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SOVIET FOREIGN PROPAGANDA BROADCASTS
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NTELLIGENCE GROUP AHALYSiS OF SOVICT FORE 1QH PROPAfiAHOA BROADCASTS
Is an analysis of Soviet foreign propaganda broadcasts pre pared by thc Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service. Thc salient colnta of the Enclosure are summarized belov.
a large proportion of all Soviet propaganda broadcasting la devoted to extolling the success of the Soviet system In. The chiefnote In broadcasts directed toward countries outside the Soviet sphere Is condemnation of specific "reactionary* activities or utterances. Otherwise little comment is made on matters of local Interest, except in the case of the following countries evidently under special propaganda pressure:
forceful propaganda almost exclusively concerned, withstruggle" both within and outside of Spain.
frequent criticism of the Austrian governmentU.S. and British cone military governments, with particularto the lenient treatment of Nazis, war criminals, and
intense and sustained propaganda against the present regime end In support of.
d. Turkey: the "absence of freedom" in that country Is stressed, with particular reference to the forthcoming elections (Imputing to the Turkish Government In advance an unrepresentative character).
c. Iran and the Arab states: the powerful Tabriz radio hasan intensive propaganda against the Iranian Government. The Soviet broadcasts stress denunciations of British and Turkish policy, past and present.
f. China: broadcasts about China support the Coanunlats andthe National Government as the pawn of "foreign reactionary groups" bent on preventing the attainment of real unity. . policy in China is vigorously condemned.
ft- Korea: . attempts to dominate the country throughreactionary" provisional government are contrasted with the benevolence of the Red Army, to which alone Korea owes its liberation. While the Soviet zone enjoys unity and efficiency,. zone has to endure parly politics.
h- Japan: . champion, the cause of the Japanese and complain, that. la fostering the American, but not the Soviet, type of democracy. Its propaganda implies obllguely that, ln seeking to accomplish the purpoaes of the occupationinimum of disruption and. is retaining ln powerwhoa il regards aa potential allies.
i- Great Britain and the United States share scathing attacks on "zealous warmongers" who seek to prevent -further development of theanong democracies that aroae (during) the war against Fascist aggression." Britain Is criticised -ore severely than. withto occupation policies, treaty drafting, and reparations questions. In addition British policies with respect to Spain, Greece, the Middle East, and colonial Issues are heavily attacked.
Reactionary developments Inuch as the Ku Klui Klan, are stressed, as are strikes, unemployment, and the disadvantages of livingapitalist economy.
3. Soviet foreign policy la presented as consistently directed toward the establishment of peace, democracy. International cooperation, andsecurity. All reslatance to Soviet policy la tbst of "reactlonarlas-seeking to defeat these purposes.
In contrast, the policy of the United States Is to dominate the world by means of the atomic feorb. In the Unitedhe attitude of the United Statesomineering denial of tbe equality of states, and particularly of the Soviet Union's well earned right to equal leadership ln world affairs. In occupied areas the United States supports "reactionary- elements; Itsin overseas bases la "imperialistic."
Soviet propaganda does not admit the possibilityonflict ofbetween. and. The trouble is that, underInfluences,. Government has departed from the policies of President Roosevelt. The Amorican people, however, are alarmed by andto this development.
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AKALYSIS OF SO*lETI PROPAGANDA BROADCASTS
Prepared by tht Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service
cipher At; OBSERVATIONS
The Soviet Government uses foreign-language broadcasting aa an Instrument for Implementing and promoting Soviet foreign policy. Its comprehensive foreign language service, embracing most areas of the world, is clearly guidedentral propaganda directive which changes In accordance with the changing requirements of Soviet policy abroad.
The current schedule of Soviet foreign language broadcasting, lotroduced inontainsransmissions inanguages, for whichifferent wavelengths are used, the total dally broadcasting time beingours,inutes. Thisonsiderable drop from the wartime peak, inhen Soviet programs abroad consumedours dally.
A breakdown of the current schedules reveals the following allocation of broadcasting time :
English (oflnutes are exclusively for
North Anerlca andinutes are taken upoint program for North America and Britain)inutes of which are directed to Austrian
listeners)0 minutes for South America) Chinese, French, Polish Bulgarian Italian, Turkish Finnish, Rumanian
Arabic, Japanese, Persian, Swedish Greek
Czech, Damlah, Dutch, Hungarian, Norwegian, Serbo-Croat,
Slovak, Slovene Albanian, Bengali, Hindustani, Indonesian Halay, Korean,
or Braall onlyl Yiddish
In addition, It should be pointed outeparate and extensive telegraphic service conducted by tha Tass agency transmits material In English and French (both hellachrelber and morse) for universal consumption and throughours with slight Intervals. The agency also transmits another English service of approximatelyours exclusively for Northerman hellschrelber service0panish morse service for Latin America, and two French morse transmissions for the Near East and Nortn Africa.
Turning vo the structure and content of Moscow's foreignough division can also be made between those directed to countries which ruiiy be termed political pressure points and those which have no imncdiate significance In the Soviet scheme. In broadcasts to botharge amount of time is devoted to the success of the Soviet system ln the USSR. In addition, the chief note in broadcasts directed to countries outside the Soviet sphere of Influence is what the Hoacow radio itself calls -vigilance This In effect means that no activity or utterance, even of minor Interest, which could be interpreted as "reactionary' or anti-Soviet is allowed to pass without notice, and more frequently, without an elaborate reply. At the same time, it Is constantly emphasized that Soviet policy Is funda-ne&tally based upon peace end security and rigidly upholds the principles -if UN.
To those countries which lie within the Soviet sphere of influence, and whose radio stations, even if not under direct control, may be relied upon to reflect the Soviet viewpoint, Koscow radio does not devote much specific propaganda- This applies In varying degrees to Poland, Rumania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Albania and Hungary and, also, it may be noted to Czechoslovakia and Pinland, although broadcasting from the latter countries, particularly Czechoslovakia,efinitely independent note compared with the others.
Broadcasts for these countries follow variationseneral pattern, comprising news of Soviet home affairs, international news and articles from the Soviet Press or commentaries also broadcast In other languages, and, of course, music. Little news or comment is given of specific interest to the country concerned, whose home affairs are only occasionally discussed in articles quoted from "Sew Times" .and other Soviet papers, writtenider audience. The apparently Individual talk by Ovcharov, 'our Balkanddressed to countries ln the Balkansewritten version of some commentary previously broadcast in other languages, perhaps slightly altered to eoiphaiiize the Slavic ancle. It may also be noted, as an exar.ple of the Soviet, method, that commentaries discussing and often strongly criticising Hungarian internal affairs have not been heard In broadcasts for Hungary since the reorganization of the Government and tho subsequent visit of the Premier and his delegation to Hoscow.
Broadcasts for Oreece and the Middle Kant
aissions lo Greece pMSMlt pi Clare IMMtlally conditioned by that country's political situation- As In the case of Turkey and Spain, the present political regime is openly attacked and the propaganda offensive is intense and sustained. Extensive use is made of news of Creek home Interest such as statements by. delegation during Its visit to Moscow and copious extracts fro* the Greek Left-wing Press. In addition to generally distributed articles and commentaries, which when concerning the Greek situation have on occasion been broadcast earlier and at greater length than in other languages, talks exclusively directedreek audience are frequently given.
A similar tendency Is to be found In comment for Turkey and Iron which lore often than not la mainly directed against "reactionary" and anil-Soviet nfluencea in those countries. At the same time, the Azerbaijan National ladio, with Its powerful transmitter atartingl was stated, of the Redas been broadcasting Intensive propaganda in furkish Azerbaijani against the Iranian Government, and this station ilso broadcasts In Persian, Kurdish, Russian, Arabic and French, "torld opinion on our national aspirations and achievements.*
As in the case of Greece, transmissions in Turkish tend to pay great attention to Internal politics and to stress the "absence of freedom" Inamiliar theme which Moscow's Turkish commentator Erdcm han repeatedly embroidered in connection with the elections. For Arab and Iranian listeners, on the other hand, Turkish policy past and present la strongly attacked, and In Middle Eastern transmissions for all destinations, anti-British propaganda la marked and listeners are intermittently warned against the activities of furl-El-Said, of the alleged implications of the Anglo-Transjordan Treaty and the Anglo-Egyptian negotiations,ritish policy generally.
Uroadcusts for Germany and Austria:
Although similar in treatment to broadcasts for the Soviet sphere of influence, the Hoscow radio in German provides certain Individual aspects whichore detailed examination. With the emergence of thc Berlin radio and Its satellites Inside the Soviet zone as the mouthpiece of Soviet policy in Germany, German broadcasts from Hoscow have lost most of the personal character they displayed during the war, when broadcasts under the aegis of the "Free Germany Committee"ost effective propaganda medium. Moreover, the amount of time allotted to broadcasts for Germany has been gradually reduced since the end of the war. arge proportion of these transmissions, as in the caso of other languages, Is now devoted to publicizing all aspects of Soviet life and progress, and to the Soviet line ooaffairs through the usual medium of long extracts from the Soviet press, commentaries and carefully selected and arranged news items. Relatively iLttle time is given to German domestic affairs.
Strictly Geraan features are limited largely to local reportage on economic, political and cultural progress in the Soviet zone, attributed to "our correspondent" and duplicatingonsiderable extent the much wider service of thc Berlin radio. Such commentaries as are addressed directly to the German people are delivered anonymously and follow the propaganda line of the Berlin radio, althoughore stereotyped and monotonous presentation. *
Broadcasts for Austria contain very few reporta originating from the Soviet or other zones, apart from extracts from the press, mainly Uie Communist papers. These broadcasts differ in tone from the Vienna radio, which is no doubt under Soviet censorship but not apparently under direct Soviet or Communist control. Thc subjects treated in the anonymousaddressed to Austrian listeners and the propaganda trends are in the main those ventilated by the Austrian Communist Party* hut with some
docs not have the support of American and other citizens.
The largest number of news reports dealing with domestic events in the United States are devoted to economic affairs. There are frequent references to Items in the American press giving statistics on strikes and unemployment, and to the disadvantages of livingapitalist economy. Direct and detailed comment la made on reactionary developments ln the United States and the persons and organizations opposing manifestations such as the Ku Klui XI an are applauded.
While Soviet criticism* of American and British foreign policy and attitudes toward the United Nations are directed concomitantly against the United States and Britain, Britain la singled out for heavier attacks on such matters as occupation policies ln Germany and attitudes towardnd reparation questions. Heavy criticism Is aleo directed al the British attitude toward Spain during and after the Civil War, colonial policy, activities in the Middle Eaat and interest in the Creek elections.
Broadcasts for Japan
For months after VJ-Day, Moscow's broadcasts to the Japanese people eschewed comment on events ln Japan or even the Far East. Such commentaries as were given were devotedlorification of life ln the Soviet Union, while news reports were limited to straight accounts of international events drawn mostly from Europe.
In April, coincidental with the Japanese elections and the outspoken criticisms of HacArthur's occupation policies voiced by the Soviet delegation to the Allied Council for Japan, Moscow's transmissionsew tone and point. From that time to the present, the two daily broadcasts In Japanese and one in English directed to Japan have delved thoroughly Into Japanese domestic affairs and their relationship to occupation policy, with the conclusion that Japan Is being allowed toourse inimical to the best interests of the Japanese people and the world.
In substance, Moscow would give tbe Japanese people the Impression that United States policy la Japan ia based on the following objectives:
to keep the Japanese tractable without provoking too much
to punish the most notorious war criminals without impairing the Japaneae political and economic structure to the point where occupation problems would become overwhelmingly burdensome;o implement the terms of the Potsdam Declaration in word but not necessarily Ino develop In Japan the United SletoB version of democracy and at the same tlmo to keep the Soviet system from gaining ascendancy; o convince the Japanese public that in the future, Japan and the United States should have close Ilea; o reduce considerably the power of the ZalbaVsubasically altering Japan's capitalist system. Implied but only very obliquely is the view that tbe United States seeks In many respects to keep Japan's militaristic clique intact as the nucleusapan which one day night be militarily allied with the United States. General MacArthur as
an Individual is not the object of attack.
The burden of Moscow's message is that the Japanese reactionariesthe helm, steering the country according to the pre-war compass,disregard for the urgent needs of the people- Although it doeslarge In point of volume, the link is made between Japanesethe occupation policy on all key issues, such as the preservationEmperor system, the failure to dissolve the great industrial and the withholding of full freedom of speech and agitation onof the progressive parties and groups, and theof the Diet elections attendant upon the premature ballot. direct fashion than in most of its other overseas beams,partisanship for the Japan Communist Party which is depicteddespite formidable
Broadcasts about China
No broadcasts from the L'SSK to China are at present Intercepted by thc Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service- The only material available, therefore, is comment about China in broadcasts to other areas.
The Moscow radio line on Chinalear-cut attempt to discredit thc National Government, on the one hand, and to solidify the position of the Chinese Communists, on the other. Chiang Kai-shek's government is depicted as the pawn of "foreign reactionaryhich seek to block thc attainment of real unity.
Under vigorous attack is thc American policy in China. United States economic and military aid to the National Government Is labelled asInterference in China's domestic affairs. It is noted that although Red Amy troops have evacuated Chinese soil in deference to the people's will, the United States has failed to withdraw its occupation forces- Liberal use is made of the American press for Quotations in support of the thesis that right-minded people not only in the United States but in China are opposed to the American policy, which is aimed at the ultimate dominance of Chiang Kai-shek's regime over all of China, including thc Northeastern Provinces.
Broadcasts to Korea
Moscow's broadcasts to and about Korea establish the antithetical purposes of American and Soviet policy in that country. The United States policy, as Hoscow sees It, is based on these objectives:
1) Establish "dominant rights" in Korea.
21 Setrovisional government including the "reactionaries" but excluding those Koreansommunist tinge.
3f Break down the occupation barriers, do away with the division
aones and unify the country economicallyrimary step toward political unification.
4) Criticise Soviet policy in northern Korea and combat Soviet criticism of the United States policy Id southern Korea.
By contrast, Moscow disseminates the following view of its own policy In Korea:
2) The Koreann have nothing to fnar from the Bed Army, which is
dlfferent"-from other armies. The Red Army, no matter in what country its troops are stationed, feels that the people whose country it occupies are "quite capable" of setting up their "political life, not for the secondary benefit of reactionarlca, but for the primary benefit of democratiche Bed Armyliberator"reaerver of the interests of mankind.
21 The Koreans owe Russia an everlasting debt of gratitude furthem from. Japanese oppression. That is, the atom bomb did not crush Japanese militarists, who would have continued to fight In Korea and elsewhere on the Asiatic Continent: It was the Red Arny that proved the deciding factor.
31 Northern Korea is solidly united and efficiently administered, while southern Korea has "no unitedfight is going on between political parties." (Whenever possible, suchare credited to Koreans.)
Broadcasts about Other Areas of the Par East
The Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service does not Intercept Moscow broadcasts to the ar-as discussed in this section, but as indicated In other broadcasts the Soviet position seems to be:
South Sakalin and the Kuriles: I) To emphasize that southern Karafuto (Sakhalin) and the Chiachimp (Kuriles) group belonged to Russia in the "oldhat the Bed Army "liberated" these islands from Japanese oppression, and the Soviet Union Is the "legal owner." 2) To convince the native population that it la receiving equal rights and privileges with the "Sovietnd that the work of rehabilitation and reconstruction Is being pushed forward speedily. 3) To assure "Japanese laborer residents" that they will not be punished for "crimes committed by Japanese imperialists-"
Indonesia: Moscow points out that the Netherlands Government proposal for recognition of the Indonesian Republican Government would involve only "Insubstantialnd would mean the Isolating of various parts of Indonesia, thus dooming the republic to "political and economic weakness."
SUMMARY. OP SOVIET FQp,BICN POLICY AS RKF1.KCTEP IN USSR BROADCASTS
Radio Moscow depicts Soviet foreign policyonsistent, integrated force, not beset by the pulling of reactionary elements. The general line la that Soviet policy alms at peace, International cooperation and free democracy, while all policies which can be interpreted as opposed lo Soviet alas, even, In the slightest detail, will lead lo world disorder, political and economic slavery, or even to war.
Broadcasts maintain that the Soviet policy is aimed at eradi fascism and strengthening democracy, and at workingirm and lasting peace through International cooperation. Soviet behavior both within the United Nations and in her bilateral relations, is described by the Soviet radio as bearing out this description of general foreign policy. No opportunity is lost to convince the worldheroic" Bed Army saved mankind from "the claws and teeth of fascism" both in Europe and the Far Fast, and that the atomic bomb did not materially alter the course of the war. The Soviet radio combats ell attempts to keep the Soviets from participating in "the leadership of this new world" and to prevent "interna tional reactionaries* from using the victory over fascismeans to benefit themselves.
With respect to the control of atoitic energy, the broadcasts reflect "the Soviet policy of peace and defense of universal security." The Soviet proposals for atomic control "aim at prohibiting the manufacture and use of atomic weapons, just as the civilized world has already vetoed poison gas and bacteria'in warfare."
The broadcasts on domestic affairs give testimony ttiBt the Five-Year-Plan is one of -peaceful development" In accordance with the over-all peaceful policy of the USSR. These domestic broadcasts present conditions in the Soviet Union at their best, with everybody contented and happy, all loyal to the government, and proud of Stalin.
SUMMARY OF U. S. FOREIGN POLICY AS REFLECTED IN USSR BROADCASTS
Soviet broadcasts describe American foreign policy In ternsonflict between the forces of fascism or reaction and the forces of democracy. While the efforts of the late President Roosevelt to lay thc foundations of international peace are unstintingly praised, and the efforts of men all over the world to help expand and consolidate "democracy" are applauded, the Russians claim that the past year has witnessed growing activity on thc part of "reactionary forcesim to disrupt the cooperation of freedom-loving people and undermine the collaboration of the Big Three." According to the Soviet Radio, "such activity is making itself felt In the United States, too. It is not by accident that American domestic elements are sounding the alarm and exposing the plans of American reactionaries, aiming at world supremacy, for an Anglo-American military alliance against the USSR."
A fuller exposition of the Soviet attitude toward United States foreign policy is found in broadcasts on the United States attitude toward thc United Nations organization. The Russians see the approach to the solution of international problems as increasingly being set by two different tendencies. The first lane group of powerso dominate the entire International organization, with the other nations submitting to their domination. Against this tendency, Radio Mo scowdemocratic" tendency based on peacefulolicy which has the adherence of the Soviet people. Soviet broadcasts state that UN should guide itself "by the principle of equality of States and not by the princlpli
of lhe domination of son* States over other*." Circles who uphold the latter principle are regarded by Radio Moscow as enemies of international collaboration who realize that the preservation of unanimity among the major powersecessary condition for the existence of the UN, and are therefore trying to defame the USSR. The "reactionary" press of the United States Is accused by the Russians of creating an atmosphere of suspicion and mistrust of the USSR and of 'sowing the seeds of conflict and anxiety." But, as in .their treatment of the U. S. foreign policy, the Russians, in their reports on UN, attribute to the mass ofeep concernesire to dispel that ataospherc of suspicion.
On the subject of atomic energy the Soviet radio represents the United States policy as an attempt to consolidate its monopoly of atomic weapons for an indefinite period Id order to dominate the world.
The Russian radio reaction on United States occupation policy in Germany in that the political altuatloo In the United States zone is not calculated to promote democracy, but is serving to strengthen reactionary tendencies among the Germans. American occupation authorities are said to support these reactionary elements. This judgment is based on news of "werewolf" activities and the existence of reactionary political parties, and in reports that industry is still in the hands of "magnates of monopoly capital" and land in the hands of big landowners. The Soviet radio comment on the United States Far Eastern occupation policy has beer, adequately covered in the geographic sections above.
Reports and editorial comment on the position of the United States In regard to military bases are frequently quoted from thc Scandinavian and American press. The Russian radio quotes articles from these sources to support its claim ihat the United States should withdraw from many of the foreign bases occupied during the war.
The United States policy toward Russia, as Radio Moscow reports It, "firm" with the Soviet Union, and to turn away
from Roosevelt's policy of friendship; also, to convince the world that Russia's part in winning the war was by no mear.r. asussia itself proclaims: to "twist popular world opinion" concerning the Soviet Union's equal right to participate in world leadership and to curb Russia'sby employing "atomic diplomacy."
SOVIET VERSUS AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY ACCORDING TO RADIO MOSCOW
Out of the vast amount of Soviet forel gn-lar.guage broadcasting considered for this report emerges the conclusion that the Soviet radioerious cleavage between American and Soviet foreign policy. The two nations are presented, more often by implication than by direct statement, as working at cross-purposes in many areas throughout the world. While the
USSRourse unswervingly aimed at peace, unity among the nations and democracy for all. the United States, proddedelatively small group of reactionaries In high places,olicy detrimental to the people and, at worst, engendering conflict. S'owhere doea Moscow voice the opinion that the basic interests of the two nations bring them into opposition. Trouble arises only Insofare United States departs from the policy enunciated by President Roosevelt and, in opposition to the will of the American people, moves in the direction of inperialisK.
The most succinct and perhaps the sharpest expression of divergencies between the two countries appearsPravda" comment on the American plan for international control of atomic energy. Summarizing the "Pravda" statementroadcast to Japan, Moscow states:
"The Soviet proposals and Die American plan, the "Pravda* observer concludes, reveal two different trends ir. current international politics- The first reflects tbe unswerving Soviet policy of peace and the defense of universal security. The American plan is the product of atomic diplomacy andan obvious desire for world domination, but nowadays desires of that sort have no chance for success."
As Moscow sees it, the United States must, and if the great mass of the American people have their way, inevitably will abandon its "desire for world domination" is favororeign policy ln which the two nations may live In harmony.
REPRODUCTION BRANCH DEPARTMENT OP STATEOriginal document.