In the first aonths4 tho SinarqulsUs, Mexico's waoa rirhtHirlnr, awveawint, appeared to bor,round rapidly. Then between April anderies of events haltedowth of the aovanont end plunged it into sarlous dlfflcultioai
In April, anrude to assassinate Proaldant At!la
oung arny lioutooant known to hare her] Slnarc,ui In Hay Salvador^Abatcal, eho hed boeo SupreaaPearl Harbor Bade advisable tho substitutioneasStates figure, publicly broke trlth the presentover Questions or policy; and, withloft tho orrsnltaClon. Thia dispute raproientad thoInSlsorqulata ranks.
Do ZZeries of violent articles ln tho Slnarqutsta weekly orran inciting, tho arny and tho public to revolt, finally brought the wrath of the administration upon the rovonent. The author of the articles and the editor of the paper wore indicted, Slnarqjjsta public asset In re banned, publlcatinn of the newspaper area forbidden, end dis-trlbutlcn of propaganda sevorely restricted.
Alroady weakened bychism and popular enror at tha April attarpt on the Pruiident's life, tho reoveeasDt undoubtedlysvore blow, although it has boon alls to circumvent tha restrictions to
aoae extent endvorrunrmt hu not proceeded with the prosecution or tho oen under indietoent. The Slnarqulataa hope ohortly to aecure the ltftia- of all roetrlctione, end, ehouldernroont not take further measureshen, probably can rapidly regain tholr forraer strength.
TABU OP CCbTKXTS
I. Sinarqulsao durLie ths yirst Months4
XX. Tha Hay
fflt'idraml of1 and Hii* .
Reply of Torres Buaoo and Bis Faction
Xiiim at Stake In tha
XXX- The Orfernaant in Hot
A. fh* Bialng Violence of tha Slnargulita
t- fha GoTarnoa&t'a
C. Ths Public
XT. .Tents Since
Resistance to th* Attorney-General*a
1,. Inability to Rest it
The Inatltuto Hart
Failure of tha Govsrnotsot to Follow up
upon ths flora rone ot to Take Further
T. Ths Preaent Status of th*
TABLrj OP CONTENTS (Can-.lnuad)
I. Tho Abuool IntorTiow Id WoroaoJoB.
ArTiMDXX II. Tho Attornoy-Oonorol'b Opinion
Crisli Id the Slnargulata I'oveaent
I. SlPa.fqui_amo during the Flrat Eontha
Durio- the opening months4 the Sinarqulata ooveaent appeared stronger than et any previous tin* In itayears of existenceublic organisation.* few serious observers would havo predictod that tho Union Hacioral Sinarqulata (UNS) aould ahortly suffer its first serious schisn ana that the Mexican Governaeut, after years of patientlyhowdoArn, would take Its first energetic atcasuroa against the looTOBent.
ffithlo the k'exican areas where Slnarqulaao had taken fir* hold-notably the areas around llexieo Cityj the rich agricultural region of Guanajuato, vjuervtero, and Jalisco; and the cities along ths United Statas-UexioaoU>'S continued to gain adherentsapid pace, end claims of membership, previously ranging toward theon nark, now began to move beyond the Bullion mark.2 For the first tine, the National Cotraitteo made efforta to implement the Slnarqulsta, paperation ia the state of Chiapas by sending organisers from Mexico City, who began an extensive campaign ofand orgeat cation. ^
1- istory of the ^inar^ulatu rwvenont up tond an
analysis of its character and principles, see,srqul tetvonent in llwxico.
an interview with foreign correspondents at the ond ofBuenoembershipnarqulsta,
eSee also Edward Kieln,A Hot* on Mexicanhr^crgionwaal, New
tba two official Sinarqulata colonies in Lower California and Sonora waro obvious failures after two yeara of coq-tiuuJns expendituro or money on tha part or the National Coiwaittee.ria Auxiliadora in Lower California raiparticularly eerlous drtln upon th* resources of the Nationalhe Terror of SI vir^uiatas for establishing eotUeoents in the northroup of Slnarqulsta families from tic hoa can toolony in Sinaloa near Cullesan. The nea colony was not an official one, but llks tha successful settlement near yataaoros,ocal project of
oothj3 ow.de *peciol efforts to rwcrultin non-rural spheres of Uexican life, and thus vary its previous concentration upon the peasants. The uNSn elaborat* campaign aisted at securing converts among tho young conscriptsoar in the amy. In raaoy regions, the Sinarquiatas aers able to secure pemiesion for their speakers to address the conscripts after drill and expound the ldeae of Slnarqulamo to thoc, Slnultaneously the Slruirquiata presa carriediolent euMpeing de^andlni- that chaplains be provided for the amy (aince religion isompletely private affair in Kaxico, chaplain* are not attached to tho aray) and continued previous Siratru^ista opposition to the sending
exiean oxpaditiooary force oirjcn to laplesamt L'exican declaration of war upon ta* axle.6 Although the success of Sinarqulata penetration of the arny ie difficult to gauge, arterlceo travellers returninc to the United Statae generally agreed that the DS5 waa maklnr. conalderable headway.
Parallel with these efo coin amy support, the UbS coo. tinuod the attouut to infiltrate the labor unions end rain laboras partrogram announced In2 by Supreme Leader Manual Torreshislso appears to haveonsiderable aoeeure of auccosi, especially in cities like ^uerotaro located ln areas of strong peassot aad landowner support for Sloarqulamo.8
During this period the Ojjs did not stress as openly as in3 its dislike for the (Jolted States, tatioo took the fom of an lnteasifioatioo of the aotl-Protestant campaign which was non to lead to bloody attacia upon Protestant coaaunitles lo rural areas. In effect, this canpalrn was anti-American, since Protaatantlsn and the united States are virtually eynonyinoua ln Latin Amerloa. However, ths stress upon antl-Protaatantlsn bad thedvantage
6' g} Slnorqulsta,
El, See ROppendix III P.
after the ettenpt on thaanadeuth of De la Lane Rojae, according to those revelations, oore tlan id Sinaroulste ohioTa end other militant arsacbara of thooldsecret lasetlng onpril st Tfot'losn Kexloo City, thi* aaad quarters of tha UTS, in honor of the dead son- The members prssant
tho moating called for vengeance for the death of Do la lama and
declared theiaerqulsta martyr. The Slnarqul rtas hotly dsnied that such meeting had taken place".'^
Oorernoent action ia the affair ana limited to dissolving thaaclodad Ailgos del Soldadoroup ostensibly eacourecing
recreational and social activities among the armed forcea. rut actually promoting political and religious indoctrination. Da la Lars hcd bean an motive ember ofnd the group na strongly suspected jf i oa behalf of the Stnarqulstss. The government slso npolled
El Popular,prilEI Slnarquisto,e^Jovadades,
eight oedets of the National miltary Academy associated with IV la lama in the SAS.** Having taker thoee actions, a! niat rati oq pre for rod to let the affair be forgotten.
II. Tho May Schism.
A. thf Abascal and Hie Pollowera.
Tho first sign that all was not well within tho Slnarqulatn organisation and that, despite the rigid requirenieats of obedlonoe to tho national l'<eder, serious dlfferencoo had arieen among the upper ranks case o. the end of April, shortly after the De la Lena affair, whentional Comnitteo removed Salvador Abascal from his posts asf tha National Coeraittoe and leader of the Umrtm Awllladoraa Lower California. The announcement did not sake it clear whe'ner Aboacel had been expelled from the CHS. althoughused at firot toublicandbill issued by his followers ettacked the present Supremo Leader, Uanuel Torres Buano, and his assistants aa "traitors tond gars evidence to people outside of the UHS that the removal of Abascal involved nore than an ordinary dieeiplinary action-15
In the middle of Hay, Abascal finally gave his version of tha story, explaining that he had kept eilent previoualy becauseentleman's agreement with Torrea Bueno, but because of the spreading of slanderous rumors, no longer considered himself bound by the promise. Abascal completely denied stories that bis miemanagoment of the Maria Auxiliodora Colony was tbe cause of hia removal, and blamed Torres Bueno
16. In an exclusive interview published ln Koto dados, IVomplete translation of this article, see tho appendix to thia report.
for deliberately erl iiholdlng coceaaary eajppliee end forcing thaof tha colony. Ma Insisted that h* had voluntarily withdrawn froa tha Mi. bacauaa of hlarlament with Torre* Bueno'aould not accept th*of th* character of Beoito Juarei,ie anti-clerical lawa of the Reform, even th< jgh rede at. iater.ee of the president; and that b* re gar dada a'iteamsnt of Torre* Bueno placing Proteatanti an onlan* elth -atholiclam. Abaacal admitted that ha had thought ofTorr* Bueno and takingof th* OnS again but had found thot leader'* control toe firs to be shaken.
nterview,t no doubtl vial on ofad taken place in3 over th* que et loo of fUturi polioy. Theuenoccording to Abaacal, plained to convert the woven*ntormal political party and bankeda eventual United Statea policy of oppoaltlon to Ruseie. involving .nerican *upport for all right-wing movements ln Latin America i
are told that th* political party nhieh si narguiemo is going to bacon* mill oppos* any official government party planning to control elaetlon*. Itary eaay to aay that one la golngto oppose the PBV /the present government partjrl what la dlfflsult ia to stand up against gun* la order to insist upon an honest
One* SI oareaolitical party. Itnly going to play th* game of the wall-known 'deaocraoy' and the Ravolution, andple, as always, trill be played for sucker*.
people should withdraw from this type of MDarqutsno. which Is now only one aor* kind of
Zt ia said that Slnarqulano la resdy to fight against Coscaunlsn anywhere. Thiaevice of Lie. Torres to keep-the poor dacolrod poople undor bla oontrol. It la al"; * fantasy, which perhaps Torres and hia rang ballaro. They believe or protjnd toera that when the break between the United States and Russia coatss, our cousins ^he> Uni ted States^ will demand of the lfexican govoronont that it destroy tho Left, and that therefore the president will beed to call upon Slnarqulaao. Then Sinarquietaa will take up arms ifhet ia really necessary is that SI nor qui na be ready to over throw the Revolution, which was destroyingec-tury before the word Cooucunian was heard in our country. The Revolution will continue deatroy-Motico even though Coocainlan is annihilated in Asia and Europe and the entire
Kithuaiber of the founding ambers andf the national Cossaittee of the UKS, Inaludlog the^inieba/oilvmres brothers, Ruwn doafee^lSevese, and Sllaiana^astellanos, alao withdrew from the organisation.
After giving this interview, Abascal proceeded toeries of ertlolcs foreekly with strong right-wing Cati.ollc tendencies, explaining th* history of tbe UKS, bla role in it, end amplifying his version of bis dispute with Torres Bueno. Upon the publication of these articles, Abascal retired to private life in the Mexico City suburb of Tacubaya, where hie parents-in-law furnished bin enough capital tohoo repair ah
tofiana, Uoxico City,hotostatic copy of article withoutrobably late way or early June.
a . Tha Reply ofueno end His Faction
Although presaad by reporter* to reply to tbe charge*Salrador Abaaoal, Manuel Torraa Bueno rafuaad to grant aato tha lowevwr, four day* later onay,the annual aaai awatlng of thou aaad* of Slnarqulal**the foundation of the UKS# th* inounbant nationalthely to Abaacal. R*hat Abaacalreason to attack th* preaant director* of the deatlnlea ofapparently hinting that Abaacal'a charge* of paraonal aTorre*th* SI par qui ate* would net enter Into
prolonged ar^ueasnts on th* affair slno* doingould Merely profit tbe knownf th* organization) and that "juat aa we have forgiven thewho hav* persecutedot down our coaradea, ao we should forglr* our adataken friends as Chrlatlan charity
In regard to the charge that the DBS would declareolitical party,atiT* In hi** cannotolitical partyhereo deaocratry in kexioo. Ourant ua to enter th*torml contssta in order to defeat u* by swans of frauds and travesties es has alwaya happen* d. But Slnarqulamo will not play the gasw of the
IB. lore da do a, Wore dadoa,
These declaration* of policy were reinforcedeek byfurther sUteaautt ofenouaeing th* party of th* tfexloan
he official government party. "a* long as tha PSUfao fail ssethoda eseployed id Oernany, tha Si ratrqu lotas will not participate dlraotly ln MexicanIn
Maxpt possibly tha highest authorltioi, knows that tha PRV
disregards suffrage andaa all daaaocratlc form,"
At tha aaaa time Torroo Bueao, ln hia oharaotor of Supracso national Leader of tha Union Haelonal jlnarqulste, at Leap lad to quiet all further dlecueelon of the ai th drama1 of Abascal aad bla frieode. Inetructiona were aent to all members of tbe BUS warning thencioua press eanpeign had been launched against the poTenent becauaealight ineldent which haa now boonnd ordering thea not to spread any information which they wight glean about the affair in other aewapapere. The members of the move-oent were exhorted to bell*ve only the version published in EL Slnarqul ana, the offlolel orgaa of the. The Issue at Stake in the Schists.
Judged froaeolaratlons and the discussion id the hteiloo City press, the controversy within the urs involved aover future policy, with differeacea of opinion oo groat and ao Irreconcilable that tha group led by Salvador Abascal withdrew froa the organisation. More perhaps than any other Slnarqul sta leader, Salvador Abascal had been distinguished for hie open anti-United States
sentiment and hit frank partiality for tha axis* During his service
Supreme National Slnarqulsta Leader one of the leading Nasi aganta
In Nazico, Anton^vonN^rotter, aerved at hit personal secretary under
the naate of Antonio San^Lopet. Toward the end of April, when this
fact became established, the early Nasi afflllatlona of the UNS were
further confirmed by publication of photostatic oopioaourt
petition of8 in which Torres Bueno acted as attorney
for the Nasi sympathiser and perhaps agent, Oskar HellmuthrSchrelter,
reputed to havo aided in tbe foundation of the movement.
Abascsl and his group, do-pito tho obviously approaching defeat of the Axis In the Eastern Hemisphere, apparently opposed anyof Slnarquista policies to changing condition*. They preferred to maintain the doctrinaire position of an unconproolsing sod deolared opposition to the United States, and to continue to fight the preaant Government of Mexico and work for tho New Christian Order ia theSlnarqulsta manner, oschowing dirsot participation in polities and building up aorganisation for eventual overthrow of of tha present order ln Uexloo.
Torres Bueno and hi* group, on the other hand, evidently realising
the certaintyevere and perhaps final defeat for faaolst ay stems
Catholic opinion ia th* DM tod States appears to be divided on
the subject ofather Coughlin's^Sooial Justice'*,and, tho' BrcoklynJ^ablot" hav* consistently been sympathetic to the movement, while "Th*Xommonw*al" has oondersned it, (See Issue)
in the Eastern Hemisphere, proposed to revise Sinarquist* policies sufficiently to permit cultivation of groups in the united State a
favorable to thea, hoping that at tho oooolurloD of tbowar, or wvwo earlier, tho United SUUi wouldioleotlyussian policy and enoourage tho doatruotion of liberal aad leftist groups in Uaxloo. Tho Slnarqulstas, as tho only right-wring unatat lo Hexloo with awes support would than ba called ln to beooess tho aalnetayeoriented Mexican wowenaasat.
Torres Bueno thusora flexible wing of Slnarquleta opinion which la prepared ta shift lte tactios when necessary. It Is doubtful that the quarrel between ibaaoal and Torres Bueno arises from any difference orer ultlaate sins, but ratherlsputa otar laoedlate strategy. On the point of Protostaatlan, which particularly irritated Abesoal, for exseple, Torresull stateesent to hie interviewers, after acknowledging that protostantlane oonsidored as Christianity, contlnuedi the Slnarqulstas, "of course, oinslder the Apostolic Roaan Cathollo Church the enduring tree while the Protestant heresies are the ratten llabs destined eventually to fall
before Torres Bueao cade bis Leon speech, there was virtual unanimity aaong Mexioo City writers, rogardless of political perauasion, that ho would announce the conversion of the DPSolitical party, hanana, which ie usually weU-inforveed oa right-wing politics. In itahy issue deal ar ad that the of floial announeesrant would oontain
three point*! ecomes ft polllloillnarQUlamo will fight openlyoxrauniemar and however found. inarquimao will raalat with all itany attaapt by an official party to iarpoee Ita car 11 Torrea Bueno. according to on* vorsion, wentrepared speech, but at the last moment, becaus* of th* unwillingnessarge part of the DNS aerabership to back forxal entrance into polities, h* abandoned his text and aads an impromptu danlal thatrced any change in DNS
That th* dl sputalous aaa aequoor tha DNS seems quit* clear* igidly authoritarian organisation, th* lossonsiderable part of th* top leadership la likely* fax mora effect uponembershipuarrelooaer and nor* flexible group. Torres Bueno and hi* group with thelrcontrol of th* organisational machinery war* able to defeat Abaacal but apparently war* forced to reaffirm adherence to th* traditional pol Idas ofE. It ia Impossible to estimate, juet bow many of thef the movement may have elthdravn with Abaaoal. One report augg*sts that by the end of Hay thereonsidwrabl* drop la
Allied Labor News, Mexico City,f. Allied" Labor Hews, Mexico City,
o -eating notabi* for th* fact that ltth* first *uoh
celebration which foiled toarger audience than tha previous
one, and that attendance fell off sharply, a* eraUrt0
attendance olainad by th* national Comnlttee, otherstimated
28. Excelsior,4 givoaPRM eatlaat* of0 but other sources, baaed onasatnts ofive0 aa aaccurate estimate.
th* total audlanCBat,
A. Tho Rialnr, Violence of tha Slnarqulata Canpalgn.
At thoor June,City observers wore predicting that to asvlntain hia hold upon3 mabersMp, aad to revive tho enthusiasa aod confidence loat throurh tha withdrawal of Abascal andnd a, Torres Puoao would novo tooro Tlolant oasspelgn of propagandatation.29 artial answer to thia need waa aa lntonaificatlon of tha alraady Tloloot agitation against Protcotanta and Protestant alaalonarloa in liaxlco. Tbo iteppinf up of thia canpsign coincldod with antl-Proteatant outrages which, unfortunatoly for tho DBS, axouaod hostile goveraacnt and public opinion on the Issue. Onay Slnerqulstss lod by the villas* prlast,Bontealegre, atteckod Protestant hones in the town of La Olorlo, Vera-erui,asher of dwellings aad killlg three children with oluba end wachetes.50 Onune alor attack took place at Tlacotepec, Veracrut.5* uly peasants at rfrtepec, Oexaca, ln-flswsd by anti-rrotestaat propaganda, attacked tha Proteatante in their village,umber of houses and wounding aeroral Protestsnts.'2
Onuly, after th* victims of tho Vtrnroi
lisxico City to pload fora]ta of th* Federal Judiciaryt to La Gloria and Tuxtepae to Investigate and prosecuteplofor th* outrages.5* ttack*,
even thourh Slnarqulsta ro*ponsibllltyclear only in th* firstorced tho povnrnment to look with much deeper concern at anti-Prot*stent cancel rn a, and the si-ht oflctln* of the Verscrus attacks ln Vexico Cityrod deal of public opinion, whloh, while hardly favorable toas notto countensnc* such occurrsncaj. Tho reaction to anti-Protestant outbreaks, furthermore, addad to th* still existing publicnation aroused by th* attempted assassination of President Avila Cooaeho, produced an atnoaphar* of opinion distinctly hostile to any IntensiflcBtlon of Slnarqulstat this time, th* UHS chos* to issue the most provocative anti-governmont propaganda of its history. The Jun* lssu* of Si_Slnarqulsta virtuallyall for armed rebellion.35 On*ntitled "Attontlonl General Strikesllnd upon th* army to riae andeneral
Th* quotations from this lssu* oflnarqulsta ara taken from the passages cited in the opinion of tho Federal Attorney General's Offlcet an English translation of this is Included ln th* Appendix.
Th* storyaneral atrik* hadbasis ln fact. ThevHatlonal Proletarianmall, sxtroenst labory expelled members ofatlon of Iftsxlcan Hork.r* UCTll),
cay of the treat betrayal ia approaching. It ha*or 5it, eoli'ler* of Mexico, 5Soldlar of Unicoi Th* Religion, Union, and th* Independence of yourflat; Thich you serveto b* tripad off th* surfse* of our country and ourou will knot? th* dlfTerence between your poopl* and thobetween your flag and th* red-fclaok flag of atr lkee, bat**en Mexico andlso that wherever youlr.arqulata. you are aure ofl*on, patriotie Mexican, rwaolvad Ilka you to go to th* place of grvateat dsngar, and arrive at last atUexlcsn eoldiar, attantionl Mexicanarms-readypaaaword and countersignONG LIVE
Another artlol*that th* purpos* of the general atrlke
would be toorasuniat rov*nu*ont ln Uexleoi
Mexico will b* at tbe nsrey of th* Communistsuly If th* rovirnaent of Avlla Caaacho holds fast to Its attitud* of stolid dafsat bafor* th* ehallonr.lnr. lnaol*no*'of th* laborths declaration of th* CETERAX STRIKE, th* Soviet Embassy will beeome th* National Palace of Mexico, nd (Yon there measures will be dictated forour country into Soviet Republic No.nd th*or the Bolshevisatlon of Anerica,
For th* first tlaa* b'l Slnarquieta alsoirect, personal
and violent indictment of President Avlla Camacho,ountry where
the person of ths president isith far mors respect than is
eneral strike. This strike, hovrover, was denounced by the CTU and all other labor groups. It thu* had no ohano* of involving any oonsloerabl* number of people. In view or the Tact that th* Siaaxqulatoa enjoy son* prestige within the CPU, strong suspicions have been voicedit the UH3art ln th* calleneral
y In United State* journalistic practice, and criticlasi of the
chief executive la therefore nornally handled by indirection. In an
editorial. "This is HovSlnarqulata flat It char god Avlla
Caaacho with utter incapacity to govern and with allor-ins; the Reds to
throw the country Into eotspleto chaos i
Can the odninlstratlon of Sr. Avlla Caaaoho becvernaont? He hlaself does notit whan he fears to glee ordersan with authority; whan the first cry of opposition or threat cauaoa hia to show his heels and flee the field.
efine bocrvornnent when it is prosi'lod overan who prof era to abandon hipoople to the storey of vultures ln order not to annoy tha vulturesT
B. The Government's ='entMrea_.
The reaction of the Avlla Caaacho administration to the Slnarqulata appeal to the amy and attack on the president was imedlate. and in view of the previous leniency of the government in dealing with Slnarqnlsta agitation, violent. President Avlla Caaacho at once instructed the Federal Attorney General, Jots'aye, to issue orders forbidding Slnarguista aootlngs ln the sight key atates of Quere'taro, San Luis Petosi, Tanaulipas, taeateeaa, Aruaacallentes, Guanajuato, Jalisco, andthe principal centers of Slnarqulsta strength among the
p Slnarqulata national headquarters were raided by tha
pelnd tha editor ofSlnarqulata, Koliclenbsihrir iqua, was
brought into tho Attorney General's office for questioning. Henrique
readilyat tho offensive articles had been written by Juan
IgnaeioN^edille, one of the Mnbers of the'^tatlonal Cosnlttoo, and
feJlUa, whan questioned, as roadily adnitted that he rao the author.
and Pedilla defended the articles by stating that
"cranmntirally the expressions of the paper nay le offensive, but they
<xs not ally or legally so".
esult of the investigation by the Attorney General's office,
Juan If-naclo Padilla and the other Slnarqulstas connected with the
publication of the articles were indicted4ong
opinion algnad by tha Federal Attorney General.40 The opinion ia
notableareful exeninatlon of Slnarqulata phlloaophy, tracing
Ita origins ln Faience teachings and analysing the function of the
In Uoxicaa life. The anallosesurvaaryraph i
llied Labor Hews, Uexico City,
Opinion of Attorney General, Uoxioo
Anh translation of the opinion Is inclined In the Appendix.
To sun up; Slnarqul oral for sevwn years has been eurrylni! out Intensive political propa*anda anonr, our peasantry, through wr 1and oral nedla. Zt has spread the ideas, proi-rans, and ncnu of actionoreign govs nwesnt--thein ita turn
thoa from Italian fascism, from Falanglsmo,
fron 'Joiuisae', and from tha ao-called It hastheof our institutions and has propagatedarwu* letxleen nationals for tha discharge of thslr civic duties. Finally, Slnarquisrao has disturbed tho public peeoohinly disguised appeal to the Aray and the peoplexlco to rebel against the Governnenl of the Republic.
ssult of ihe Attorney General's opinion, tho ban on
Si nor qui ita nestings was extended to the entire country and ths
issuance of Sinarquis ta publications tree prohibited.41 At this time
vornnent slso took nsasures against Slnorqulxtag operating within
labor unions and inciting tho acmbors to disregard the labor pledge of
arbitration made when Uoxico entered the var. Ontrike
El See also El ffoclonal, Mexico City,or further difficulties with Slnarqulstas ln ths factory.
called la tlio^Wtorcules" snd^JOoneterla Qox-retaoa" textile factories In Quere'taro, after months of agitation by Sinarqui stax within tha local unions,declared illegal by tha State Arbitration Board aad work resumed with ths approval of tha Mexican Federation of Laborn Santa Crux, Tlaxcala,wenty-two monthx' old strike had been settled but renewedarqul sta agitation, the government took over the property and expelled all Slnarqulstaa working in the factory.*5
C. The Public Reaction.
In tha prevail lag state of ftaxlcen public opinion, tha govern-sstnt's ajoasurea efralnit th* Slnarquieta organisation aajt with im-saidlat* approval. Stella lor, thichn generally favorabl* bo th* UHS in the past,ho general opinion ln annunei
Th* tlaa could notn wors* chosen /Tor th* Slnarquiataa to have aad* the a* rwtj. Mexico i* at war and la suffering serloots *ff*ot* froa that in various phasss of its Ufa. Aof laws hav* bean laaued to safsguard Internal peace which la indlspenaabl*ountry finds itsslf involved in an external conflict. And inpect, let u* reoopili* that President Avlla Ceswxho hasith tact and caution whan in other countrlee.democrat le ones like Great Britain, auch acre awvsr* meaiurea are belnr, applied under th* prlaaryo preeerve th* atata and th* nation.
It was this need beyond any doubt that led to the application of tho eaargancy leas to th* case of the Slnarquiatxa. All th* aor* so *ino* th* aeaaure on which as ar* cowrwmting only forbid*nd otherhloh tend to disturbaary internal peace of Mexico, and the her-aonioua progreas of national work and unity. Anyone, without th* blindneaa of passion, rwadlng the last number of the Slnarquista newspaper, whloh openly calls upon the Array to autiny against the highest officials, aust admit the justice of what th* ro-rern-mont has dons on this point.
An sarly repercuasion of thend the gcverruasnt action
tateaent Issued by llsinMuLOosaH^rln, ohler of thXpartldo
Acclonhich has long had elos* rslatlonsl as
ofth thoeclaring that the PA* rod "completely brtkon with Slnarqul sag.' Thi. declaration of eeporatlor. incidentally Wfirst publicby either group that there hod ever boononnoctlon blUWM than. Godot Vorfnexploited that Slnarc.ul ata van to Aqulle iV^lorduy, tho PAN aaididot* for tht- goverrorslilp of AcuaacaUentea, *as the lndopondoat lotion of ODlincry eltitens.45 It seeiu probable, thfct Gfiieei Uorln, sensing tho popular toastenedissociatend hi* party fron tho" UNi lost tho PAN ho brourhttbo popular eondewnatltn acccrded tho Slrarqulstos.
Art international note nas added to tho Slr.arquiata controversy when Salvador Abascal, fron hia shM-oaking retirement iru-rcd that unler its present Irs orahlp iijnarquiswo wat iaana;odnsideretle extent by the United States rjnhassy. tlcissrandth at once ropllod that, "Sinarquistas arc considered fascists u< we will not help those we ore firhtinr, Tho AsJaaavor'a ati.tsnent appears to have aettlad this on* phaso of dlamsiion aboil Sh.arqulatas.
If. gT*nta ejpcc July;
ft. latape* to th*'* Orders. 1. Inability to toil at Openly
a. it wee ty the Abeaoal ichlam In May and unable to count upon public aupport in the race of the general corideanatlon of thaun*be leadWrahlp of th* Onion gap local Slnarqui ata am* forced to eubadt to th* gorerruainty clrcuaicrlblnr Slnarqulata actlrltle*. Th* Rationalxplained publicly that th* artlclaen aiaintarpretadj that* not aeaatallebellion by th* aray butto call attention to th*senac* iaccordingt*tenant byu*no onuly in the Second Criminal Court of the federal Dietriet, *har* h* bad coa* to anawwr charge* brou-yit by Deputya, pra*ld*nt of the Congreaalooal Coaaltte* forf th* Revolution, tha ort Ion had no eubrer ale*ndd*ra atood reedy to anewer aay charpi and*. Th* Slnarqulata national leader alao at*tad that be had had an interview with Preeldent At! la Cenacho, praauaably to pro taat against the rostrlctloaa, in anion
President sssurad bin that taa ardor prohibltlag Sinaj-oulstaenywhar* in tha country didrlly mean that th*
would actively carryampaign to supprwas th*
Ths Slnarqulsta WaderaMp also sent foraal appeals to taa
Pre aidant and thael, protaating against ths ordsrs. tho letter to President Arlla Caaacho atatad thataa faithbeying the ordor to diaoontlnua propaganda meeting* throughout tha country,hou^bb* order was illegal aad harsh laf tha fact that the organisation had no subversive aha. Tba USS bad found It aecetsary, however, to authorise local chiefs to bold aaall awstings arlth their groups to explain natters slnoe otharaise lt arould haw. been dlffleult ts aalntain discipline aad svold outbreaks among the memberihip, The petition further protested agaiast the denial of flrst-olais aall privileges to tha USS, end the cancellation of the postal franchise aad aaoosvd class registry of tba asv/spapsr. It asked tha President to intercede en behair of Juaa Ignaolo Padilla, since the latter had only triad to vara ofeneral strLka. The petition concludeda pise that th* Pre1 car the Slnarqulata* to ooatiaau
4B. UltJaasMexico City,
their activities aa before ao that they wouldarer be cooslder-edfalse estiaate of their organisation which had resulted ia unjust persecution sad false alarms throughout the country. tba sawaorandua te tbe attorney-general roundly declared that tbe latter had no right to prohibit the publication and circulation of el slnarqulata since that could be done onlyersonal order of the president.*9
2. continued publication of si slnarqulata and ordeo therders have not meant the cessation of slnarqulata publishing activity. onune, without any interval, the regular weakly issue of el slcarqujsta appeared, althougheduced formatuch smaller edition. tha content of the newspaper waa considerably aore moderate than that of previous issues, but used the discussion then current of th* speech of chilean senator lafferta at tbe sloth congress of the mexican coobamist party to auggaet that the charges lo theune issuereally true. sinceune el sioarquiata bas appeared regularly on an even more reduced basis. uly issue consists of only one ahaet, mostly devoted to blamingcoranuniat Machination* the alleged injustloo committed by the attorney-general.
Th* monthlyr*Ti*w, Orden. which wa* not banned, hat appeared regularly, apparently with no publishing difficulties whaterer. Th* Julyhortly after th*ssiurti, although atllllnarqulsta haad-qu*rt*raot* denying any connection with th* Si.-varoulata aovnant, onsiderable part of th* Issueo picture stories of th* Russian Resolution end th* Spav.lsh Ciril Mar,ng th*igiou* tendencies of both. An editorial complained cf theaaeures agftiist th* Slnarqui>Ul while* were lefto continue their activities openly.
ue of Or denhange of office address location at Abrahamlp*Slararro remaining director. rominent feature of this laau* is an Interview with Torres Bueno, in which th* Sinarqulstas ar* referred to ln the third person aad not, as la previous issues of Ordoa, in tha first parson. uenoha injustice of the charges against th* DBS aad th* measures takes) by th* Attorney-General, and declare* that the OSS will oontlnu* to work for thastablishsmnthristian Social Order in Mexico.
It appear* ol*ar from the alight camouflageo hid* th* Sicarqulata charsctsr of Orden that th* UIS plans to continu*
El Siaarqiietaen official organ, thus testing tha forbeeranoa of tho authoritlea aa an order of tba Attorney-General Is openly violated, and that Or dan ia being giren aufflcieat evidence ofto circulate without lota of mall prlTllegaa and to sarve aa the major Tehlcla of Slnarqulata propaganda should El SioarqulBta be forced to caaae publication.
S- Continued Sioarquiata meetings
While largeeetinga have not been held, tha OSS haa continued aoaller meetlnga althougheduced acale, and has per silted in tha evasion of propaganda. During tho months of July and august, Mexico City newspapers reported sufficient instances of meetings discovered by police ln various parts of the country to lead to tha opinion that the local groups haveto hold email clandestine meetings. ur.bor of instances wore si so reported of tbe printing and Ustributlon of leaflets, propaganda declared illegal under tha government- Tha^tnatituto Maxtlres SlnarqulstasAccording to tha Congressional Committee for the Defense of tbe Revolution, which haspecialty of watching Sinarqulsta activities, the DBS haa organised tba aost fanatic
50 h'nTecades^rcelelor.ndHacional. Maxlco City.I Popular,ndee alaoVLa Yoi de iMxicoJ UexioOnd4 and Tlompo,
and militant of ita nambarapceial group, praperad to carry out sabotage, assassination, and other deeds of violence shouldaclda to turn to direct action Thaa ef tho Inatltuta ewwar toecret aariea of tan eonwnmdmente, do not carry tho Slnarqulata meaberehlp oard, and aro Inatructad to deny that thay ara aambera. Tha Inatltuta la euppoaedly charged aith tha carrying out of nurdera planned by tba OKS, espionage, aad counter Tiers ia aa yet no evidence either to eubatantiate or diaproro thia charge.
|. Tha falluro of tha OoTernaont to Follow Op Ita Measures After the enargetlo aeaaurea or the flrat two weeks following:une, tbeaaaoho administration haa not undertaken furtherel netor haa ithessued, with great energy. *hlle Slnarqulataave been unooTerod and therreated In tho etatee, aaaontinue to ba held ln tho federal District without Interference froa tha federal authorities, although the meeting places were well-known and the police had been Informed. Tba charges against Manrloue and radii la hare been acted upon with growingbe polioo undertook to aearohouse for possible evidence only twenty days after ha had been ordered handed over to
th* crlnlnal courts by th* Attoroey-Oeoeral. Tho house waa vacantxamined, aad fadlll*'* filesn ranoved. Similarly, neither radii la nor kauri que hare been arrested, although orden have been iisued Tor the arrest of both.6"
C, Pressure Upon tbe government to Take Furtherof the governs* nt to enforoe Its oan order*
strictly rod to proeede with tho Charcot against ktanrlquo andle* to ooneiderable agitation on the part of opponents ofstas. Onugust tbe Congressional Conaitteo for tbo
D-.'ecee of the Revolutionulletin accusing the Judicial authorities supposed to prosecute the oherges against the PIS with negligence of their duties. The bulletineries of questions asked the authorities whether they did not know that Psdiile continued to visit th* Slnarquleta national headquarters regularly, whether the charges against ladllle and his associates had bean dropped, whether thoiee war* unaware of th* foot that tha Slnarqulstas ware continuing their propaganda activities. The bulletin also oharged tbat the UPS hadecret society of fanatlo killers, th* Instituto Mart Ires Sjparqihat tha neobershlp in the Federal District continued to hold meetings at
*f houses lirUd for th* benefit of the authorities; that on* Slnarquiroup bed in its possession nearlyilo* ofnd that Siparquieta* participated in th*uly riot
in th* central aquars of Mexico City. The Congressional
for the Defense of th* ReTolution, through ita president, declared that aa aooo aa Congrats resumed sessions, the failure of the authorities to proceed agsln'tt the Sloaroulctas would be brought to the attention of the Chamber and an explanation be demanded-6*
?. Th*SlUus of
It la etill tuc early to data rain* th* off acta of thot wapon Jia CSS. Thahaa undoubtedly boon greatly restricted ln ita propaganda activities, Juet after it hadectiona in aenberahip beoauae of the withdrawal of Aband ile followera. More aerioualy, Ita rash oall to arme onune haaonsiderable body of publlo opinion previously favorable to it. On the other hand, none of theee eventa rreath blow by aay weans. The UMS can probably atill cuntajority of its aeabershlp, aad the active antl-Coaavuniet caapalgn It is still carrying on ia tin* way wallver previous reseatvont eroueed by the aay achlsa. th* attempted aseassiaatioa of President Avlla Ctuaacho, and the June artio^as/ Unless the Karl can Government proceeds with the protection, the CIS can clrcuavent the official restrictions and disregard then sufficiently to eager*onsiderable aaount of agitation. The OTIS leadership undoubtedly hopea thathort time, it will be able to persuade the Mexican Government to lift all restriction*.
IS TOOLITICAL PARTI eU-CHIEF ASASCAL EXPUIIS "BT BE HAS LEFT TBE UBS-
The change In tha-* of tho Onion ewtalenal SlneTOuleta, wallth* systeaatlo discrediting and neglect ah cam him, eepecially la roftard to the condition or tha Maria Auxiliadora Color/ la Lower California, vara tha true roeaoaa ahloh led Lie. Sal radar Abaacal to leara the OSS, accordingtatameat aada exclusively to Bovedadoa by the man who waa onoa Supreme Leader of Steer quiaao.
A rii'.lmr.'i aaxeeaoat between Abaeoal aad the preaant leader of the TJBS had kept Abaeoal'aa aealed until Lio.Bueno broke the agreement. Thla left Abaacal free to explain the reaeona ahloh ha had pro vi coaly promlaed aot to publleh. Ia histhe ex-3iasroulete aaidl
Manuel Toruono. the preaant leadsr oflnarqulata, has not reciprocated my attitude of discretion end allenoeantl aaaa. Already accustomed to lying end cheating, he has continued apreadlng fa lee end srsa slanderous storlea about ay aeparatloa from the Slnerquistas..
full tort of the ertlole ln Bcvedaoee.
O longer have any reaeon tO bold back th* truth which the people ought to know.
In July of left yoor,um to Mexico City to better my health end to diecuee tho affaire of the Karl* Auxilladoraound out.ueno end hi* faro rite. Salvador Navarro, Chief of Information of tha national Committee, were spreading many Ilea aa* falee, unjuat opinion* about my leadership of taa Colony. lao found out that, although the neoeaeary supplies for tho rapidf Maria Auxilladora could have beene, they were refuaed eyeteaatleally under thethat there wa* no nancy, although actually there aa*.
At thi* aaa*ecaao deeply Indignant upon reading in EI Slnarqul ita of th* whitewaaaing of the character ofn the Leon was* meeting last year. oxplained to a* that Lie. Torre* had been rebuked by tha president of th* Bepubllo for an attackad made upon Jueresublic mooting. hall never repent this attack.
For these tworoke with Lie. Torres In aa Interview which aa had at tha end of July of last year, ave never again spoken with hia exoept on oneAugust orfor the sake ofxchanged an extremely brief greeting with him. As soon asnformed hia,
tha proper channel,na dissociating ay self from tha organisation.
alled to tha attention of Lie. Terra a.attor froa Mariaruly ahaaeful thingi that ha had piacad tha Christianity of th* Mexican people aaa thoof tha Protectant* of tha liuited States oa the sane piano, when asked by foreign Journal let* what Slnarqulawo ooaoa by tho'Car let lan Order.' The People have not been revolted by thia because they cannot real, aod because Lie- Torre* Bueoeeater in aha art of expreaslng hia idea* with ambiguous word* and twlct* ao that he deoelvea equally people in opposing camps.
n regard to the colony. Lie Torre* fought ne with hunger, refusing aesked for, with taa intention of making ne fail.
At onehought seriously of reaesualag the national leadership of Sinarflulfmo and deposing Lie Torre*. He then uaed fraud and aany calueaoious stories to force aa to leave the colony- annot say what this fraud vashould have to publish the names of certain people who Innocentlyart in the matter. They aero equally deooived and taken off guard by Lie. Torre a.
av* bacon* convinced ttat unfortunately Lie. Torr**
corrupted *a* saol* organisation alao* aavny of lt* leader* axe noar no aor* than hi* Banc amen, -lUout personalities orf tbelr cam, delighted beeaueeo longer run any riak underd*r'B pollolea. Th* rank-and-file eootlnu* to giv* up tkelr Uvea and go to jail. Th* top nan no longer run *ven tke alighteat danger. Par thceoae* ocerpletely given up conteetlng oontrol of tha organisation arlthueno. ould count uponhlef*.
Th* ruBor hae bean spreadaft th* colony af ay can free arlll aad becauseerloue breakdoem of ay .eelth. Both etorles are coapLstely falee.
In the lest fc*alaa atory kaa bean spread ia th* Rational Coaaltteeaa in Mexico City froa th* St* to ta* 9th of April to oppos* th* convereiou of Slnarqui anoolitical party*rgued behind closedrlta Torres Bueno and with th* regional cklefs| sad that on th* 9th ofn* defeated and renounced Sloerqulean. All the colonists of Maria Auxilladora knoweft tha colony precisely on Sunday April 9. pl* aaa aa la La fas on April aa prov* definitelyrrived in Mexico city with qy father-in-law.
rife.my vol Rafael De vase ud Siltienoho ej ao hat TO rttbtratn) fron tbo sta or rajiitat loo for tho same nuiou ao X, lift tho Colony with mm. With only too or throe exceptions, ell thv oo Ionan*toed behindegged them repeatedly to rfcayi but they are profoundly disgusted with the action* of Lie. Torre* Bueno* end Company.
It any day* after my arrival Ln Maxico Cityecame aware 'hat Sirarqulemo wa* toolitical party.
J. la said that Sioarqujemoeady to fight against Coouoln an; ah*re. Thisemagogic device of hie. Torres to keep ths poor deceived peoplela control. It isantasy whloh perhaps Torrea and hia gang believe. They bell*vo orv* that whan the break between the United State* andcornea, our coualas will demand of the atoxic en Government that It dis'roy th* Left, sad thator* tbewill ba obliged to call upon Sioflrcuimao. Then Slnarquistae will tak* up armscesWhat la reallyhat Slnarqulamo be readyvwrthrow tha Revolution, mulch was destroyingentury bofor*rd Communism was heard ia our country. The Revolutloi trill continue destroying maxico even though Communlma la ennih- lated In Asia aad Europe and th* entire world- It 1*
naoessary tbat Slnarqulaao again tall tha pa op la tha truth aad nout th? truth aad that it always tall tba truth clearly. But Lie.1 do nothing like thie.
Finally, e* are told that the polltleal party which Slnara^lawo la going to becoao will oppoeo any official gorwrnaant party planning to oontrol It lay to aay that one ie going to oppose tba PBa /jthe present government party/ "hat la difficult is to stand up agalaat guns ln order to Insist upon sn honest election.
"Once Slaarqulaaoolitical party, it ia only going to play theof theknown 'dwaocre.iy and the Revolution. And the people, as alwsys, will be played for suckers.
"People should withdraw fromtype of Sloarquieno whioh is now only on* aore kind of fraud,
ught to aak thef th* aaa* of Sloarqjlataa.o so now, for the ertrevaaly seriousowedtted ia appointing Lie. Torrea national leader-
Tba Trueba Ollvare*uban Ueodota, Rafael Derate, Silvlano Castellanos, and other eatlaable people have withdrawn froa Slnarqulaeo for tha sen* reasonsave."
TBE ATTJlVrt-CmZKEXiL'3 OPIJlOionsidering*
FIRST--That oa tbeage ofissue ofinarqulsta published on Thursday,un* of thont year, thoro appear* an article with eight-colieen headline* entitled "ATTElfTIOe'. (EeERAL STR IB < Slnarqul saon urgent appeal to the army. It oust make ready to repel aggression. The people will fight at the elde of th* ecldlera atalnet the Cxnsrualete." -
Tbat ln the aald article, refarrlag to the egltetloneneral strike to take pleoeuly, there ooour, enong othsrs, the following expressions of opinionr
"The day of the great betrayal lo approaching. It has been setemember It, soldier* of Mexico, 5Soldierlco i The Religion, Onion, and the Independence of yourflag which you eerra loyally--arw to be wiped off tha surface of our oountry aod our oonsoleooes. Bow as at Angostura, at Pueble, es at Cbspultepeo, you will know how to act rigorously against knar* a, agalnat traitor a. against those who hare betrayed you by betraying your banner. Reneaber well, brother
Popular. 6which published the full text,
uly, orday haa been
Tou trill know the difference between your people ond thoyoor flag ond tho red-black flog of strikes, between Mexico
and suaslau..and remember eleoi that wherever you mootyou aro sure oflaaa,resolved Ilka you to go to tba plaoe of graatort danger
arrlre at last atexioan soldier, attentioat
Mexioan soldier,word and ooiDtorslgn arai LOBO Lit! MEXICO 1"
That on the first page of the earns member of Eltha subtitle of "Thisuly the Red re to lut ion
breakemergency should find patriots firn aad resolute, with modesty, with honor, sad with courage"nother article
which contains the following paragraphi
"ill be at tha mercy of the Ccraamistsuly if
government of Arils Caaachoeet to Ita attitude of
defeat before tha challenging insolence of tho labor
the declaration of the QEKSRAL STRJEB, the Soriet Sabassy
will become the let local Palace of Msxloo, and froa thereuras
will be dictated for ooDrertlng our country Into Soriet Republic
nd the headquarters for the Bolat ion of America."
That on tho editorial pag* of the
IBIS IS HOhich eoauim th* following lln*n
"But, In Maxico, th* vie lent paasleas of that" nan do nutheckin th* vary authority ofa g* laat whichurn violently to destroy lt,Governmentot *twd show atoaiesllost. It ha* fallen ore/ to anarchy.
"Orcar,ord, Sicarqulsao-- th*a* aajn dezandlng foror only through Sinei qui aao will Merlco attain Its salvationora than aof complete anarchy. And to that aad awo figatingann th* court* of which w* have ralaad an army of -or* than fir* hundred thouaandwho ar* reaolved to glreonnawnt with lagitlaat* and *ff*otir* authority, whichatabllah andrder.
"Can th* adminlatratlan of Sr. ArilsbeovernmeatT E* himselfot believe it whenrs to givean with authority! whan the flrat cry of opposition or un.ithim to show hla heels and flee the field.
egimeovernment whan it is presided orsrss who prefer* to abandon hi* paopl* to th* mercy of vultures
order not to annoy tha vultureeT ag la* baovernment when it begins to tremble and alsoay before tha simple threatew cunning people mhothemselves elth foreign eupportT
"Our poor Mexican people J Be ale red and despoiled by outeidera, aquested and rant by Id elder a, abandoned aad betrayed by those who hare undertaken the duty to give juatloe sad defend the people, for they live on the flesh of tbe people aad enrich thertaelrea through the people's sweat,
"Poor people of Moxioo' They lnpjee humiliating laws on you
that degrsda you la tha eyee or tha rest of the world) they destroy
your economy and aharpen your mlseryj those who exploit your
huager snd oaksdnaaa count upon the friendship and aupport of your
"and there Is ao one to defend you I
"People or Max!O* hTOCo TOOBC0XD--That, when the present official iavestigatloo to determine tha people responsible for ths esfreaelons contained La
the above newspaper articlesenuaolatioa of thaee aaaa*
facta ens reoslred from the deputies Salvador^Ocboa jentarla,'Velarde, endjvergea; lt mas decided to add their
information to the Investigations of tha Attorney General'a Office.
0 . . . >
upon being summoned to declare vho bod tho articles oeiledGEKERALnd "THIS0ho Dlrootor of ol Slaarqulsta, Sr. pelicieno Mmnrique.that tbo author of tbe articles it hie. Juan Ignaoio Fadllla.
That, upon being examined Ln hit turn. Sr. Juan Igaaolodmitted tbat he wrote tba articles.
r At both Maorique end Pedllla refused to agree tbat Ln tho said articles, they urged the Army to rebel, although they admitted that the said ertloleo are of fen air* grememtlcallyj but they refused to believenjurious in their spirit, and the two men expleiaed the nature, procedures, and ends of the Slnarqulata
P0UrrrB--Ttat Ln the language of tlie first paragraph of Article US, revised, of th* present Criminal Code, the orlme of eubvoralva activity ia committed by the foreigner or Mexican national "who by word of mouth or writing, or by any other ma ana. oarrise out political propaganda, among foreignera or among Mexicanpreadingrogram* or norma of conductoreign government which dlaturb publio order or affect thenty of tbe Mexican Stat*."
Tbat, lo accordance with the seoond paragraph of the Article, publio order ia disturbed "wheo the aots mentioned ln the preceding
paragraph tend to produce rebellion, sedition, riot, or
That, In conformity with tha third paragraph of tha amid Article, "national sorerelsnty ia affected when the said acta can iniarll the territorial integrity of the Republic, obstructing the functioning or Ita legitimate institutions, or propagate dia-eapect on the part of Mexican oatcr their civic duties."
And that, finally, in accordance with the fourth paragraph jf tha law cited, lt laenal offenae to carry out "acta of
whatever nature that prepare materially or morally for the Invasion of Mexican territory or tha subjection of the country to any foreign governmentll of which shows that the preeent lawa prescribe punishment for any act which, even though moral, resultseakening of our political regimeime when the country Is at war, thla being the only say to avoid the spread of defeatism.
the articles of the newspaper called El Slnarqulste. which are partially quoted in the first section, beyond any possible kind of doubt, involve the commission of tha crime of subversive activity within the meaning of tha above Article US, reviaed, of the Federal Criminal Code, fori
' (a) They carry out political propaganda among Mexican nationala in writing, spreading ideas, pro-rams, snd norma of action peoullar to foreign governments;
(o) They effect national sovereignty, creating hind*ranees to the functioning of the legitimate Institutions of the Republic and propagating disrespect on the pert of Mexican nationals for their olric duties) and
(d) In view of the feot that Mexico la at ear with the axis powers, they tend to weaken tha Government of tb* Republic end toefeatist currentpublio opinion^/
In order to denoostrat* that Slnarqulaao carries cut political propaganda anong Mexican nationals spreading ideas, programs, and norns of actions peculiar to foreign governments. It is necessary to oospore the teachings of Slnarqul aao with those of the Spanishhich in turn were taken fromraditional! em" of Vasques de Melle and froa the "Joaaieao" of Udeene, and adopted offioially by the present Spanish government.
This brief comparative study will make It possible, ln passing, to emphasis* the ebsolute lack of originality of the SinArqulsta aaviaint, the leaders of whlob have only Imitated the prooedures of action and repeated alaoat word for eord the Ideas of their
- XiV -
progenitors. It la aot, than, aura ohaacaa ona of tha fuaosueental parts of ita program aa aggreaalvo Blapaniam, whloh openly or aecretly deplores the politicalofo and yeerna for tha state ofbtaining in the tlaa* of tha abeolute monarchy.
upon ths death ofha typo of dyaaatlearoas the so-called "traditionalism" of Tissues Veils, the champion or political Carm, mho based his teaching on three fundamental principles* Catholic unity. Christian monarchy, and the observance of traditional regional autonomy. This doctrine ia the foundation of the Spaniah corporative etate. Porclaimed that heepreaentatlvethe basis of representation is not the Individual, but tha group, tha olaaa, the categorlea which are formed whenever Individuala orope tooasnon end. Therefore the Spaniah Corught to represent, aooordlng tohinking, the material interest (agriculture. Industry, andhe Intellectual or teaching interest (uaiversltiss, eclentlflo, sod artlatloha moral intareat (thend the Intereat of defense (the army). There laoint in Holla's teaching which has never been adopted by Paiango writer at Welle never thought of suppresaing political parties. Actually he
olearly stated tbat there -rill te parties saong men aehey are agreed not to arrea. aod that thia agreement not to agree will leet aa long aa there are woo ln the world.
Jfbaa ita orl.^lo in the reaction fighting against the Cortes of Cadis, whieh according to tbe etateewmt ne Pvlaaelata eebodled "the liberalaken froa. the name lationul-Syndloalist Attack Organlaatlon^one of the fascist aoveaente incorporate Into theuring the dlctatorehip of Prino de Blvera and begin the Job of undermining the Spanish Sepubllo the aaaa day that the Republio waa born. And the lnapirer of/^Janalsao* ams'^desna, efaoae teaching es regards political partlea has been aocepted in toto byand by the preeent Spaoiah government. For Ledaaaa. partlea always represeot special Interests "without thia fact being disproved by the circumstance that at times they represent the majorityountry". But, Lad*saw is especially preoccupied by the "strsteglc work of the eelsure ofbeState" of Ledesae is supposed to pess through three aueoesaire phaaesi la the first place, the organisationolitical force for the exclusive serrloe of what has been called
n the second pleoe, the tnrtallutlon of this political force es the only political party permitted to exlet and
Ope rat Laxnd finally tha eetabllahawttt of "letlonalhich arill bar* aa it* object guaranteeing th* ecooeapHshaont of "th* aplrltual, political andf which th* aatloaal Oeelueapable".
Th* Party (in oaplUla considered by lad*bob. to b* tha aaaantial element of tb* revolt which, opening tha any for th* Dlotatorahip (alao in capitalverthrow* the "previouely eiltting legality" and conatituUe it**lf aa th* naw regia*. "In order tnat tha Party any be able to accomplish ita taik, which ll th*oaaibl*of it*six fundamental requleltea aaiat b* fulfil led <
olt *nat b* directed by and achieve suceesalngl* fartyi
Thar* auat b* educational preparaUoa for rweolt and political organisation,
The revolutionary unit* need frequentieticr. The participation ofnable to tak* part in abort! reor the achieve want of th* plan* of tha Party. One auat not count upon people aho amy offer their eervloec for tb* decisive day or aoaamt, nor elth organlsatlona wrapped up with keeping proper irchj- Tho weight and eucoesa ofcit depend on tho a* unit* which ar* drawn from tha Military formation* of the "Party"|
th* us* of forces, end surprise er* the prindfpal elesteats of the revolt. the existing legality usually has at itso-erful erased apparatus end oust he deelt with by violent conquest.
(fi). the objective* of th* revolt aurt be popular and sell known to the ease of the population, levolt is favored and node possible by politicaleheir origin in the judgment of the people concerning the actions of the beglaw. an absolutely necessary antecedent to revolt la political agitation. thua there la prepared the atmosphere of agitation end high tecs ion which wakes it easy to consider et natural the ectlon of the party in deciding to adjust the national destiny by violence) and
the revolutionary party has to be totalitarian. that la, it willolitical discipline, but against all ether parties. in order that its attitude of violence appeara just andit auatotalitarian chaiacter. "it auat identify itlth the stat* and represent the will of theven to ore at tog that "ill. thus, end only thus, can it achieve the euoese of the revolt and can it glv* to ita government duration, permanency, and glory." loaeyto and j.l partldo, pp.)
*f" * i.wej*
it would be prolix to go further into the ideas, prond
- XTlli -
norma off falanrlamo ud th*t Spanish Th*sbov* iso bring outf th*hloh har* Inspiredad th* Slaarquieta movements,car -hen, la th*f th* Americas,olitical* baao forcedk th*ir tru* polltioalan to th* point ofmoroualy thsir unadttakabla totalitarian origin.
aishyr'alanslaao. Slnarqui mxothat it ha* a* it* aia. the establishment of"political order" ahloh will be in eccordadc* with tha Chriatlan tradition of tb*ith th*cuatoaa of th*nd ita distinctlr* aaanar of existence. But, the Sicarquiataa only appear toroup with pro-clerical taadaaolea,ace the aocxDnt that eeola*la*tloalo aot giro unlimited approval to Sinnrqulano. when they reprove it* proc*duree, th* raapact and obedience which the Slnsrqulat* leadeia aay they oughtow to th* cl*rgy, disappear-Aad if Ita constitutional or hlatoricel grouada, for ua to allow tho intervention of ths Catholic Church ia the political lif* of* can weth* plea to supplant popular aoverelgnty in favor of the leadersroup which slaa at the eatabllaha*ntovernment concentrating all power la an* man..
i 1* ly:
- *ix -
Slnarquiescribes Itself polltieel-oiTio grgenlsation, but it will not agree that it should bwarty, and ona pro parly oonaiderad auob. On tba other hand, it prefera to call itaelfword dear to tha "Caudillo" /Tranoc/ and to tha Spaniah Manga. an though lt aay be thought that the foregoing coaaantretail, aboo all of the teaching* of theg* are oonaldered, an adequate azplanation of thla spiritual attitude la found- Slnarqui*ao doea not leek toarty on tha aaaa plane ea other partioa, but "They en tenaj and not aTon the leading party but inetead the only political party permitted to exiat. But aa long aaui ago doaa not aucosed in aelBlng power, by eaploying the procedures outlined by Led*aae, it rafueee th* naa* of political party. low, thla renunciation carrlaa with It another *hioh throw* the noat light on th* *ad* of Sinar^ulanqiothat ithristian politleal-otrie organisatlooj and yet it refrain* froa talcing part int abandon! th* onlyhloh could lead directly to its goal.are, then, tha oaaaa which Sinarqulaao propoasa to reaort to ln order to succeed in having Itaecome deal nan t? Ths anawer is given ln such transparent formt Is unnecessary to state it. Moreover, It anould be recognised that tb* uee of lt*
present tactics haa enabled Slnarqula en to grow ond; expand) tho rory vagueness of Sirmrgulswjo's progreuij ita ostensible rmnunoiationaj tho spirit of sacrifice which ecsee of ltopride thomeelvea onlto IlliadolmB, avia dallborotoly ot giving Slnarqul sno tho appearance oftrongly aural organisation whloh doaa not en.Qar.gor the existence of our incipient democracy.
Dp to now Sinarqui mo haa United ltaelf to organising, tho political force necessary for seising power: but tho newepaper articles published in theune issue of ET1 Sinarqui eta show that It bolleres that it le ready to take control of the Government.
Sinarquia mo haa already achieved tho first stage listed by Led*aaa. In the editorial entitled "THIS IS HOn expression ia let slip, which even though it nay not tell the truth, isare figure of speechi The article states that during seven years, Slnorqulsao has worked to fono an "amy" of more than "five hundred thousand soldiers". The plan for revolt la clearly shown when the article states that theee "ere resolved to giveovernment with legitimate and effective authority, which will reestablish and guarantee order". The concentration of masses of people at predetermined places end timse is not simply--as has been thought at timeharmleaa activityuerile^Gu^ revolutionary /Tots/ so that when tbe hour strikes Slnarqul can undertake tho enterprise of selling power by force or of taking
'.tiler to too ooo in th* Italiana aant cUriag Tha aaurch of tha fascist* ou finaee. Tho autcond aad third point* of tha prograa outlined by Ladoasa hav* alao been fulfillad. The .tccasion for tha peuple to accept aa natural th* see af vlcleace
points faur aar.or th* suae pror-as) aaaprovided by ths aoaouac*taot* asrul strike, particularly ai Lt had Msaj prsoededysbsaatio campaign dlecredltl ig oar institutions. Thus there had boon created the airel citrate proiitlou: for tJia us* of violence under thef warklng at tie direction of higher patriotic aotivee. 'Jnder auch oonditioac. la apit* of theirora, tha extloles under esaaiaatlon, oen <nly ba itterpretad aa an invitation to tha Amy and to the publlo la general toainstverraaent of tha sspubllo.
Th* reeetlooary character of th* Sinaraujitat stand* out Ifacb*r* th* battles ablch ths Liarty hado during the past century ino proierlbs allc* by the Church in tb* apher* of polities. Aad If la ta* alddi* of Ui*oth century, ia th* Sptla of Isabel la [I, the "Tradition alios" ofavjiell* ires an aoacuroniatlc sad rsactloaary 'cadency. *hst should beal .ileal ao*exeat bcra Lnsr.tury Uter, ahenej-eLiou o' Churchtate, tie
. >Miwi mi toe oikq, tns principle or religious liberty and tho In forbidding priest* to take an act in part In polities, have taken root for all tin* In our consciences.
Tet aore, Sinarqulaao alas at exploiting for Ita profit the religiouB ecotlvot of ourwhich ln iteelf ia entirelyrefualag to listen to the opinions of the highest Church dignitaries when they have repeated enpbatically end publicly thalr disapproval of the prooedurea adopted by Sinarqulaao.
for the root, the attitude of tha leaders of Sisarquiaao is not strange in tha leaat. They act like Individuals with the destiny ofivine mission, and they are sure that they ere therefore freed froa the duties and the obedience aod subalasion which they say they have toward th* alnlsters of the Catholic cultI
In the recent speech of theof the Slnarqulata aove-
saot ia the City of Leon, there ere these arrogant expression*!
He are at our post. Let the adherents of tha Mexican Revolution and those who are not so know It. He era ln tha piece that Providence ha* assigned us, ead we ere carryinguty, for ituty to serve Ood and our
and Sr. Juan Ignaoio, -Kan quaetlcoed how he could
explain the fact that the Catholiche called the rap
of Qochr rel-gUni*f Uni
rnaeat cfardle, no tb* othor and, LH*
local fiaargiista-it BetNMM1Of
not, inewored ia fe*na
Tba tarican olargy canith tha religious policy :bUoajd ba Jewnt, lie thtyvaot-una* avtavarnd rl-hU ar* Er- ntod to Catholics by natu-altut 'haVryl:.ti, oci ofpurjoaaa la to de.'eoa thair >ta and liberties which natural sccords citiasjj, also has theo ewsruiss ths right of pell tlao. of protost, aud of crltlclra is regarl to ahoas poiate which refer to tha rellgioui pulleyovernment.
Jo ths light ol th* above deuUiatioa, lt lat-binaryau that th*ic*al Sinar^uiat* hav violated .irticla
SJ o! tho Constitution of ae;iubllc, ableh deniea tu .tor;ica'-ino*eateaiuat. savk]right tcnal political affaireoialcrnauon a: Jvstie -uthorltlea ofr of rati'
clrotly oocaaclech t* li ng of pu'illc ins :lv..iloo-
It ii uitleta to conpa*mv ovmii ^r'.aflyrii.ita our fur cUmenta: lamt and faithfully obey to Wf fOTSftVasm* of. it oiuid Itself toite a1 Ration a, with Slnarqdeas, ilnar tas-.thehe ei.tithoirla of dinocralla pr .ncipl-ie.
- BfM -
Bumao nights are the comritoM ofregime which hopwa to be describeda democratic. Aad, if on*tha ur.Ukaly hypotheale
ad* of being the only party permitted to axittiat of tho fata of human righta. Ia that event, it ie unimaginable that
any differenoea la political. Ideological, or religlouo opinions
would be allowed, and the whole life of the people of the country would depend on the "ill of one peraon.
But, even If one doea not oontreat democratic ideaa and the
maxico ia petting through oaa of tha moat decisive parioda of ita history. It is possible that theae activities do aot constitute tree son agaiaat our country* but iteniable that such activities areaeful contribution to our country in ita atruggle to reaffirm ita political independence and continue working for complete economic emancipation. And evao laea can lt be thought that Slnarquiaaoorthy participant in tha international teak which theof Mexico sat Itself, when an examination revealt that all Slnarquista efforts tend to weaken the alliance between our country aad the Baited Rations.
To nut upi
foryears has beta carrying outpropaganda among our peasantry, through written ud It baa Bp road tho ideas,o4 nora* or actionforeignSpenlsh-'wMah ln ita turn dorlvoaItalian fascien, fron Falanglemo, fron "Jonsi" of Tiaouoa nolle. It haa iapeded
tha functioning of our institutions and haa propagated dlcreapect aaong Marl canor the discharge of their oirlo dutlea. Finally, Slnarqul haa disturbed the public peacehioly-disgulaed appeal to the Amy and the people of nexlco to rebel againat the Govomoent of the Republic
Theee actions cose within the definition* of. revleed, of the CrInitial Code, end the people guilty of this criao of subversive activity should be bound over to the courts.
the article* contained In the Issue ofa ofune last!
Advise, Incite, sad provokeay to revolt*
Adviae, incite, and provoke the publio ln general to revolt or eedltiaoj
(e) Insult the authorities of the country with the intention of bringing upon thea bate, scorn, aod ridicule; end