingly, it la this approach that la employed by Baron Ungern von Sternberg In tha establishment of his Central Aalatlo Mongol State, an ephemeral, for all the help In money and ammunition that it got from-Japan. At the same time Japan was.aiding Qurban All In his attempts to organize an Independent Bashkiria, and Kirgizia. When those efforts misfired, Qurban All went to Tokyo where he beoame an Influential leader in the "oultural" aaapalgn. But the subversive work among Russia's Muslims went on Just the same. If the pen-Asiatic label proved Inadequate, there was the pan-Turanian bait readyand, strong enough to oatch the group centering around, Sever Pasha. Lack of notable success does not seem to dishearten the ultimata lnsti-gatora. apanese Society which calls itaslf "Turan" publishes3 an ethnographlo map whloh groups tor gether the Ugro-Plnna, Turks, and Japanese aa members of the Turanian raoe. Alloauaea the Russians enough trouble to force upon them three Muslim.

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, which at length contribute evidence

In Chinese territory special interest attaches to tha strategically looated province of Slnklang (Chinese Turkestan) with its overwhelmingly Muslim population, chiefly of Turkic stook, Japanese officers are stationed there, on one pretext or another, as early In due tine the country is thrown into political turmoil culminating,n an open Muslim revolt against the oentral government. Apparently in anticipation of an eventual Muslim victory, Japan gets holdoung and naive Turkish prince, by the name of Abdul ICerla, and grooms him for the titular rulereater Turoo-Tatar empire. The prospective subjects could not fail to be.swayed by the prince's antecedents; for it was his grandfather, the not-to-be-forgotten Abdul Haald II, who had revived the Ottoman Callphata and launohed pan-Islam on its fateful course. But Soviet Rues-la upset all theae dreams by contributing materially to the downfallthe-insurgents. Discarded and dislllueioned, Abdul Kerlm loaves Japan* for the United States, where heear later in the roomew York hotel, dead by his own hand,early empty and strictly oontra-Islamlo bottle of gin-at his side, Tokyo, how-- ver, leosition to produce, if need be, another Muslim prince of Imperial blood. The man now in tow la His Highnessounger cousin of the "Emperor' of Manchukuo, who5 had providentially embraced the faith Of Islam.

Japan's expansion since her entry into the war has plaoed under her rule tens of millions of Muslims in the Netherlands Indies, Burma, Malaya, and the Tokyo's Muslin policy, which for years had been striving toward tola very end, la now fully abreast of the actual accomplishment. Ho efforts are spared to keep the Islamic front lapreaeed and astir. urkish Journal friendly to the Axle informs its readers in ite issue ofhat "Japan would not lay down arms until all Muslim countries in Asia west of the Indies have been liberated.1' ew days later, Japan's Foreign Mlnieter Tani solemnly pledges in the Diet that "Japan le reedy to oonaeorata all efforts in orderree these victims of Anglo-American tyranny and towith energy the Muslims' polltloal and oultural aspirations." The everlasting Ibrahim urges ell Muslims to unite and dwells on Islam's debt to Japan. The reoent birthday anniversary of Muhammad onarch is made the occasion for an intensified exposition of Japeneee-Muallm friendship. The Muslims, it is stated, are now happy to Invoke God's eldapanese victory. Had they not welcomed the conquerors of Java as the liberating hosts of Allah? The countless benefits resulting from the recent conquests are called to the attention of Muhammad All Jlnnah, the President of the All-India Muslim League. Beamed westward, these voices penetrate beyond the borders of India. Their reverberations cannot be shut out automatically from the rest of the Muslim world.

5. Economlo pressures. The most tangible and above-board form of Japanese penetration can be observed, of course, in the economic field. Here the figures speak

fof'themselves. To take an instance In tha Pap East,trade vlth the Netherlands Indies, vhlch had amounted to not moreer cant of the totalhot up3 toer cent. Startling gains are registered likewise in Muslim countries farther away from Japan, such as Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Egypt, and the Sudan. In Egypt, for example, the figure for textile goods was nil1 buter cent Taking fullof the collapse of world marketsapanIn overaomlng Dutch, British, and Indian competition, thanks largely to her enterprise, ingenuity, and relatively low cost of labor. pecial effort was made to determine and meet the particular preferences of each Individual opuntry.

Contacts with Japanese merchants and use ofgoods serve to reinforce the consumers' Bvareness of Tokyo's spiritual and politioal claims. "It is from Japan"eclares the Saudi Minister of Financehat we shall gain both eoonomlo and spiritual help. Among the unrefle'oting masses there was an automaticbetween the source of the readily obtainable material goods and tha spiritual cure-alls vhlch radiated from the same quarter. For every village and hamlet that couldard of tawdry clothheap set of pottery tea-cups wae thereby made mindful of the greet eastern power whose Emperor was about to lead all Muslims for the greater glory of Allah.





The responeo of the IsLamlo world to Japan's Muslim policy baa depended In large part on the region Involved, the particular ethnic and soolal group affected, and the flexibility of Tokyo's pressure In attuningto the changeable looal stresses. To be sure, the full effeot of the policy cannot be assessed completely so long aa that policy la still very muoh In operation. But there la abundant evidence that the progress to date has been eminently satisfactory to the sponsors, so much so that the basic plan has had to be expanded and may even have furnished the pattern for similar ventures with other religious groups.

caliber of the principal backers and exe-

cutors of the Muslim policyeasure of the importance vhioh Tokyo attaches to the plan. It helps also tomuch of its success. Included among the leading figures are men vhc have been the very mainspring of Japanese political and military activities: Toyaaa, the Inspiration behind tha powerful secreth Ida, President of the Black Dragon Boolety; Inukai, anof these two who rose to be Prime Minister. The fact that all three signed the Muslim Pact in the early years of the century merely serves to strengthen the conviction that that paot was one of the keystones of the projected structure of Greater Asia. It now becomes clear why the spiritual problems of Islam should be of such moment to*Japan's military hierarchy: General Arakl, former War Minister andower behind Premier Tojoj General h'ayasbi, also War Minister and President of the Japanese Muslim Association; Generalormer Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Army; General iBOgal, head of the Second Department of tho General Staff; and the like. Small wonder, therefore, that with this kind of backing at the top Japan could count for theof this policyaithful and self-denying band of lieutenants, happy to devote their' Uvea to the oauso with the ecstatic abandondervish.

The career of Ippel Tanakaase in point. During the Russo-Japanese War he servedpy in North China and Manchuria. While in China he became aIn Confuolanlsmtudent of Buddhism. But when the Muslim polloy had moved Into the foreground, Tanaka wast tho age of forty, to start again from scratah. Heosqueas formallyto Islam one year later, his seal toward the new light taking himilgrimage to Mecca shortly Por ten years he traveled, tolled, lectured, and wrote in the interest of Islsm and Greater Aaia, his consuming Ideal in life. Worn out by his labors and suffering from cancer, he determined to go to Mecoa onoe again. On the occasion of his second pllgrloage,o waa honoredersonal interview with King Ion Saud himself. Death oame to him shortly after hieto Japan. Hoelebrity than tha patriarchal Ibrahim officiated at his funeral. Because heatriot above all else, and hla country was Interested In Islam, Tanaka had doubtless cone to beood Muslim -Men of this type are apt to get results.




set-up ranges thus from the super-patriot Toyama and hla followers, whose inspiration guideslike the Black Dragon, through topmost military leaders of the oaliber of an Arakl, down to expendable converts like Tsnake. In short, it is backed by the moat dynamic element? in Japan, on the aeoendant since the turn of the century. Thia conclusion la not based on guesswork. Ample documentary support exists in the Black Dragon Society's Toa 3enk*ku Shishi Klden {Biographies of Pioneer PatriotsT AsTa J, and especially In Nakabe Vakabayashl's work in Japanese on The Muslim World and Japan (flrat. It contain* ouch frank statements aa that "Islam is the*very soul of Asiaticeing of "extremen the government of Asia and, politically and economically, in the enlargement of Japan" and "In the management of Asia." The part played by Toyama and Cchlda In the formulation of this policy le brought out specifically.

Nor can one dismiss tbe pro-Japanese leaders on the Muslim side with the all too facile accusation ofonal opportunism or mercenary interest. Ibrahim, Ia-haql, Akohura, and Qurbar. All had gained their promlnenoe aa Muslim soholara, pubjioiets, and leaders before they were sought out by Tokyo. The followers won over by theslnoerlty of these men have inevitably become spon-sore of Japan's expansionist program. Thus in addition to all the other incidental advantages which have fallen to Japan in her dealings with Islam, she haa alao had the Ineetlaabls benefit of voluntary and Idealistic leadership from the Muslim side.

Turning now to the aotual impact of the Muslim polioy upon the-areasistinction has to be made between Japanese-occupied territory In East Asia and the other laiamio lands to the west. The oooupied areas cannot be judged objectively, but the lnorease in their recorded pro-Muslim orientation should be noted nevertheless. There is thus inuslim People'e League which has, among Its other activities, beenthe ftwty of selected young Muslims in Turkey, obviously with an eye to the future. Tho North China Muslin League has been especially active through its five actually functioning divisions whichotalranches. There lehinese Muslim Youthorthwestanten Muslim League, and other similar undertakings. It woulo be foolhardy to discount in advance the effect, of'i'm ambitious enterprise. The Chlneee Government is well aware of*thia and its various countermeaeuree are an admission that damage has been done and that it must not he allowed to spread.

Ia the Vethsrlands Indies the firet anniversary

of a* easqe#3Jt vtt DMMta the occasion for oele-brating HbeWilims/ from three hundredcf >iuco The second largest Muslim group in Use worlo mzvc their slaty million of themareli to uali in their prayers upon Allah to bless

5 -

Imperial Japanese arayheongress of Malay and Hetherlanda. Indies Muslins, vhich waa recently held in Singapore, was obviously not un- -welcome toince they furnished special ships for the delegates and sent high dignitaries to address tho sessions.;

asa . .. . -

-There Is significant andivaried evidence from areas not*reached by"Japaneee occupation. Japan's Muslim policy In the Soviet union bore fruit In the several separatist governments vhlcb sprang up in the Muslim regloneith moral and oaterlalfrom Tokyo. Although these movements vereput dovn by Moscow, the ferment generated by them continued to make itself felt, as may be judged from the three Muslim trlale which took place9 respectively. Tbe last of these Involved the leaders of the All-Union Muslim League as wellost of minor functionaries. All vere charged with subversive activities, and Japan'a complicity in these machinations was officially established.

D. iddle East

The minority complex and the pronouncedseal of: the Indian Muslims have long madeparticularly, susceptible to Japan's. As far6 we hear ofof rich Indian.Muslims being sent to Japanese- technical schools, Mor have Tokyo's'increasedreoent years been.without effect on the Muellms Thus PIruxalcutta.morealf of tbe total amountthe building of tbe Kobe moaque. rominentthe opening of the sane mosque was Mian Abdof Education for Bihar and Orlesa and athe Council of the All-Indie Muslim League. HisThe Crescent.in the Land of the Rising Sun,expreesonThV hope-EhaT"theand the Rising Sun of Japan may join inlight over the whole world. That Japan'shas been accepted for good coin by broadIndian Muslins may be gathered from enf Lahore, t la this: that change of religion isthing viewed with abhorrence In Japan, that itRome time past been consideringhangeIf Japan adopts Islamationalbecomes at once the greatest power In thedread of thet seems that on alManoetlapan and the Muslim.-countries along thesealready taking shape and if one of thesethe adoptiona national religion it

will rank aa the greatest event of history." Thisrosumrfcly enlightenedimilar sentimentsoiced-by Hon. Sheikhldwal, of Sadla. What, than, could coo^t'poot from the.uncritical rank-and file?

In Afghanistan Japan has been able to capitalize on four fears i_ of .Russia,ngland, and the Hindu Cbngreaa party. They are fanned and kept alive by

tha Japanese Legation at Kabul and by returning Afghan bualneaamen and students who had been entertained and.In Japan, peoial Afghan missionIn Japan In", the Tokyo Nlohl Nlchi stated that "this Is but part of the program' of tho Afghanistan ruler to free hie country- from Occidental dominance under the guidance of Japan aa the leader of all Asiaticne of the returned students, recently reoelved by the King, has been spreading ths doctrine that japan alone can free Islam from western imperialist oontrol and the contamination of Communist Russia, Similar vlewB have been propounded by Habibullah Tarsi, Assistant Secretary in the Foreign Office and former Minister to Tokyo. They find ready followers among the fiercely nationalist and religious Afghans, .

E. The Near East

Perhaps most gratifying offrom Tokyo's point of view, have bean the results registered In tho Near East. Here the impact of Japan has been too recent for any crystallised opposition. The Japanese islands appear too remote to give rise to forebodlnge. The more cynical nationalists, who fear and resent the western powers nearby, welcome far-off Japan as an ally even though they may have seen through her propaganda. In line with this is the hope expressed by the Damasoue paper Allf-Ba. backhat Japan's politicaland the progress of events there may hasten the formationolid union of Oriental peoples

.against the ambitions of the Occident." Memories of the political and religious glories of.the Caliphate, soear Eastern institution, .dull the Judgment of other leaders. Thus august al-Ashar University of Cairo

continues Impressed with the prospects of converting Japan to Islam, 7 King Parukhousandear to help Japanese and Chinese Muslimsin Egypt. Tho divines of Nejef,re increasingly sympathetic to Japan. Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Egypt are officially represented at the opening of thoTokyo mosque.

Far more pervasive,has been the effect of Japanra Muslim policy upon the unreflecting masses of the Near Encouraged by their religious andleaders, and with the ublqultoua produota of Japanese Industry always before them, these masses have come to

.look to Japan for the fulfillment of their fondest hopes. The dream of the mission pan-Islamic la still In tens of millions of hearts. The visioniberator from the

.Bast cannot but deepen the sullen antagonism toward thshat vision will not be dissipated by half-way measures. It will take at leaat as muoh effort to show It up for the mirage that it is as it has taken patience and foresight and scheming tp evoke.

The goodwill and cooperation of the lalamlc world are not without consequencepeedier solution of the present conflict. They will certainlyearing on events In India, Malaya, Burma, theand especially the Netherlands Indies, Nor can we be so abort-sighted aa to ignore the importance of the Ialamlo masses in the post-war world. It hae aptly


boon statedefeated Japan will Intensify her Muslim program after the war, when she will be foroed to pursue her expansionist policy through subtler media. Ve have aeon with how muoh patience and cunning she has been pursuing this program slnoe the beginning of the century. She is not likely to be diverted from her chosen courselause in the peace treaty.

There can be no doubt that Japan, at any rate, regards her Muslim polloyuge success. That is why she now bids fair to use the same model, thoughifferent label, for Latin American consumption.roadcast onokyo announced to the Western Hemisphere that "tho Bible has now become the Book of tbe Japanese" andew translation of tbe Old Testament by Japanese scholars Is well under way. Is tho Islamic venture to branoh offatholic-policy?


A. General

Underlying all our efforts at counteracting Tokyo's Muslim policy oust be the realisation that the stakes are large; that tbe cards are stacked 'heavily In lavor of Japan; that Japan has given this policy herbacking; that the cumulative results attainederiod hfof'years add up to an increasingly menac-Ing total; and, finally, that our countermeasures must be prompt, oOmprehenslve, determined, and unceasing.


The point to be pressed home throughout the Islamic world is the barefaoed duplicity of the Japaneee. It can and must be demonstrated by an abundance of Ample use should be made of the many flaws and contradiotiona in Tokyo's propaganda, which can be node plain even to the least sophisticated. If pointed out and repeated often enough. For aeoondary themes we may dwell on such positive factors as the demonstrable respect of the British and Americans for other religions and the common ideals of democracy and Islam.

promised conversion of Japan to Ialam isfabrication. Tokyo experimented with it as earlyfor use In thear. Evenleaders have branded this claim sb extravagant.

of the Emperor is difficult tothe vorahip of Allah. Yet the Japanese haveEmperor-worship on the Muslims of the

?. Tbe Japanese have been holding out the same bait of converalon to the Buddhists, Catholics, Russian Orthodox.

k. The Japanese have betrayed their ignorance of things Islamlo by being guilty of many errors In the ooplee of the Koran which they have printed and distributed for propaganda purposes.

The Japanese clalma to racial and religiousare liee poorly disguised. eligious Shlntoist with Indisputable Japanese ancestry can enjoy full prestige.

The Japanese have been making different promises to different groups. But some of these promises are mutually exclusive. In their broadcaats to the Muslims of India Japan has been stressing the theme ofwith the Hindus In order to appease the Hindu But to the Afghans aoroas the border they are emphasising the pan-Islamic doctrine, offering at the aome time to divide Indie with them. hird story is told the Mongol. Hazarahs of Afghanistan whom they seek

to win over on racial grounde. Listeners who have been expoaed to all three arguments know them to be so many sets of olumey Ilea.


Contrast all ths grandiose claims with the aotual experiences of the Muslims In the "liberated" areas of China, Malaya, or the Netherlands Indies

6. Cite the recent pronouncement by Prince Abdul Ilah, Regent of Iraq, that Islamemocraticand that the Islamic world can have nothing In oom-mon with the totalitarian powers.

the reoent visit to the MiddleEast of Osman K. Wu, the personal emissary ofChinese General (Omar) Pal Chung-hsi. account of Japanese oppression left aon his numerous audiences. Exoerpts fromnewspapers reporting wu's trip should beand similar visits by prominent Muslims fromJapanese occupied territories should be arranged

'at frequent intervale.

the Rear East and the Balkans much canof Japanese hostility toward whites anda policy affecta adversely the Arabs, who arethe numerous Muslims In Albania, Yugoslavia,who are both white and European.

Original document.

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