FOR RE1EASE OATtlAH20l2
POLITICAL INTELLIGENCE WEEKLY
French ItenleUtnce Criticism ol Purge Policy; Communist Cooprralnn In Southeastern Fiance; The Dulch Resist-ance. New Belgian Cabinet; Salaiar Seeks to Avoid Bienk with Japan. Modification ot Swedish Neutrality
New Polish Crisis; Moscow Free Germany Cnmmlttee.of Oerman Military Reverses on tie Home Front
Romanian Government Reluctance to Punish ColLabora-tionisu
THE PAR EAST
Puppet Philippine Government Declares War. Allird FW Against the Japanese
French Retutance Criticism o/ Purge Poltcu
Politically divergent sec Ikons of Use Resistance have Issued sharp crtUrUm* ot tho slowness of the col tabora lion tit purge conducted by the provisionalmcnt la Paris. Two weeks ago live cocnmltleee ofIn eleven southeastern departmentsormal protestthe needuch accelerated political, economic, andpurge. The statement suggested that the government owes Its existence "to the victorious action Ot the Resistance movement and should base its policy on thef Resistance spoheamrn
The Parisian press has also devoted considerable space to theBoth the conservative Combat and the Communlst-dominated Prows .vaf teaal agreehorough purgereliminary condition to true liberation, they charge that "scandalous leniency'* has been shownVKhy etvU servants still in office, and assert that "our patriotic mlhtla constitutes the only safeguard of our still youthfulther papers emphasise that only by eradicating every vestige ot the Vichy regime can "republican legality" be achieved Thergument despite the political and geographic divergence of the sourceseneral hostility toward all collaboiatkxilsts and anwith tin tempo of the purge.
Despite the reportollaborationists are In custody In Paris alone, and despite the recent cleansing of the Foreign Office, the De Oflullr icglme hasautious policy In the prosecution of collaborationists. Whatever the advantages of this policy In allaying foreign and domestic fears of revolution, civil war, or dictatorship, Itappears suspect to active members of tbe Resistance. Theof Heals lance delegates to the Council of Ministers has not quieted widespread tears that the provisional government, so long In exile, may underestimate the unfavorable repercusasceissoft" purge poucy
Politics: eceidit tons in Provence show little of the factionalism which had been anticipated in view ot Communist strength In the region Oaull-1st authorities, by calling upon the Communists to share the lesnorud-bllllles of office, have placed the extreme leftosition where lt must either alienee or satisfy the discontent and criticism which everyad ministration must face.
In Marseille the Communists have been willing to leave theof the departmental committee at liberation in the hands of non-Communist Iradera Radical leaders have offered no objection to regulariilng the status of the FFI. although this action reduces the independence of the Communist shock troopsn Nice law and
order hare bean re-established despite the eotUuaton resultingot liberation from th* absence or death of many prominentleaders, and despite the friction caused late In August byattitude of the FCNL-appolntod prefect. Thisbeen replacedommunistonu.miilst-sympathber.activity of PKi bends has diminished, and thehasurely advisory body. Throughout theOf Alpes Maritime. CommumSC leader* are sUeealng theunity rather than emphasiocg class warfare or socialthis region too. the Pn Is being absorbed Into the army andare being held for tnal tn accordance with premnonal
The Dutch Reiutanc*
As disclosed by Prince Bernhard. commander of the Dutch Force* of the Interior, all underground activities of the Dutch resistance have been placed under OD ton .dienst. service to Maintain order) the RW (Rood nan Vorof, Councilnd the KT (the exact UU. of which has not been reported but wh/ Communist undergroundllied forcesolland
OD, one of the oldest Dutch
and Is chiefly composed otrmy men organisedegional basis. OevUipo operation. and the mternment of all former army personnel
T^' M3 ^howerer-to exist and" "which the London
The RW has become one of the largest Dutch underground groups despite an lruiial tack of interest on the part of the icmdon Oovemment It is reported to have been partially successful In unifying active reattt-ance units varying Irum the extreme right to the extreme left In political orientation. The Communist* have cooperated with the RW thougn they haveeparate organisation
JVetp Belgian Cabinet
Pnnce Char tea. the newly appointed Belgian Regent, has entrusted
former Prime Minuter Plerlot with the formation of Belgium'sibersUon cabinet. Th* new cabinet announced oneptember has nineteen members, thirteen of whom have not held ministerial postsFor the first lime In Belgian history the Communist Party Isin the cabinet
In view of tha fact that the Prune Ministry, theand the two Key Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Finance are held by members of the former government, the attitude of Ihe new Pier loton roost major Issues Is expected to be similar to that of the Government-in-evilc Since the portfolio of Economic Affairs is heldember of the Liberal Party, one of Belgium's most conservative groups, no Car reaching economic change, such as nationalisation of vitala likely to be introduced
The inclusion of two Communist* (a* Minister of Public Health and Minister without Portfolio) may be explained by Plerlot's desire toovernment of "wide national concentration" representing allfactions. Communist sympathies have undoubtedly Increasedin Belgium, and members of other political parties are said to bare favored incluaion of Communist* In the cabinet In order totheir opposition Several strike*oiuicaj nature reportedly ended upon the appointment of the Communist ministers However, the posts allotted to the Cornmunlata do not carry great Influence In the administration of Ihe country.
The new government Is expected to stay In power until the return of the King from tmpeuonment in Oermany or until new elections ran be held. Although twenty represent*thee and twelve senators considered collaborationist* will presumably be excluded from Parliament, th*will have to workegislative assembly which largelypolitical alignments as9 Among the most pressing problems facing the new government are those of food and fuel supplies, economic reh*Mind punishment of traitors- The constitutional changes planned by Belgian political leaders during the occupation cannot be undertaken while the country is under the reignegent
Salarar Seeks To Avoid Break Wtth Japan
A reliable report from Portugal Indicates that Premier Salaiar. despite rumors to the contrary continues to be very reluctant to sever relations with Japan and intends to keep the Japanese Governmentin advance of any change in ihe present policy. Underllied demands. Salazar is repotted to have declared to the Jap> aneae Minister, Mori to Morishlma. the Portuguese sovereignty and Portuguese adrninslration of Timor must he restored Mortshima is said to have replied that his Government in tends lo do everything ^uassHf to relieve the situation and would consent to withdraw some of Ha troops from the island but Is obliged to continue the occupation for the present
Modification at Swedish Neutrality
The dele miration of Ihe Oerman military effort haa caused the Swedish Oovernment to modify Its policy of strict neutrality by closing Baltic and Bothnlan porta to foreign shipping, abolishing transit prtr-Ueges for Oerman civilians, and releasing mterned American airmen
In reply to press demands that the government take some action against Oermany to stop the deportation of Norwegians and Danes to German concentration camps, the Swedish government has suspended transit privileges for Oerman civilians in Sweden. Following tlte recent abrogation of Oerman freight privileges this measure appeal* virtually to have ended all Oerman transit In the country
The Swedish action la barring all foreign shipping from Swedish territorial waters in the Oulf of Bothnia and the Bailie as far as the extreme southwestern tip of Sweden has drastically reduced Swedish-German trade. Such Oerman shipping as remains must be carried on through Ooteborg and other west coastoute where the ships may encountei Allied submarine attack and mines. Swedish authorities are prepared for the inevitable repercussions of this action on their own ^onomy suchheeia:men re-duced mining operation, and the loss of substantial fuel imports
The recent decision of tho Swedish Government tonterned American airmen whose planes were rored down In Swedish temtory does notasic change In policy During the past year Allied airmen had been evacuated in accordance with the number of Interned Germans released. The prismthas been based on the assumption that,esult ot the fighting in northern Finland, several hundred Germans anil be forced serosa the Swedish frontier The latter arc to be given the choice of returning to Oermany or being Interned.
Wm Polish Crisis
Tbe ouster of General Kaaimters Sosnxowafci as commander in chief ot the armed forces cor.trolled by the PolishrJe. and the surrender of Polish guerrilla forces In Warsaw, have furtherthe rifts and recriminations between theand the Polish Committee in Lublin. The dismissal ofleetedong series of Internecine quarrels among Polish officials in London, appears to have been precipitated by strong pressure from the British Oovernment. The British reportedly believe that the prestige of tbe Western Allies, who recognim the Oorrrrvment In-cxue. and of theItself could be preserved if the Poles would agree to territorial -adjustments" and would remove certain personalities who weredistasteful to the Soviets
Violent Soviet and PCXL rrarlinnj lo the appointment of Genaral Bor (Tadeusx Kcsnorowshii as So*xikowsk)showever.utile hope for an airarabse solution to the conflict Tbe Chairman of the Polish Committee. Edward Oa&ka-Morawski. followedotly-woidrd statement describing Borriminal and ordering his airesi and trial on charges ofrematurain Warsaw, Morawski Insisted that Bor has not been In Warsaw. The Oovrn-exile, astonished by the intensity of this attach, countered with charges that Morawski and Oeneral Kola ZyrrJersfc:.of the Polish forces Cghling with tbe Soviets, hare hampered efforts to aid the patriots In Warsaw and thatlanning toilitarist regime tn Poland.
Bor's Bppolntnuint ls interpretedictory of the so-calledorientation" lo the Polish Cabinet over Premier Mlkolajcxyk. who rauposed the abolition of the post of cotnmander tn chief The Socialists In the Cabinet have been pressingoverTirnentto conform with the composition of the "legitimate" Polishwhich ia controlledixture of right-wing Socialists, military followers of the pre-war regime, and rabid nationalist* These Socialists apparently believe that the Communist* (Polish Workers Party! will be forced to admit their failure to gain political control and will agree to build the new Polish regime on theather than the "Tito" pattern
Indications are, however, that the Polish Communists, rather than bargain with the "leglUmate" leadership, have elected to try to Increase their rapport by reactivating the old political partiesew "reliable" leadership Two cad organisations, the Socialist and theParties,ew Democratic Party are repealed recently to have selected members of the Polish Committee as leaders This manhas the two-fold aim of demonstrating that the members of the Lublin Committeo are not Communists and that all "democratic" parties are tree lo function In liberated Poland.
Moscow Free Germany Committee
ecent strategic and political disasters have given new stimuli to the activities of tbe Free Germany Committee Inecent appeal by fifteen divisional cosnmanders of Amy Oroup South, captured by Soviethe Balkans, goes beyond the customary request to the German army to surrender and calls for the elimination of llltler and his regime by force of arms. Refuting Nasithat "helpless" German officers have been coerced Into making their statements, the appeal begins with the words: "Now that we are prisoner* of war we may vcoce our thought*asi propaganda had also charged that the name* of dead General* were used to sign such appeals broadcast from Moscow to the Reichswehr. To give nib-stance lo this accusation, the Nails "posthumously" decorated Oeneral Luidrmami. co-author of an August appeal, for "bravery In action-"
The prom lent Oormnn officers who have beuiianti-Nut artMles lor the Sovietr Issuing appeals to tho German Army lo surrender have not been charged with war guilt by the USSR despite previous support o( Ihe Naziell-lnrormed Allied obaerver has offered the following analysis of the Soviet definition of warThe Soviets do not recognise any International law of war la this matter, but Instead, he believes, are guided by poll Ileal expediency and rational self-interest- COnvpieuous association with the formulation of Oerman war po&eies appear* to be an Important Soviet criterion for guilt, but each case la considered and judged individually rather than categorically.
The Effect of Oermany's Military Reverie* on the Home Front
Hie deteriorating Oerman military position ha* Imposed significant new strains on Oerman home morale and the price contiol system The disorderly retreat of Oerman forces to the West Wall and the return of Oerman civilians from th* occupied countries have necessitatedassurances from Nail propagandists to oounler defeatism While admitting that "men fell victimasi spnkesinen have ss-saiuoosly assured the people that nor* of the "real" fighting troops were mvoived and lliat the Oerman army Is still powerfulare being made to discount aosdkrrs' stories in advance of their return The extent of the disreder is minimised by assailing the misconduct ofeneral campaign now is under way against the so-called Sfoppethe soft-living soldier and civilian elements in the rear areas, who Invent stories to cover up their flight or panic
Germany's current military fortune* appear lo have weakenedInflation controls and the peoples will to obey regulations. Numerous Items In the Oerman press testify to the increased boldness wtth which the Oerman public seek* to escape threatening inflation The majority of the Oerman people apparently long ago lost confidence in the future value of the Itcichsmark. but encountered difficulty making protective purchases of real value. The people therefore sought to hoard currency In the hope that theye ableater date to profitelaxation of price controls and in order to protectreakdown of the banking system Betweenugust andeptember. largely because of hoarding, the Oovernment was forced lo increase the currency in circulation byillion KMotal ofUhOn KM This total to In striking contrast to the figure ofillion RM for last yearillion RM before Ilie war. The Increase occur ed despite the fact that civilian incomes and private purchases have been reduced by the mobilization of more civilian* into the army or war plants.
Rumanian Government Reluctance to Puntih Collaborationists
The Rumanian Ooveriunent continue* to take only limited action agaiut war criminals and persons associated with former fascial regimes in Rumania While several prominent members of Antcoescu's entourage and other anti-democrat* have been taken Into custody, the portfolios of National Economy and finance are still held by General Polopeanu,oviet commission pievlously listedar criminal. Tbe failure to arrest all of the compromised politiclana Is attributed In part to the reluctance of cabinet members to punish former colleagues and to the small number of experienced Rumanian administrators who have not been associated with antl-Oeroccralic government* Further delay in apprehending other compromised persons may induce the Soviets to complete the task themselves, some sources In Bucharesthough the Soviet* are expected to confine their attention to actual war criminals and collaborationists.
THE FAR EAST
Puppet Pntiippmt Government Declare* War
The proclamation of martial law in th* Philippines oneptember and the announcement oneptember that the puppet Philippine government had declared war on the United States and Great Britain clearly discredited previous propaganda about the "independentby turning over full control of the Islands to tbe Japanese. The
officials in Flu pine eye* as eollahctatlorusts and lespcasihle inmeasure for the consequences Of war against the Allies
The Japanese, who for several months have been pointing out to the PhUtpptne people the "menace" of American attack, have recenUy Intensified the campaign to brand the Americans as "terror raiders" and "enemies of thehey also reminded puppet government offl-ctals as well as the Filipino people that the Japan-Philippine Treaty of Alliance ofctober iw required, according to toe Japanese view, the active military cooperation of the puppet stale with Japan
Immediately following heavy American raids on Manila onndeptember, tbe puppet government proclaimed the existencethe Philippinestale of martial law. With the proclamation, the puppet government became atmpty an auxiliary of the Japanese military machine id the Islands Th* commissioners of the nine Philippinedistricts were designated a* Military Governors with bruad general power* and wide latitude in punishing opponent* of the New Order Puppet President Laurel warned against the dangers of "momentary invasion" and called for cooperation of all the people of the Islands.
On Uir following day, the puppet Phlbpplne government and the Japanese Army Command tn the Islands simultaneously announcno* President Laurel's declaration of war against Uie United States and Oreat Britain The fact that the puppet president personally declared war wasiolation of the puppet Constitution, which requires that the National Assembly approveeasurewo-thirds vote. Nonetheleta Japanese and puppet propagandists labored lo convince the Filipinos of tbe legality of the declaration by atU-mptlng tothatmergency powers for dealing with domestic affairs included the power to declare war.
Thai the Japarieae forced this decision on tha puppet government appears fairly certain Japanese propagandareat many, probably most, of the Filipinos remain loyal to the United States However. pro-Japanese some members of the government may be.oubtful that many of them would voluntarily have Incurred the wrath of the people by such an act. Throughout the occupation period the Japanese have experienced extreme difficulty In combatting popular pro-American sentiment Even with the declaration of war, the Japanese were forced to haveHomma, former JapaneseIn chief In the Philippines,arning that thewill not contujue to tolerate "Filipinos misguided by pro-American tttWtSHL*
Allied PW Against the Japanese
The Japanese have been subjected to Allied psychological warfare and proved not completely Invulnerable, although aa yet only minor results have beeneport on psychological warfare activities between IS anduly in the battle for Myltaytna Indicates that few surrenders resulted from leaflet drop* and public address system appeals However, public address broadcast* may have contributed to tow morale causing the Japanese to withdraw from certain positions to which they had held determinedly for three weeks Natives came over to theUreairect result of the public addrcaa appeals and avre able to grre invaluable Information Finally, thectedorale-bulkier tor American troop*
When tbe My! Iky In* campaign was prrarrcaamg most slowly, the commander of the Myllkylria Task Force asked the Assam PsyrhcaogKa] Warfare Team to drop large numbers of surrender leaflets over the city. Tbe Team prepared two type* of leaflets: prrparatlonal leaflets, designed to reduce morale by giving information of Japanese defeats, announcing the good treatment of Japanesend Instilling doubts as to the value of death on the battlefield as opposed to lifeNewndirect surrender appeal, to be usedass when coming over to the Allied lines.uo leaflets, including instruction sheets for American and Chinese troops making the capture and material in native languages, were dropped In tha course of two months. No voluntary surrenders resulted from the leaflets, and their effect on tho
general morale o( the troops Is unassessable Interrogation* ol prisoners ot war captured tn other areas Indicated that while many of the Leaflet* were read and ridiculed, al other times small fioups ot soldier* would seriously dtsruas the leaflets,umber of prisoners were able to recite the teat verbatim.
ublic address system was Installed for experimentalto the Jtroops The equipment was first set up about ISO yards north of the front hoe In tha tarty morning and evening tha pub-Be add.-ros system broadcastmlnute programs of American and Japanese music, news of Japan and the piof the war. and finally the surrender appeal. The first two broadcasts were limited to news and music. In the third broadcast, the American commanding officerhinese officer gave detailed Instructions for surrender Th* main theme* of th* appeal were: Japanese defeat Is Inevitable American forcea are advancing in the Pacific Japan's shipping has been destroyed lo tho point where she cannot supply her troop* fighting on far fronts.soldiers tn Burma now receive no reinforcements or supplies no Japanese airplanes have come to aid them, and the struggle Is futile. The militarists are responsible for the war. They must bear thefor Its failure. Dying on the battlefield ls nol dying tor the Emperor: It isseless death for the militarists. On the otheiew Japan will rise from thisapan freed from thef tbe militarists.
After ten days of broadcasting, one Japanese aoldiri surrendered On the third day. th* Americans were able to moveuarter mile, for th* firsthree weeks. The Inteaigenc* officer, atatmg that until this day tbe Japanese had held dcejgrdly to then* ataMtasat,that the broadcasts naay have contributed lo the low morale which made them withdraw On tbe following twobout forty native* made their way to the American line* The broadcasts had proved to th* native* that despite Japanese propaganda there were American as well as Chinese troops In the area, and they decided to surrender.numbers came over thereafter, and Invaluable Information has been obtained from these refugee*Original document.