Department of State
Attention: Mr. Jack D. Heal
?rcm: Major Roger A. Pfaff, Actingranca Bernard A. Totrell, Liaison
Subject: Analysis of Certain reports about the Spanisheir relations with the Gcrrans
Enclosure: Subject report dated Augustopy
The er.closurs is forwarded for your information.
Q Tha enclosure is forwsrdcd for your information and appropriate action.
ould appreciate any additions! information on this subject.
Remarks: Received by:
OFFICE Of STRATEGICRANCH
Analysis of Certain Reports about the Spanish Secret Services and their relations with the Germans.
FROM QfflP.Pl Of Rpftflfll/ BFPORT
SOURCE ind EVALUATION:
Various secret sources and evaluations, as indicated in the text.
summary, <rjh0 material in this report is the resulttudy of certain documents which were received between earlyand the present time. The paper and accompanying chart describe the three main Spanish Intelligence Services; thehe "Segurldad" and the "Seryicio de Inforaacion de. de. It should be pointed out that this analysis does not purport to describe the overall workings of the Jalenge Party, but rather does it restrict itself to the information contained in the documents mentioned above.
distribution: , London
t> AN witt At. tri OKjEST SHiit
ANALYSIS OP CERTAIN REPORTS ABOUT THE SPANISH SECRET SERVICES AND THEIR RELATIONS WITH TEE GERMANS
The following report has beer, written on the basle of several documents which have been received during tho last two years. The analysis does not concern itself -cainly with personalities, but rather with the organizational struoture of the Spanish intelligence and police services that have been put to such intensive use by the Germans. Consequently, many statements that were made inear or more ago nay still bo true today, particularly when it Is considered that there has been no evidence tohange in the general picture of the Spanish secret services.
For the purposes of this study, tho paper has been divided into the following sections:
Structural organization of the Falange.
Relations, of the Falange with the Ails.
Falange Intelligence Servioe.
II. Dlrecolon General de Seguridad
Organization and function as designed by Higgler.
olloiae Trafico D. Guardio MunicipalSummary
III. Serviclo de Intellgencla Mllltar
Organization. Relations with Seguridad. TV. The Gestapo In Spain.
i 4 -Qd
V. Overall Organization Chart
1. Structural Organization of the Falange.
Since this report does not pretend totudy of the complete Falange organization, it will only concern itself with such aspects of the movement as affect the genorel intelligence picture. The most important function of the Falange abroad from the German viewpoint is the attempted domination of the Latin American countriesthe achievement of "Hlapanidad". The basis for this desired control is, of course, the fact that many of these lands wereart of the Spanish world empire. It should not, however, be interpreted that the Nazis arein their backing of the Spaniards, hut rather are they planning to take ever the reins of control after Latin Amorica has been mentally subjugated by the Falange.
Ramon SERRANO SURER, General FRANCO'S wifes brother-in-law, was until September2 the head of the "Servicio Exterior" of Spanish Foreign Service, end head of the.Falange. One of his cover titles in this position was "Head of the Superior Council of Spanish Religious Missions Abroad". he aptitude of this title can be seeneport which indicated that the resources of the "Servicio Exterior" were supplemented by the efforts of several Catholic organizations in Latin America, such as the "Accion Social Catolica" and the "Liga de Hispanidad Ibero-Americana". On Septemberount GOMEZ JORDANA replaced SERRANO SUNER as head of the Foreign Ministry and General FRANCO himself became head of the Falange. Under the Foreign Minister, the Spanish Consulates direct the activities of the various Falange agents. The Falange Regional Chiefsenturion, or uniten, which in turn is divided into Decurions, or groups ofen. The Decurion is made up of two basic operating units of five men.
Within Spain itself, the controlling Falange agency is the "Jefatura del Moviraiento" in Madrid. Each Province is administrated
iril governor who is also the local Falange chief or "Jefo Provlnolal del Movimiento". It will bo shown underndow these individuals play their pert in the overall scheme.
2. Relations of the Falange with the Axis.
Shortly after the entry of the United States into the war, it was reliably reported that the Germans and Italians had offered large credits to the Spanish Foreign Office for handling their Interests in South America. esult, the staffs of those consulates wore substantially increased, not froa the ranks of Foreign Office men hut from the roster of agents of the "Falange Exterior". The success of the Germans In obtaining complete cooperation from the Spanish can be gauged by the following directive issued from Berlin on Mayefining the functions of the Falange abroad:
Stimulation of disturbances; creation of border complications.
Provocation of disputes between pro- and anti-Communists.
Provocation of United States intervention in Latin Amerioa in order to arouse anti-United Statoain Spain and Latin America.
Coordination of military movements on ordors from Berlin.
Enforcement and organization of cooperation of Spanish agencies such as the "Auxilioultural.groups and new bureaus with German agents and agendas in Latin America and the United States.
In short, the Spanish were to take over the Fifth Column work
for the Axis countries in this hemisphere but always under the
direction of Berlin.
In Spain itself, it has been reported that the Falange Isocal branch of the Nazi Party. SERRANO SUNER'o policy direotivos havo reflected his belief that the future of Europe dependserman victory, so he has ordered his agents to give the Nazis full support. There is some Allied eoonomic pressure to combat this trend insofar as the national government ishut it haa been reported that Axis control of local politics Is complete. As an illustration of the various means by which the Falengists endeavor to help their German friends.
they have not only attempted to block out Englioh and American broadcasts to Spain but havehort-wave station to beam Nazi propaganda to South America.
3. Falange Intelligence Service.
The Falange intelligence service goes under the imposing name of the "Servicio de Informncion de. dets main function seems to be the determination of information afcout Latin Acerica and the United States. As might be expected, it also has stations at Vigo, Bilbao and Seville, the principal ports of embarkation for this hemisphere. One report suggested that the agency's sphere of control might extend to such tasks as the investigation of people suspected of disloyalty to FRANCO, and of people who requested exit visas and,uch lesser extent, the conducting of political research in the field. it is more likely that those functions are generally carried out by the "Seguridad" (qv). J.
It was reliably reported onhat the Falange Intelligence Service station in Bilbao had been substantially reduced since toy Prior to that time, there had been eighteen agentsirector there. The director and seven agents had been sent from Madrid. The "Jefatura Central delthere had paid their salaries and controlled their activities. The other eleven agents were selected and paid by the local "Jefe Provincial dellthough thoy were under the orders of Madrid. Many of these men have beenand are consequently disgruntled with the Party.
II. Dlrecclon General de Sogurlo'ad
1. Organization and Function as Designed by Hlmmler.
In the early parthe entire Spanish police and intelligence systems were reorganizedesult of the exchange of visits between Falange authorities and BDMLBR. As night be expected, HIMMLER gave great weight to the "Seguridad" or stato police security service, which was similar to. and Sipo
agencies in Germany. Its main interest was to bo internal affairs and politioal trends, although the latter would nocesaerilyinvestigations abroad. Military espionage was, however, definedask off. (qvJ.
One of the immediate effects ofeorganizationightening of the control exercised by tho "Servicio de Ertranjeros" or Department of Foreigners (see Seotlonndesirable aliens were divided Into three classes and each type was definod:
Protected by diplomatic cards. ACTION: No action.
Proteoted by high Spanish personalities in the political, military or police divisions. ACTION: Reasons for presence in Spain checked, but not too deeply.
All Britons, Americans, French, Belgians, Dutchmen and German and Italian Jews. ACTION: Check background thoroughly with the idea of the individual's potential usefulness to the State in mind. Unless of particular value to the State, following action would be taken:
A. Cancellation of residence permits. 3. Request individual to leave country. C. Incarceration in concentration camp if individual unable to leave country.
Thus, it can bo seen that the new system was modeled closely
after the German method of handling undesirable foreigners.
2. Intelligence Section.
The plans for the reorganization of the "Sogurldod"service were originally formulated by tho "Ibero-Amerikanische Institut" and were submitted to HZMM1ER by von FAUPEL2 for approval. The Spanish sub-committee which contributed towards these plans and which was to act on their administration under the "Consejo de Hicpanidad'1 wae composed of SERRANO SUNER, Ximenez de SANDOVAL, Fureta de VTLLAVICENCIO, TOVAR and MONTES. These men were to supervise Spain's contribution towards joint intelligenoo with Germany. j.
HXMMLER revlowod the scheme with tho above sub-committee and ratified the bulk of the details, hut insisted that the "Consejo de Hispanided" should bea separate organization which should be divorced from the Felange. The sub-committee agreed in part, tout
Insisted that they would have to rely on the Foreign Section of the Falange for agentshile. J.
esult of these conferences, HUD^LEH personallythe selection of recruits who were sent to Cormany for training. Those agents were later despatched to Latin America, the United States, England and France, where they received speoific orders from the Spanish Consulates.
The information section of the Spanish Secret Police, which may be known as the "Third Section"as set up by KIMMLEH in the following manner: )
Service Branch. Information Iron business houses loyal to Spain.
Roplonel Chiefs Servicegathered' withinby Falange chiefs.
Service Branch. Coordination of information from all sources via courierf and diplomatic pouch.
IropiiiJando Service Branch, information obtr.ir.ed rrom press and radio souroos and intercepts.
Service Eranch. Whturfrcnt information including submarine supply activities and refueling.
Jutcnese Service (HeJcko ICHUIj. Marltlme-'Scuth America infonne-tion chain.
About this same time. Postal Censorship, which had formerly been under tho Ministry of Public Order, was transferred to the "Scguridad" for purposes of intelligence and political control.
It is evident from these developments that the Spanish system was organized by tho Nazi3 to give them substantial aid in tho field of intelligence. It will be seen in the next section how the agents within Spain are set up to provide this information and to act on it. We do not have any incontrovertible
WTO 9fcl2S4 -ijr
evidence of the efficiency of the machine, but one observerlue that it had not worked cut es well as the Nazis hoped. This report indieeted that the agents of the "Seguridad" did not take kindly to German tutelage as they resented the Germanof system. Spaniards are individualists and prefer to operateore froe-lance basis than is possiblo under the Nazi-inspired organization. )
3. Action Arras.
The organizational aet-up of the Spanish police systems clearly roflects its Nazi designers. For the purposes ofwork, the most important section is the secret policeivil commissioner. This agency is manned byagents. It is divided into political and criminal sections which correspond to Amts III end IV, the" and "Gestapo" and Ant V, "Krlpo". The agency under the civilIs entrusted with the responsibility of making arrests on the recommendation of local and national "Seguridad" authorities and on the request ofsadora. The parallel with the German services becomes complete as we know that the information gathering agencies of both the Nezl State and Armed Forces rely onestapo"arge extent to make the actual arrests.
The other divisions of the "Seguridad" correspond to such German agencies es "Orpo" and "Schupo". In order to give asicture of tho Spanish police as possible, these divisions will be desoribed, but It should be remembered that they do notery important role in the intelligence pattern.
A. Secret Police.
As was pointod out above, this section is responsibleivil commissioner. He, in turn, is on the staff of the "Jefe de la Policia Gubernativa" In the local "Jefatura Superior de Polioia". Under the commissioner are four sub-divisions, tho "Comisaria Generalhe "Brigade de Investiga-cionivil corps of plain clothes deteotivos who
investigate minor felonies ana issue identification papers and,pecial force of men who cover transportation
The "Comlsarla General3 the mostof these agencies from our viewpoint. It is entrusted with the tasks of Investigating politioal crimes and of making the erresto. It is this branch which cooperates with they following up the military intelligence division's
The "Servioio de Extranjeros"the Department of Foreigners and Passports (see sections nominally organized asf the "Ccr.isaria General Politico-Social". However, one report indicated that it was actually under the control of the "CeBtapo" through the Falange and the Ministry of the Interior.
The Department of Foreigners and Passports is divided into four units, the Bureau of Foreigners, the Bureau of Diplomatic Passports, tho Buroau of Control and the Bureau of Frontiers. The first of these Bureaus is probably the agenoy described in section II-l. It'seems to have both police and research functions.
The Bureau of Diplomatic Passports Is the agency whichforeign consular identification papers. It may also be charged with the organization of espionage in alien consulates in Spain. It is not clear what function tho Bureau of Control performs.
The Bureau of Frontiers, although under the orders of the Chief of the Department of Foreigners end Passports, reports directly to the looal Falange chief, who in turn sends the documents to tho "Direccion General de Seguridad" in Madrid. Tho Bureau of Frontiers works in close coordination with the special corps which covers transportation terminals and with the "Guardia Civil" (see section) that polices the borders.
For the sake ofomplete outline of the structure
of tho Falenge In Spain has been delayed until now because we are concerned with ita intelligence functions rather than ite political job. The description of the system is included ot this point because it supplements the work of the Bureau of Foreigners and Fassports. At the head of each area organization is the Provincial Chief of the Falange who Is the Civil Governor. Under him, in order of responsibility, aro "Jefes de Distrito" (DistrictJefes de Barrio" (WardJefes de Sector" (PrecinctJefes de Cass" (Building chiefs) and "Jefes de Escalera" (Floor chiefs in large building). Eaoh of these men must report to his superior regularly on the activities of all foreigners in his area of control and must report on the arrival and departure of foreigners within twenty-four hours.
The final control of foreigners la exercised through tho district police stations under the "Jefatura Superior dell aliens are required to fillertain documenthich is filed at their local police stations,they leave or return to their residences or move to other domiciles.
The "Brigade de Investigations^lts name implies, is the Spanish "Kripo". Its function Is to investigate all crimes of major importance such as murder, grand larceny and the like. It is not known how closely this group works with the section dosoribed below.
The next section of the police under the civil commissioner is composed of plain clothes agents who handle felonies such as hold-ups, and burglaries. In addition, it is responsible for the issuance of salvo-conductos, cedulas and other identification papers. This branch is organized under "Comiaarlas de Vigilancia"ub-division in each city district. It would seem from this description that the branches are similar to our own city police districts.
The last section la staffed by nen who are specialists in
covering airports, railway stations, docks and other transportation terminals. nowledge of the working methods of our ovra police organization, it is likely that these men work closely with the "Brigade Politico-Social" end the "Brigada de Investigacion Criminal".
B. Guardia Civil.
The "Guardia Civil" appears to be the largest police force in Spain from the point of view of total personnel. It is organizedilitary basis in that its members are uniformed, lived in barracks and are commanded locally, at least in Barcelona,eneral who is responsible to the "Jefe Inspector de la Guardia Civil" in Madrid as well as to the local "Jefe de la Pollcia Gubernativa". The officers of this agency are stated to be well regarded by the populace because of their generally high caliber. In conformity with its army-typethe "Guardia Civil" is divided into three branchesthe infantry "Guardiahe "Carabineros" who are the frontier police, formerly called the "Pollcia dend the cavalry. Each of these groups are distinguished by1 different uniforms.
* C. Pollciae Traflco.
This agency is -organizedemi-military basis and is composed of uniformed police. From the information contained in two reports, it appears that the branch is not unliketate police. The.agents are charged with the enforcement of criminal and civil laws and make the arrests, but it is not clear from information at hand how the "Policiae Trafico" works with the "Brigada de Investigacion Criminal". The "Policiae Trafico" is divided into two groups, the foot police and the "Brigada Movil" or mechanized police. Theirhowever, are identical and it Is likely that theythe division of the "Seguridad" which performs such, tasks as the control of mob activities, the supervision of rationing queues and the like.
D. Guardia Municipal.
The "Guardia Municipal" is the same as the municipalpolice in this country. They are commandedJefe de la Guardia Urbana" who is responsible to the city mayor, through him to the local civil governor and thus ultimately to the local "Jefe de la Policia Gubernativa" and the "Direccion General de Seguridad" in Madrid. Like the "Policiaehey are organized into two sub-divisions, the foot and mounted polioe. Since their main function is traffic control and since they have no political significance, they will not be considered further.
In summary, it is evident that the "Seguridad" hasa tight grip on the activities of the Spanish populace and foreigners through the medium of its several police agencies. It is of Interest that one report indicated the section under the civil commissioner (see) and the "Policiae Trafico" (see) are the most trusted branches of the "Seguridad". vidence, it cited the fact that these divisions were assigned to the cities whered" element is more prevalent while the "Guardia Civil" is generally located on the border and in the provinces.
III. Serviolo" de Inteligencla Militar. 1. Function.
Thes the opposite number of the Germants functions have been defined as the investigation of all matters dealing with espionage and counter-espionage of anature including any problems of disloyalty within the Spanish Army. Its authority transcends local law and it can order the arrest and detention of any person by the police on any or no charge.
2. Organization. Relations with Seguridad.
Thes, of course, organizedational basis
with he ad quart era in Madrid. Locally, Its commanders aro nominally responsible to the Captain-General of the district, but they actually receive their orders from Colonel JUSTE, the probable head ofn Madrid. In Barcelona, at least, reports are sent to headquarters under the oover name "Centro dehis disguise is also used for the general office where allrecords ere kept.
The details of the relations of theith tho "Seguridad" are not known to this desk, but it has been reported end confirmed that the latter makes arrests on the recommendation of the former. In other words, the "Seguridad" is the aotlon arm for thes well as for Its won Intelligence branch.port goee so far as to state that thes superior to any section of the police, but this point has not been It is of interest to note that it has been statod that theas agents in the "Cuardia Civil" and other police departments, so it is possible that the military intelligence may actalance wheel to curb the activities of the
TV. The Gestapo in Spain.
There is considerable oonfliot in the reports about the number of Germans in Spain, but one statement suggested areason to explain the discrepancies. This report pointed out that there0 Germans in Spain according to secret police records, althoughf then appeared on official rosters. Confirmation of the former figure appeared in another document which indicated that there0 Germanstalians in Spain, all of whom were in civilian clothes but who were distinguished by their youthful, military appearance.
A subsequent reportikely analysis of the situation. This document pointed out that there were certainly German agents In Iberia, but that their number was not unusually large. Aside from those openly attached to the "Seguridad" as advisors, they
were dressed in civilian clothes and consequently were hard to identify as they had largely been drawn from the ranks of Spanish citizens who were of German descent. This reporter felt that there were not many Germans working as espionage agents, but those who were so engagedell-organized group who had the complete cooperation of the Spanish police. ecent study showed that there. end Abwehr agents identified with the German intelligence systems in Spain.) lie further claimed that the majority of Nazis in Spain -were there as organizers of pro-German cultural clubs, companies and post war groups. In other words, their task was one of public relations and tho creation of cover agencies.
Partial confirmation of the above statement was seenecent report which outlined the general pioture by illustrations as follows: "Cultura Alemana" is very active securingin Germany for Spanish students; Nazi textbooks are being placed in Madrid schools. Congratulatory telegrams were ordered from Berlin to be sent to Sra. Pilar PtIdo de RIVERA in Escorial on the occasion ofh anniversary (Julyf the Falangist Women's Movement. The German Army is making inroads on personnel in Spain attached to summer camps as Nasi councillors; they are to be inducted onnd replacements from Germany are urgently sought.
It has been reported and confirmed that the "Gestapo" is openly maintained with offices In Madrid, Barcelona, Vigo, and, formerly Tangier. In Barcelona, thereoom in the German Consulate which is labeled "Gestapo" with no attempt at
The "Gestapo" agents reportedly engage in espionage and counter-espionage with the help of the "Seguridad" and theheir domination has increasedoint where all communications with occupied Europe are referred to the "Gestapo" for censorship and approval.
One of the main objectives of the Nazis In Spain was the
cultural domination of South America. It was shown before that they were materially aided In their plans for reaching this goal by the unwitting or witting cooperation of the Spanish Foreign Service. The Germans have established cover organizations in Latin America such as German Clubs, German Cultural Institutes and the various press bureaus. These groups work closely with the Spanish Consulates and, through them, with the Falange agentsJ. )
Ineport of unknown reliability indicated that Spain was used by FTMYTZR as tho training ground for tho "Auslands Amt des Sicherheltsdlenstes" (Ant VI of RSHA). Thus, it can be seen that Spainaluable ally of the Nazis in that itthem with agents in Iberia and Latin America and permits tho German agents to obtain valuable experience in espionage and oounter-espionage. J.Original document.