Created: 8/1/1950

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Table of Contents for Section 43


A. ,


Distribution of major1




c. 8

and political significance of Islam and religious minorities

attitude toward religious

groups and national policies

aspects of Islam and non-Muslim groups . .


of Iraqi

at improvement .


and junior



Public information

omestic sources



otion pictures














Religion, Education

Public Information


Religious institutions in Iraqrimary role in shaping the life and outlook of the population. Educational institutions and informational media, on the other hand, reachmall percentage of the total population and their effect on the whole ls not significant. Religious antagonisms between and within the separate faithsopulation already variegated through racial and linguistic differences. Neither education nor Informational media work effectively to counteract the basic cleavages caused by these religious differences.

Religion dominates everyday life in Iraq. All Iraqis are presumed to belong to ono or another religious group or community, each of which has its own religious laws, social habits, and traditions. This community, or "millet" system, gives itsa sense of cohesion and protects smallfrom assimilation or dissolution. By the same token the community system, which has for centuries nourished antipathies and socialactsorce for separatism within theframework of the new Iraqi state. Loyalty to religious community rather than to country is common, even when an individual no longerto the articles of his faith.

Overercent of the Iraqi population adhere at least nominally to Islam, the statehe hold ofocial and legal system as welleligious doctrine, is still strong upon most Iraqi Muslims, whose outlook toward neighbor, country, and world Is shaped largely by the opinions of their religious leadors. Even those urban, educated Muslims who ore outwardly indifferent to theirare Influenced strongly in their social and political attitudes by the religious teaching of their early years. Because of the Islamic concept that religionslam) is the state, and because of the Koranic teaching that all Muslims aremany Iraqi Muslims feel more closely akin to their coreligionists in other lands than to non-Muslim Iraqis. Unity within the majority Muslim group, however, is marred by division, both social and political, into the antipathetic Sunni and Shiah sects. The Shiah, for example, who are in the majority, have often worked against the Sunni-domlnated government.

Public educational institutions, controlled Inand staff by the government, aretoense of national unity in Iraqi chtl-

firrmrr dren. Because of the inadequacy of the system, however,mall percentage of the children receive even elementary schooling; in fact, the great majority of thelaborers, peasants, andrelatively untouched by public education.

Because of the high proportion of illiterates,media (newspapers, cinema, radio,inor part In shaping the thoughts of the majority of Iraqis. The uneducated remain, for the most part, unaware of salient issues, either within or outside of Iraq. Informational media, however, do reach the small educated group which makes up the politically-conscious element ofThe government, which fosters and reflects the nationalism of the politically-consciousof society, directly or indirectly controls all informational outlets, except the subversive, and thusonsiderable degree succeeds in slanting this public opinion to conform to currentpolicy.

B. Religion

istribution of major faiths

The following tabulated estimate of the Iraqi population according to religion cannot beas accurate, for recent data are notand sources vary widely in their population estimates.





The flrurcs for the Bunnls and Shiah art4 and unquMtlanabivross under-enoaieration. Data on' lb* Shabax and Nesionans aren the Jews and Armenian Orthodox, for

n the Jacobites. Orcrk Orthodox. Chandra na. Syrian Catholics, Armenian Catholics. Mandacans and! YeHdU for

; and on the Roman Catholics for


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eligious sects In Iraq lend to be confined within well-defined areas. Shiah Muslims are centered in southern Iraq, while the Kurds and Arabs of northern Iraq arc solidly Sunni.ewthe true Bedouin tribes throughout Iraq are Sunni. Minor heterodox Muslim sects,numerically, are concentrated hi theof Mosul, Kirkuk, and Sulaimaniya.

The Christian communities in Iraq are more fully urban than the Muslim.f Iraq's Christians live in and aroundive In Baghdad city, and theremall community of Christians in most of the larger towns. In Mosul liwd' (province) theeasantry, whichives mainly In the Mosul plain and AlqOsh foothills. There are also small groups of Christian peasants on the Iraqi-Turkish border north of Mosul and In the remote mountain regions of tbe basins of the Great and the Little Zab.

Almost one-half of Iraq's Jewish population is [Concentrated in Baghdad. The remaining half .live mainly in Mosul city and in Basra, but there are also Jewish merchants and peddlers scattered in small groups throughout the cities and villages of the whole country. Small towns such as Hit and Ramidi often contain communities of from

ews. Three groups which defy classification remain to . be discussed. The Yezidis live In two compact communities, one in the Jabal Slnjar (mountain)est of Mosul and the other in the Mosul plainfrom-Jabal Maqlub (mountain) northwest to the . foothills around Dohuk. The Mandaeansownfolk residing in villages scattered along the lower Iraq, with their chieft Suq'aih Shuyukh and 'Amara. The Bahals, of which there areew hundred, are settled In Baghdad.

uslim communities

With the conquest of the Mosul area. all of the territory now known as Iraq was in the hands of the Muslim Arabs. Conversion to Islam, juraged by repression of non-Muslims and ad-tagta to the convert, began soon thereafter, andpopulation is overwhelmingly Muslim.

nited front, however, theew numerically insignificant

sects, are divided between the mutually intolerant Sunni and Shiah. Shilsm was bom In Iraq in the area of the four holy cities: An Najaf, with the most sacred of Shiah shrines, the reputed tomb of 'All (son-in-law ofarbala. the scene of the death of Husayn (son oflthe burial place of the Seventh and Ninth Imams (Shiah caliphalnd Samarra. with the cave Into which the Twelfth Imam is said to hare disappeared. Through the centuries Shilsm. which appeals to the oppressed, gathered dissidents to Itself. The ranks of Iraqi ShUsm have been further swelled by constant emigration from neighboring areas, particularly Iran, to the vicinity of the holy cities. Animosity between the Sunnis, who dominate the Iraqi Government, and the Shiah reflects earlier antagonism between the haves and have-nots and to some extent lack of sympathy between Arabs and Persians.

The social, economic, emotional, and political cleavages which separate Sunni and Shiah have been called the most disturbing factor hi Iraq. (For detailed discussion of Sunni and Shiahsee, of NISnd NISespectively.) Although the basic religiousand beliefs of the two sects coincide in most Instances there are, in addition to differences In dogma, certain peculiarities of practice whichthe gulf separating them. Sunnis tend to be amused, disgusted, or antagonized by highly emotional Shiah religious performances during the 'Ashara' festival. The Shiah practice of mut'ah or temporary marriage, the greatest legal variance between the two sects, is regarded by Sunnis as adultery. Sunnis generally scorn the Shiah for their Ignorance and superstition, while ShiahSunnis heretical irreligious, and Even within theears, theappeal of Shilsm has converted many former Sunni communities and tribes in Iraq. It is rare, on the other hand,hiah to be converted to Sunn Ism.

Among educated Muslims. Shiah andSunni, thereertain amount of apathy and laxness in religious observance, although there is little outspoken expression of suchMany urban Iraqis-neglect prayer and no longer keep the fast of Ramadan. Drinking, one of the prohibitions of Islam. Is spreading In the larger towns where members of the lower classes sometimes drink to excess and Western alcoholic beverages are quite In vogue.

Although the Shiah are generally more resistant to innovation than the Sunnis, the moreare cithor abandoning many long-standing Shiah practices completely or adapting them to the present. Concubinage and mut'ah marriage are no longer favored and, as the persecution of the Shiah has fallen off, there hasecline




of emphasis on the doctrine of taqiyah, orof religious affiliation. Also, there seems to be less fear of contamination from contact with unbelievers than in the past.

In both sects religious feeling Is strong among the peasants and tribes, who havereat deal of superstition to the beliefs of Islam, such as belief in omens of all sorts. Tombs and shrines of minor saints and holy men are the objects of local pUgrirnages all over Iraq, and many Muslims arrange before death to be burled close to them.hows the graveyard surrounding the tombheikh.

Sufism (seeeligion) has adherents among both major Muslim sects in Iraq, but most Iraqi Suns are Sunni. Strongest of the Sufi groups In Iraq Is the Qadirlyah, distinguished by charity, piety, and humility. The tomb of Its founder, 'Abd al-Qftdlr. is in Baghdad and ls keptescendant, known as the Naqib. to whom provincial Qadirlyahfrom Morocco to the East Indiesnominal allegiance. Theore fanatical offshoot of the Qadiriyah, is second In strength among Sufi groups in Iraq.

While Islam ls the state religion of Iraq, the King is not recognizedeligiousonstitutional provision that the crown remain in the Hashimite family, however,uslim (inunni) king who Is forced bypressure to respect at least outwardly thelaws of the Koran and the Traditions. As chief of state, on the other hand, be also has certain duties, such as the confirmation of elected community leaders, which specifically concern non-Muslim communities.

The Iraqi Government functions in purelyaffairs only in connection with the Muslim pious foundations, or waqfs, both Shiah and Sunni. which it administers. Non-Muslim waqfs areby the religious communitiesWhen property is made waqf, itharitable or religious cause (waqf khayrl) or its revenue goes lo membershile family waqfs arc administered by private trustees, philanthropic waqfs areby the Department of Waqfs directly under the Prime Minister. The rJepartment of Waqfs oversees religious buildings and institutions, and administers the large number of estates which have been donated to Muslim pious or charitable uses.3 waqf lands totalledof all the lands then assessed.

Each Muslim sect leads its separate religious life and has its own religious leaders. Sunnis and Shiah have distinct Sharia courts, established wherever civil courts are present (Chapteb V.. and separate mosques, although Shiah are allowed by their religious law to worship with Sunnis.

Gl C

Internally the Sunni and,esser extent, the Shiah communities are very loosely organized and lack central direction. The. functions of their leaders, who are often recognized tacitly rather than elected or appointed, are nowhere clearlyand are limited only by long usage.ability Is not considered inandidate's suitability for religious office.

a. SunnSunni Muslims of Iraq are further divided into Arabs and Kurds whose sole meeting ground, other than nationality, is their common religion. In some respects even theirpractices take different directions. Strict observance of the external forms of piety is found more often among Kurds than Arabs, and many Kurds follow the Shaflite school of Muslim law rather than the more liberal Hanafltc system espoused by the majority of Sunni Arabs in Iraq.

The Sunni community has no central religious hierarchy which might serve to unify itsThereumber of religious officeswith Muslim law and guiding religious life,older of such an office is not ordained and may lose his office, and with it his titles andat any time. The Sunni religious offices are those of muezzin, mulla, imam, mufti, and cadi. Senior theologians who have gathered prestige are known collectively as the ulema (sing. 'Slim) or learned men. Generally, holders of religious offices are appointed by royal iradah (decree) from graduates of Sunni madrasahs, or higher religious schools, such as the College of Islamic Law (see Subsection C) in Baghdad or the renowned al-Azhar University in Cairo.

The muezzin, mulla, imam, and mufti areconnected with the functioning of mosques. The muezzin, who has only to chant tbe call to prayer Ave times daily, islind man, selected so as not to violate the privacy of adjacent courtyards. The mulla is the overseerillage mosquemaller urban mosque, lie may beay member respected for his unusual piety. He may also be the teachereligious or mulla school sponsored by tho faith. He is not allowed toe interpretation of thelaw, which regulates so much of Muslim life.cholar of canon law, however, hethe law to individual believers who may come to him for help.arger mosque the mulla is often subordinate to the imam, who oversees the mosque and leads the Friday prayer. The leading Imamrincipal mosque will oftenufti, regarded as expert in canon law, who on request expoundsatwa, or formal legal opinion, the meaning of the law on any particular point The fatwa may involve considerable elucidation of canon law and its authority is absolute.


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qidi, or judge ol Sharia or religious law. presides over the Sunni mahkamah shar 'iyah, or religious court (see Chaftxb V.dealing with questions of marriage, dowries, inheritance, divorce, and alimony. If alegal problem Is involved, the qfidl refers the matter to the authorityufti

b. ShiahThe majority of Iraqi Shiah are Indigenous Arabs, and most of them belong to the Jrnami or Twelver sect, which recognises theof the Twelve Imams.

The Shiah community Is more centrallyand closely-knit than the Sunni Much of the cohesiveness of the Shiah can be attributed to the existence of the mujtahids who, as theon earth of the absent Imam (not to bewith the imam officiatingre empowered-to guide their followers in all aspects of life Mujtahids may give advice applicable toreligious matters or may issue interpretationseneral character which have the force of law among their followers.u) tan id'8however. Is valid only during his lifetime. Each Important mujtahldhain ofamong the Shiah communities, and every devout Shiahujtahld as hisadvisor and consults either him or his nearest representative whenever he is in doubt asourse of action. Shiah tend to submit disputes of all kinds to their holy men rather than to civil courts- Many of the rigidly orthodox, although of necessity obeying the civil authorities, consider that they owe their first allegiance to theirleaders. Mujtahids are constantly inof gifts of money from the faithful for such religious, educational, or charitable use as may seem appropriate to them.

The various ranks of mujtahids. Including the Great Mujtahids and the Chief Mujtahid, are reached only after many years of study, and the gainingonsiderable reputation forand piety.hiah scholar becomes aupon passing severe examinations, written and oral. If he further impresses the Shiah religious world, he may be recognized by general agreementreat Mujtahld, of whom there are very few at any one time. The Great Mujtahids dwelling In Karbali and An Najaf are sometimes knownas the 'atabaJi. or Threshold, and have authority throughout the entire Shiah world. In Iraq they can, when they wish, exercisepolitical influence

The most revered of all scholarly and pious Shiah Is universally acknowledged as the Chief Mujtahid, and customarily resides In An Najaf. While he has no executive power, his influence Is enormous among Shiah both Inside and outside

atwa by the Chief Mujtahld will be obeyed by Shiah as implicitlyapal bull was obeyed In medieval Europe.

The Chief Mujtahid has usuallyersian rather than an Arab; and the present ChiefSa'ldHusayn Kashlf al-Ghlta'ative Iraqi, is of Iranian ancestry. Rival mujtahids do not attempt to replace the Chief after his recognition, but rivalry breaks out openly upon the death of the incumbent.

As among the Sunni, Shiah holy men of lesser rank and prestige Include muezzins, mullas. imams, muftis and qadis, most of whom are trained at religious schools In An Najaf and Karbala. In addition there is among the Shiah the office of the klliddar (trustee or guardian) of the holy places. The responsibilities of the kilidaar. which Include the safety, administration, and finances of the mosque or shrine as well as the arrangementswith pilgrims, are hereditary.

Shiah throughout the Muslim world look to their four holy cities in central Iraq for spiritualAn Najaf and Karbala are the capitals of Shi ism, and are regarded as second only to Mecca by Shiah on pilgrimage. Al Kadhimaln and Samarra are of somewhat lesser Importance. Pio-uuhows the "Mosque of the Golden Domes" In Al Kadhimaln.

An Najaf and Karbala exist almost entirely on and for religion. Pilgrimages bring contributions as well as payment to local inhabitants for services rendered in the way of lood and lodging, and are lucrative sources of income. While there Is much local pilgrimage within Iraq, there are also0 pilgrims annually from Iran. Othersn numbers from Afghanistan, India, and theShiah regions of Syria. The corpse traffic brings in further revenue, for the area about the shrines is the burial ground of millions of devout Shiah from far and near. 0 bodies arriveIn An Najaf, and the pricerave is In proportion to its nearness to the shrine of 'Ali.

An Najaf, andesser extent Karbala, are noted for their religious schools. Young men and old come from all over the Shiah world to study with the great scholars or to remain close to them in order to partake of their learning. The better organized of the schools are housed in separate buildings where the students eat, study, and sleep. Students are supported from the charitable funds entrusted to the mujtahids.

Both An Najaf and Karbala still show strong Iranian influence. Many of the holy men and students of both An Najaf and Karbali areand the primary language of an estimatedercent of the poorerersian rather than Arabic.

c. Heterodox groupsThe obscure Muslim sects ol the 'AH Hahi. Baj6ran, Shabak. and Qizil-bashi are found in northern Iraq in the Assyrian plains and foothills. Excepting the Turkoman Qizllbashis. all are Kurdish and live apart from other groups in villages of their own. The sects are, to varying extremes, offshoots of Shllsm. They are related doctrinally with one another and with heterodox sects In Iran, and have In common their devotion to the Shiah imams, rites resemblingand other syncretistic elements.

The 'All Ilahi (deifiers of 'All) sect ls identical with that of the same name in western Iran (seen Iraq the Kurdish Kaka'l tribe, occupying aboutillages south of the Little Zab, and the Sarll. aof the KAka'i tribe occupying some sixnorth of the Little Zab, belong to this sect. Both speak the Go rani dialect of Kurdish. The Sarll recognise the religious authority of anchief, resident in the village of Wardak.

The Bajoron, several thousand strong, live in villages north of Mosul andrincipal sheikh who visits the various communitiesto preside at their ceremonies. Little is known of their religious beliefs, but their practices Indicate some affinity to Isma'ilism (seehey veneraterophet they call Ismail and make ritual use of the number seven. Theyixed Kurdish dialect

The Shabak inhabit the Jabal Sinjar district of Mosul llwa' and are not clearly differentiated from their Yezidl neighbors. Their religion isof Yezidi and extreme Shiah elements, and they frequently attend Yezidl assemblies and places of pilgrimage. They speak the Goran!of Kurdish.

The Qixllbashi religion, found also throughout Asia Minor, has many adherents among thevillagers of KirkOkhe religionof survivals of pagan beliefs mixed with forms of Christianity and coveredloak or Islam. Many QlzUbashl tenets, such as the belief In the divinity of 'Alluccession of divineshow close affinities with those of the Syrian Nusayrls (seerom Christianity they have adopted reverence for the Virgin Mary, and the practice of confession,and communion. The Qizilbashlsell-defined religious hierarchy, at the head of which are two patriarchs, resident in Turkey, thought to be Invested with divine power asof 'AIL Below the patriarchs are bishops and priests, who function as intermediaries between Ood and man.

inority communities

Although the non-Muslim minorities in their totality are numerically small, they have aimportance in Iraq because, from the political and social aspect, the problems raised hy their presence have greatly affected internaland social Issues in Iraq as well as Iraq'swith foreign countries. The Jews and some Christian groups are concentrated in the three most important cities and their influence on the trade, commerce, and Industry of the country has been much greater than their numbers would

Within the small non-Muslim minority the greatest single groups are Jews and Christians. There are, furthermore, the strange communities of Yezidis and Mandaeans. the latter being afrom the pre-Muslim era.ery small number of Bahais who have deviated too far from their Shiah beginnings to be classified as Muslims.

Following time-honored custom each of the non-Muslim religious communities, or millets, has its own organisation with some degree of autonomy. The communities themselves apply theirlaws, customary or codified, and each has jurisdiction, granted byf the Iraqi Constitution, over its religious properties including cemeteries and churches. Within the generalof the education laws, communities can and do support their own schools. The community leader, who Is either elected to his position orit, functions as the representative of hisIn its general and personal relations with the natlonul government.

The Iraqi Government has final control over all communities. Leaders chosen by the communities must usually be officially appointed by royalMembers of all religious communities are subject in genera] to the state civil and criminal laws.

Several laws have been issued for particularTwo communities, the Jewish and the Armenian Orthodox, are organized according to constitutions promulgated by the Iraqi parliamentther communities still have theirreligious and lay systems, validated by long usage or Ottoman decree. Religious courts, with jurisdiction over matters of personal status, were set up In general terms for the Jewish andcommunities by Articlesndf the Iraqi Constitution but were regulated by Law No.enches of revision (see Chapter V,f the Jewish community and of certain of the Christian sects, including one court for Roman Catholics and Uniates. one for Orthodoxand one for Jacobites were also regulated by this law. These courts, whose members must be appointed by royal decree, are under the super-



ol the Ministry of Justice. In thosenot specified In this lew. matters ofstatus must be referred to Iraqi civil courts Suitsuslimon-Muslim arc tried in the Muslim Sharia Courts unless either party demands the transfer ofixed suit to the Civil Courts.

As the national Iraqi Government has developed, broadened, and become more secularized, it isthat it should assume authority over many matters formerly handled within the millets. Some functions have been taken over entirely by civil administrators; others, such as education, are being brought rapidly under centralizedcontrol and have ceased to come under the exclusive authority of the millets.

a. JewsJewish community in Iraq is of long standing. Of an, onlyre foreign bom. The community claims descent from the remnants of the"Captivity" who did not return tobut the greatest immigration into Iraq probably took place after the Roman destruction of Jerusalem

Iraqi Jews, as heirs of the Orthodox Rabbinical Judaism which developed in Mesopotamia,many of their ancient customs and beliefs No divorce whatever Is allowed. Two ancient shrines, the tomb of Ezekiel at Al Kill and the so-called tomb of Ezra at Al 'Azair, are popularof pilgrimage for the orthodox both within and outside of Iraq. Although in many cases they are more Westernized than their Muslim neighbors, the Jewish attitude toward women lias changedandesult many Jewish women inand elsewhere still retain the veil.

The urban Jewish communities showgroup solidarity. Theyocial existence apart from the general population and have their own schools, hospitals, and charitable institutions. For example, the wealthy Baghdad community, made up ofercent of all Iraqiwnschools, twoispensary,harmacy.

According to Law1 as amended, the Jews of Iraq are organised in separatethe first to be constituted being those ofBasra, and Mosul. Diyftla. and 'Amara were added later. Each of the communities haseneral council,ay council The Baghdad community haspiritual council. All Iraqi Jews are members of their respectiveunless they renounce their Jewish faith.

At Baghdad the General Council consists ofembers, of whom seven are rabbis. The lay members of. the General Council are elected by the male members of the community who are Iraqi citizens and the rabbi members by the rabbis of the community. The President, whose election must be ccofVrmed byhief Rabbi are elected by the General Councileriod of four years. The Lay Council consists of theas chairman and eight members elected from the laity by the Oeneral Council. It administers Jewish waqf and other religious, charitable, and educational property and collects communal dues. The Spiritual Council, consisting of the Chiefas chairman and seven other members elected by the General Councilerm of four years, deals with the training of the rabbinate andthe general religious and spiritualof the community. Religious courts, and Benches of Revision, regulated by Lawre each composed of three members, eitheror legal experts, who serve for three years.

The organization of the smaller communities is generally similar to that of Baghdad, though the councils are smaller in size. Outside ofhief Rabbi is appointed onlyeligious court has been established.

b. ChristiansExcepting the majority of the Nestorian Assyriansumber of theand Uniatc Armenians, Iraqi Christians are indigenous. Most speak Arabic in addition to their community language and mix freely with their Muslim neighbors socially. In schools,and government organizations.ew towns and villages in the north, and sections of the cities of Mosul and Baghdad, are exclusively Christian.

The Christians are dividedariety of sects which differ from one another in ritual, belief, language, and ethnic composition. The ancient Eastern churchesJacobite, Nestorian. Armenian Orthodox, and Greek Orthodoxas well as the Roman Catholic, four of the Unlates, and theare all represented in Iraq.

acobiteiThe Jacobites or Syrian Orthodox are survivors of the Monophysiteorganized by Jacob Baradaeus in Syria and Mesopotamia in the sixth century. Monophysites, who broke ofT from the main body of Christianityave been since that time consideredby Orthodox Christians. The Jacobites use an ancient liturgy known as that of St. James the Less, and their liturgical and national language is Syrlac. They have an extensive hierarchy headed by the Patriarch of Antioch. who has lived at Mosul since his expulsion from Tur 'Abd In by the Turksecond dignitary is the iiaphrian oi Mosul, who acts as senior bishop.

Iraqi Jacobiteseasant people whosevillages are found in the Mosul plain and in Jabal Maqlub, the location of their beat-known monastery. Mar Mattai.

estoriansThe term "Nestorian" is often used Interchangeably withowever, the Assyriansistinct ethnic group, whose members may also be adherents of the TJni-ate Chaldean or Assyrian Protestant Churches 'see below).

The Nestorian Church was established. by followers of the teachings of Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, who was deposed by the Council of Ephesusor opposing the dogma that the Virgin Mary is the mother of God. The Nestorian concept of Christ continued to findin Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia, and the Nestorians later became the strongest Christian element In the Islamic empire. The IraqiChurch was largely destroyed during theinvasions (thirteenth and fourteenthhowever, and many of Its members fled north to the HakkArt mountains in present-day Turkey. Others remained south of Hakkari In what is now Iraq.

A reverse flight from the Turkshe Nestorian church, the second largest Christian church tn Iraq today. Of tbe Nestorians now in Iraq some are still found In their old homes around 'Amadiya and Ruwindiz, while others have settled in villages around Mosulew are working in the larger towns.

The Iraqi Nestoriansommunity apart, separated even from other Assyrians by their faith and distinctive traditions. Their religion retains many forms of worship usedery early period in Christian history, including the most ancient liturgy- in Christendom. Their native andSyriac language (FclIUii)ialect of Aramaic, but many speak Arabic or Kurdish as well.

The titular head of the Nestorianelibate patriarch, is temporal as well as religious leader. Descending from uncle to nephew, the patriarchate has remained In the same family, the ShirtiTm, almost exclusively for theears. The present patriarch. Eshal Mar Shim'un, residedorthern Iraq but was exiled following the Assyrian rebellionnd now lives in. in Chicago, Illinois.

During the absence of the Patriarch theChurch in Iraq Is under the leadership of three bishops, of whom the Archbishop of Harlr, Mar YQsuf (pictured inousin of the Patriarch, is the most influential. In addition, each Nestorian village lias Its priest, who isto marry.

rmenianAboutercent of all Armenians in Iraq belong to the Armenian Orthodox or Gregorian Church. Most of those In Iraq fled from Turkey during and Immediately after Worldnd settled in Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra.

The Gregorian Church, founded by St Gregory the Illuminator, has been the independentchurch of Armeniandodified form of Monophysitism. Its liturgy is Armenian, and it is still the national church, found wherever Armenians are settled. Of all the Armenian prelates, the Catholicos of Etchmladzin in Soviet Armenia is the most exalted. The church u. Iraq, although nominally subject to the See of Antelias in Lebanon, is practically self-governing.

Iraqi Law No.1 lays down theof the Armenian community and providesead of the Community (at present Krlkor derpiritual, Lay, and Generala religious court and Bench of Revision sitting in Baghdad; and Church Assemblies and Church Representatives in Basra, Mosul, and Kirkuk.

The Head of the community, who is alsoof the three councils, is elected by theCouncil and confirmed by royal decree. He must be an ecclesiastic and, unless an exception is made by the Iraqi Council of Ministers, an Iraqipon his election, generally although not necessarily confirmed by Antelias, he is known as the Archbishop of Baghdad.

The General Council in Baghdad,re elected by all Armenians of Iraqielects the members of the Lay and Spiritual Councils as well as the Head of the community and supervises the acts of the Councils and Church Assemblies. The Spiritual Council Is concerned with the supervision and conduct of spiritual and religious affairs. The Lay Council administers the Armenian waqfs. The Religious Court and Bench of Revision are each composed of three members, clergymen or legal experts, who serve for three years. The church representatives and assemblies, elected locally, administer the affairs of thecommunities.

Greek OrthodoxThe Greek Orthodox community in Iraq is very small. Almost all of Its members are of families long resident in Iraq and are Arab in culture and feeling. They are subject to the religious Jurisdiction of the auto-cephalous Patriarch of Antioch. at presentTahhfin. resident in Damascus. Theof Antioch is almost wholly Arab ashierarchy, laity, and liturgy. The Greek Orthodox Religious Court and Bench of Revision are organized similarly to those of the Jewish and Armenian Orthodox

Roman Catholics andCatholic Church has very few adherents in Iraq. However. Roman Catholic missions which; maintain churches, convents, schools,'andare important In the life of the Christian population of MosuL The oldest and -best staffed of the missions in Mosul is. that of the French Dominican Fathers, but there are also Italian




Salcsians and French Sisters of the Presentation of Tours. American Jesuits have established inighly respected school which had an enrollmenttudents. Roman Catholics in Iraq are subject to the directof the Roman Catholic hierarchy and use the Latin rite. An apostolic delegate resides in Baghdad

The Uniate churches are those oriental churches which acknowledge papal supremacy but areto retain their peculiar rights and customs, such as the marriage of parishhey are autonomous under their own elected patriarchs. Of the four Uniate churches represented in Iraq, only the Chaldean and the Syrian Catholic churches have followlngs of any size, the Armenian and Oreek Catholics are numerically insignificant The Chaldeans, the most numerous of Iraqi Christians, arc descended from Ncstorians whoin Iraq during and after thes the Chaldeans accepted theof the Pope, as they had donetn the past, in order to gain Frenchagainst Kurds and Turks. Their native and ecclesiastical language is Syrlac. and they arc under the Patriarch of Babylon who resides In Mosul. There is an important Chaldeanat Alqdsh village, and Chaldeans have theofominican mission and school at Mosul. Chaldeans live in villages of their own, notably Tall Kail, as well as side by side with Nestorian Assyrians in the Mosul area.

The Syrian Catholic Church was formed bywho became Unlates for much the same reasons as the Chaldeans. They areeasant community in the plains around Mosul. They alsoyriac liturgy and have awho lives in Beirut, Lebanon. Their present patriarchardinal.

The Armenian Catholics, converts from the Ore-gorian Church, use an Armenian liturgy. Their titular head is the Patriarch of Constantinople, resident near Beirut.

The Greek Catholics are an offshoot of the Greek Orthodox Church. Theyreek liturgy and are under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch ofresident in Cairo.

For administrative purposes the Iraqiconsiders the Roman Catholic and Uniate churches together as five divisions of the Catholic Church Law No.7 establishes fora religious court, with five members, one from each of the divisions. The Catholic Bench ofis composed of the spiritual heads of the live Catholic communities.

rotestantsProtestant elements in Iraq, mainly the work of American Baptist,and Dutch Reform missions, arein number

<I) MandacansThe Mandaeans or Sa-bians (known also as Subbl and Incorrectly as Sa-baeans)nostic sect of ancient origin. By adopting the term "Sabian" In former times, they secured for themselves the tolerance recommended in the Koran for "Christians, Jews, andowever, enmity with surrounding tribes, internal feuds, and secularization haveteadyin the once numerous MandacanThey are still diminishing today, largely through the marriage of their women to Muslims.

Mandaeans. who holdevout acceptance of their creed will avert disease, believe in abeing, the King of Light, but notavior. Their hKrarchy of good and evil beings includes representatives of Iranian, Babylonian, andreligions. Their peculiar reverence for John the Baptist, whom they consider an incarnation of one of these gods, has misled many into thinking of them as Christians. However. Jesus and Muhammad are regarded as false gods, and Man-daclsm is hostile to both Christianity and Islam. The most distinctive characteristic of the Man-daean religionurifactory baptism, earned out in frequent ceremonial ablutions, which requires them to live near running water. Pacifism and vegetarianism are considered meritorious. There are several Mandaean holy books written in their liturgicalialect of Aramaic.temples are small, being merely receptacles for objects used in their Sunday services. The clergy includes the offices of deacon and priest The priesthood is usually hereditary among men, but the office may be heldoman. There are also bishops or high priests who theoretically have full authority over the lesser priesthood as well as almost unlimited influence among the people.

ezidisEthnically the Yezidis are Kurds. They speak the Kurmanji dialect and are organized trlbally In the same manner as their Muslim Kurdish neighbors (see thiseligion andheyemi-nomadic people whose center is in Jabal Sin-Jar, but there are also Yczidi communities in Syria, Turkey, and Tlflia In the Caucasus.

Tho Yezldi religion originateduslim heresy believing In the imamate of the Umayyad caliphdiedt ls an eclectic, esoteric creed which regards the Oid and New Testaments and the Koran as sacred books, and its rites, conducted In Arabic, show Christian,Iranian, and pagan influences. The main tenets of the Yezldi religion, however, are peculiar to It Thereupreme God who, after thecreation, delegated the conduct of worldly affairs to seven angels. Each of these angelsto rule the worldears and their

descendants are shelkhly families or Lhe YezldLs. The angel of the present era Is Malak Tawus (the Peacockhose Identification with Satan has given rise to the erroneous characterization of Yezidis asn reality, the Yezidis regard Malak Tawusallenind of Lucifer, standing for power; he Israther than worshipped. They will not, lor example, pronounce and prefer nol even to hear the word ihayt&n, Arabic for Satan, or any other word combining the initial "sh"ollowing

Yezidis also revere certain trees, springs, and stones; and little shrines dot their nativeTheir greatest shrine Is the tomb of their saint. Sheikh 'Adl, at Lalcsh (also called "Sheikhhere their sacred books, the Black Book and the Book of Revelation, as well as the peacock images of Malak TawUs. are kept. Semiannual pUgrimages to Sheikh 'Adi are virtually

The Yezidisomplicated theocratic caste system divided into six grades which the layman may not enter. At the head of this system is the hereditary Chief Sheikhho lives at Ba'edrt. In theory he wields supremeas well as spiritual power over the Yezldland although his temporal power does not in effect extend beyond the area in which hehis prestige is considerable among Yezidis everywhere. His ample revenues are derivedrom his custodianship of cult objects and the shrine of Sheikh 'Adi. The possession of these perquisites is much envied and most chief sheikhs have been murdered by aspirants to the office. After the tomb of Sheikh 'Adi, the house of the Chief Sheikh is the most venerated of Yezidi shrines.

The Yezidi laityeneral caste.they may join nonhereditary ascetic orders, laymen are generally kept in ignorance of the sacred scriptures and of the Inner doctrines of the faith. Education was forbidden by religion until recently, and Yezldl children are still notto learn reading and writing, for fear of weaning them from the religion of their fathers.

The Yezidis are ajiU-aasunllaUonist; they hold no communion with non-Yezidls and in particular will not intermarry with them. They do notone must beezidi Theiridentity has been crystalliiedong history of semi-autonomy, punctuated under the Ottomans by persecutions and attemptedMilitary conscription has always beenresisted by the Yesldls, who objected to service under Muslim commanders, and the Yezldlwas specially exempted from militaryunder the Turkish rule in Iraq.he assimilation 1st policy of the Iraqi Government and its attempts at conscription gave rise to awhich forced Baghdad to abandon its policy of forcibly recruiting Yezidis Into the army.

ahaisThe few hundred Bahais,exclusively In Baghdad, have only anconnection with Iraq. They areof modernist Shiah teachers who in the nineteenth centuryreat stir in Iran by identifying themselves with the Twelfth Imam. The Bahais accept Muhammad and the Koran, but hold that revelation is progressive. On the whole, their preaching Is directed more towards ethics than toward the elaborationystematic theology. Showqi Eftendi. their religiousescendant of the founder, and lives in Haifa, Israel

ocial and political significance uf Islam and religious minorities

Islam, the religion of the state as well as of the vast majority of Iraqis, Is regarded by many young nationalists as the unifying element inlife. In the view ol this group, whichmembers of the Young Muslim Men's(YMMA) and the undercover Muslim(aUIkhwan al-Muslimun) none but Muslims are full and loyal citizens of the Iraqi state.of the opposite viewpoint is the small group of nationalists who feelomplete secularization of the state Is desirable andfor the attainment of unity. Between the two extremesew men who wish toense of nationhood capable of transcending barriers of race, language and religion, without havingto the purely secular solution of denying the value of all religion.

While Islam is the official religion of the state, complete freedom of conscience Is allowed in Iraq, both in law and in practice (for further details see Chapter V, Sectionnder "Civilew incidents Ins and the Baghdad pogrom1ime when thehad practically ceased to function, there has been no physical persecution of minorities.

a. Government attitude toward religious minoritiesThe Iraqi Government practices little actual religious intolerance and lias, on the whole, tried to be correct in its dealings with religious minorities. Discrimination Is seldom on the grounds of doctrine, but arises, rather, fromand political causes. It also reflects to some extent resentment at minority separatistGovernmental discrimination generally, involves the favoring of Sunni Arabs, and' it is almost always unostentatious.

Shiah, for the sake of appearances, are allowed to hold high office In government, butagainst non-Muslim groups Is relatively more pronounced. They aro tho last to be chosen for the much-desired government appointments, partly


NIS 30

the supply of young Muslims nowsufficient education to qualify for government service somewhat exceeds the demand. Non-Muslim army cancers have fewer advantages than their Muslim comrades. Pressure of various kinds and degrees is brought to bear by governmenton non-Muslim businessmen.

Although all Iraqi nationals are In theory equal before the law, local Muslim officials are notobjective. Changing one'segal process. Is simple for one who wishes touslim;uslim wishes tohristian, on the other hand, he sometimes finds it extremely difficult to have the necessary legal papersLaws and administrative actsoffensive to the powerful Shiah population of An Najaf and Karbaia are not as rigidlythere as in other parts of Iraq.

The Jews of Iraq have shared in the generaldiscrimination against non-Muslims, but have further been treated with exceptional strictness in the matter of income tax assessments, and have been considered last for admission to overcrowded government schools of all grade levels.owever,eterioration of their positlon over the previousears, Jewishstill controlled betweenndercent of Baghdad commercial enterprises. In the same year the number of Jews in the governmentor higher schools was proportionately higher than that of Muslims.

Since the UN. resolution calling for the partition of Palestine, and the Arab-Jewish struggle which followed it, intercommunal tension between Muslim and Jew has increased, and governmentalagainst Jews has become more pronounced.

While the government has not instituted any discriminatory economic and social laws against Jews on racial or religious grounds, it has declared Zionism, along with communism, treasonable. Widespread arrests and internments of Zionists have taken place, and severe prison sentences have been Imposed; similarly, many Jews have been dismissed from government service for security reasons. However, arrests, particularly after the first wave of excitement had passed, were directed against small allegedly active pro-Zionist groups, and there was no general persecution. Except in the case of Shaflq 'Adashe millionaire Iraqi Jewish importer executed for high treason, the property of no Jew has been expropriated. Many Jews still hold government jobs. Jewish community schools and synagogues are open and functioning. Jewish business firms continue to function, and, as far as can be ascertained,air share of the scarce foreign exchange

Because of the very prominent role played by Jews in financial and business circles in Iraq, the government did not in the pastarge-scale exodus. Emigration by Jews was illegal untilut accordingaw passed in that month they could leave Iraq on condition that they take with them onlyraqi dinars andforfeit their Iraqi citizenship.,ews had left Iraq by airlift for Israel and0 more had completed the denationalization process infor emigration.

b. rxljcious caoors amd national policies

Religious differences in Iraq not uncommonlyorm of political antagonism destructive tounity. There are deep and long-standing antipathies, often racial or social, between allgroups. Much of the anti-forelgnism of the nationalist spills over to include groups which have religious or ethnic affinities with foreign powers which may or may not have supported them in the past. Fears of Muslim reprisals have in turnminority" mentality among some of these non-Muslim groups, who are inclined toeliberate policy of persecution andInto decisions of the government and its administrative officers.

Because of the hold which Islam, particularly Shiah Islam, still has on its adherents. Muslim religious leaders are able to control to some extent the political tendencies and Ideological attitudes of their followers. The influence of the clergy on the Shiah tribes in southern Iraq, while waning, is still so strong that almost no tribal revolt or disturbance is possible against the will of theleaders.alid religious ground can be found the Shiah tribes, particularly during the emotional intensity of the MsAfird' festival, can be stirred up on almost any issue. Religious leaders, called upon occasionally by the government tocertain policies, retain enough independence to withhold support if they so wish.

reater degree of cooperation with the government in recent years, the Shiah remain one of the most disaffected religious groups in Iraq Their antagonism toward the Sunnis, partly aof the ruled for their rulers, is growing less as the Shiah begin to take morehare in the administration (see Chapter V,. Their dissatisfaction has in the post made themto overtures from subversive groups;owever, Shiah leaders agreed to use their influence to assist the government in combating pro-Soviet agitation.

Indigenous Christians and Jews hold somepositions, are represented in Parliament, and have some share in national political life, but other non-Muslims, more recently arrived In the country, generally remain aloof from partisan politics in Iraq.



m .- .


6 -im

Many religious groups feel no loyalty to Iraq whatsoever. Some, such as the Nestorianand the Yezidis, are known to have supported actively or passively the British position fn Iraq and to have been opposed to Iraq's nationalist aspirations. Many still desire complete autonomy, and the restlessness of such groups has brought them into direct conflict with the authorities. Because of their lack of sentimental ties with Iraq and the insecurity of their position In thecertain minority communities have been the focal points of communist attempts to win support.

c. International aspects of Islam and non-Muslim groupsa predominantly Muslim state, Iraq has close ties with its MuslimBecause of religious affinities. Shiahare particularly strong with Iran, while Sunnis feel drawn to the Arab states west of Iraq and to Pakistan. However, the Islamic world stillommon bond of sentiment, Interests, and ideas which transcends the difference between Shiah and Sunni. The ideal of Islamicoriginated by the Prophet Muhammad has been intensified in the last half century, botheaction to European intervention and economic pressure andesult of active pan-Islamiccarried on by Turkey8he Muslim Brethren and the YoungMen's Association, both founded In Cairo,branches in other Near Easternincluding Iraq, with the idea of reviving the supra-national Islamic state. In9 the Iraqi Prime Minister consented to theof an Iraqi branch of the IslamicSociety (Jam'iyat al-Ukhdwahhose headquarters are in Pakistan. The society alms to strengthen the religious sgirit among Muslims, topirit of brotherhood among the Islamic peoples preparatory to theof Islam, and to combat Westernization.

Many Iraqi pan-Arab enthusiasts, mainly Sunni. associate their goalarger Arab state or federation with pan-Islamlsm. On the other hand, Shiah, who wouldeligious minority in an enlarged Sunni Arab state, are generally opposed to pan-Arabisra. At the same time the mujtahids of Iraq are necessarily Internationally minded because of the position of An Najaf and Karbala In the Shiah world. While physicallythe control of the Iraqi state and theoretically subject to Iraqi law, the mujtahids must, before Issuing fatwas. consider the effect on their whole religious realm.

Many of Iraq's non-Muslim communities have traditionally close connections with foreignor groups. For example, most of the native Christian communities, although they have aamount of local religious autonomy,igher ecclesiastical authority outside Iraq. The Greek Orthodox have In recent years been the recipients of Soviet friendly advances, accompanied by the endeavors of theOrthodox Patriarchate of Moscow lo expand Its Influence in the Near East. Gregoriantied emotionally by their religion to Soviet Armenia, the residence of their Cathollcos, have been officially encouraged bySH toto the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. The active Interest shown7 in repatriation eSorts has abated as unfavorable reports ontn Soviet Armenia have reached Iraq.

The Assyrian community generally has little loyalty to Iraq, and is willing to appeal to or assist any outside power which might help It to attain its desire either for autonomy, independence, or mass migrationhristian country. Assyrian propaganda complaining of persecutions, andfor help to the League of Nations, the United Nations, and the governments of various foreign powers, have damaged Iraq's reputation.

5 the Assyrians considered the United Kingdom as their protector and In their debt for services rendered against the Iraqi army4owever, as Great Britain's power waned and It became obvious that it would not support effectively the Assyrian nationalAssyrians have tended to lookor aid.

The Jews of Iraqhole have had In the past no International political sympathies or loyalties. However, as Iraqi antiforeign and antl-Zlonist sentiment has made Itself felt, the Iraqi Jewish community has been increasingly tornesire to preserve its position In Iraqatural sympathy for its coreligionists in Palestine, and later Israel.

The more solidly entrenched of the Iraqi Jews, including the majority of religious and business leaders as well as small tradesmen and artisans, have viewed the Zionist issue with alarm, andof this group have publicly expressed their loyalty to Iraq. On the other hand, three-fourths of the Iruql Jews, including moat of theand younger elements, are believed to bedisposed toward emigration to Israel. Much of their enthusiasm, however, reflects less of an ideological interest in Zionismeneral dissatisfaction with conditions in Iraqesire toewish refuge established Ininority of Iraqi Jews hasactively In Zionist efforts.

Dissatisfactionrowing fear have made the Jewishrey to communistFor the extent to which communism has Invaded the Jewish community, sec Chapteb V,

NIS 30


a British educational adviser wasannually by the British0 and again3he Ministry isfor the establishment, financial support, and closing of public schools, the appointment,and dismissal of teachers, the determination of curricula and textbooks, and the formulation and grading ol public examinations which are held at the end of the sixth grade of primary school and of the third and fifth years of secondary school.

Outside of the Ministry proper Iraqi educatorsodicum of Independence. All routine school equipment in public primary and secondary schools (books, furniture, stationery,sby the Ministry and no principal is allowed to spend money on these items. Certain of the higher colleges, on the other hand, control their own expenditures, develop their own curricula, and conduct their own examinations, though an these Items ultimately are subject to the approval of the Ministry.

a. Degree or lttebacyWhile there are no exact figures to indicate the literacy rate in Iraq, it has been estimatedaximum of 8of the population is literate. Of this small percentage the vast majority are urban males, many of whom attendedulla school where they learned to read the Koran, or at best haveew years of primary schooling. Even today onlyercent of primary school children are in the highest or sixth grade. Most of the peasants must keep their children at home to help in the battle against poverty and hunger, and, with the exceptionew sheikhs, practically all adult Bedouin are illiterate. There areewschools among the tribes, but the pupilsthem areule limited to the children of the sheikh and his entourage. Nevertheless, the demand for and interest In education in Iraq is growing.

b. Government controlIn general,in Iraq is governed by provisions of the Public Education Lawowever, the CivilLawhich applies to all government employees, governs the appointment, promotion, and dismissal of teachers. The Local Languages Law1 defines the areas in northern Iraq where languages In addition to Arabic are to be considered official. The public schools follow this same pattern and use Arabic, Kurdish, Turkish, or Syriac as the language of instruction in conformity

to local usage.

The Ministry of Education datesor information as to the organization of thissee Chapter V,. Although the executive staff has been entirely Iraqi since its in-

In its control of religious instruction Inschools the Ministry adheres to an Iraqi law forbidding proselytlsm. Governmental attempts Ino take religious teaching out ofschools were not favorably received and, in fact, drove many students to the mulla. or Koranic schools. Although the government provides courses in the predominant religion In the local area in the primary and secondary schools at which attendance ls compulsory for all students of the faith concerned, students of other faiths areusually to be given instruction on school premises during that period by members of their own faith.

While the Iraqi Government is trying todenominational schools gradually, there are still some government Jewish and Christian schools on the primary level. These schools,administered by the communities, were given over to the government in accordance1 agreement with what was then theof Education. The communities continue to supply the buildings, while the governmentall administrative responsibility.

Nongovernmental schools, except theovernment permit, are subject to government inspection of their equipment,and curricula, and generally receive some government support. Although private andschools are allowed to select their teachers and the language of instruction, Iraqi law stipulates that history, geography, social sciences, and the Arabic language must be taught in Arabic by teachers appointed by the government.

The present organization puts an overwhelming administrative burden on the badly understaffed Ministry of Education. Consequently, Ministry


O 3 f






officials find little time to formulate carefully thought-out policies. In addition, frequent changes of both the Minister of Education and the Director General tend to Interrupt educational programs before they are fully formulated or implemented.

The high degree of authority centered in the Ministry of Education has opened the way for biased and autocratic action Teachers who do not follow the government line are subject to quick: dismissal The Minister ofolitical appointee. Is often involved in political struggles and controversies. Intrigue, corruption, school examination frauds, and individual favoritism to the children of important persons ore not unknown in the Ministry.

c. Characteristics or Iraqi educationIraqi nationalistic policies are evident in the school system. Great stress Is now put on the Arabof the Iraqi heritage In order to strengthen the tradition of Iraqenter of culture Indays.3 revision of the government syllabuses for history and geography, for example, shilted the emphasisorld approachocal one.

The centralization of control in the Ministry of Education precludes diversification. Noadministrator or teacherrimary orschool is free to introduce variations inor method to bring them into keeping with his environment. The student even in college ismerely to elect his future profession without being- given the choice of courses he thinks would best serve him in that work.

Subjects offered in the primary and secondary schools, being mainly literary and nonpractical, lack direct bearing on the social and economic life of the people, particularly In rural and tribal areas. Because they are modelled on the Europeanfor students who are much better prepared, they are too difficult for the average Iraqi student Therearge percentage of student retardation and failure. The pupil, for example, must devote an inordinate amount of study lo written literary Arabic, which greatly differs from Ihe spoken language he acquires at home (seeulturalhe education of many minority groups, on the other hand, is handicapped by the fact that the languages they speak are not developedritten form.

Most Iraqi primary schooling today consists of learning the three R's and memorizing prescribed historical and geographical facts and figures. This learning by rote, which Is the continuance of an ancient tradition, Is further encouraged by theexaminations which the student must pass in order to qualify for advancement to the next grade, and the government comprehensivefor graduation and advancementigher school.

In its efforts to extend opportunity forthe government has admitted manypersons to the teaching ranks. Teachers and principals, who transfer with extraordinaryand who are not necessarily promoted on the basis of competence,onsequent lack of personal Interest In their work. Rural areas suffer most in this respect, since the poorest and the least influential teachers are assigned to the country schools.

Education has suffered further from studentin strikes and demonstrations during the school year. In anticipation of studentwhich are illegal, the government has at times closed schoolseriod as long as two weeks.

Education in the Near East, by tradition, favors the male.7 there were inrimary schools for boys, butrimary schools for girls, who constituted one-fourth of the totalenrollment The first girls'school was not openednd7 there were no secondary schools at the preparatory level for girls except in Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul liwa's. As would be expected, the prejudice against the education of girls is breaking down more slowly in the rural areas and In the Shiah religiousthan in the large cities.

Iraqi education, while theoreticallyfurther divides an alreadyAt the expense of badly-neededand technicians the public schools,the former need for governmentare still concentrating on the productionworkers.esult there is aof poorly-educated, stereotyped graduatesa government job as the goal ofwho are unwilling to do manual orPrivate-school graduates, on tbefill most of the business and commercialIraq. Education serves in no way togulf between tribesman and city-dweller,rare tribal student who receives an urban edu-usually does not wish to return to hisdoes soiscontented..

d. Attempts at improvementshows the Iraqi public education systems having grown to more thanimesize. Reflecting the effort of the.Mlnlstry ofto increase Ittcracy.os rapidly as possible aboutercent of the enrollment, schools, and

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note Primary schools indud* kindergarten* and junior .cnools; secondary schooU include Intermedin sad preparatory .choole;

andcollege prepare teachers lor primnry and rumlot available.

in the public school system are ineducation.

Recognizing the need for improvement, thehas, within the last ten years, sent various committees to neighboring states to study thcir educational systems, and an increasing number of students are being sent to study education In tbe United States. There hasteady increase in funds allotted to education, and the budgetary provision of the Ministry of Education is nowonly by that of the army.

The acquisition of teachers was the firststep undertaken by the new Ministry Special efforts were made lo make the teacher's career attractive. Teachers aregovernment-supported during the training period, and along with other advanced students they receive favored treatment in the performance of compulsory military service.fecondary school teachers had entered the service in the preceding five years. Parallel to the program of teacher training. Iraq imported teachers from Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, and Egypt in such numbers that at one time foreign teachers outnumbered Iraqi teachers. Ofteachers assigned to secondary schoolstill were non-Iraqi. Nevertheless thefearing the political influence of non-Iraqi teachers on students, prefers to hire Traqis if they are even remotely qualified.

New buildings are being erected as fast as funds are available, but they by no means meetapidly-expanding school Already-existing structures, even dwellings

ften unsulted to modern school needs, are being rented to serve as schools.

With the exception of the Law College, where the government wishes to decrease excessiveand the College of Commerce andIraqi government education is free. In addition, poor and deserving students aresubsidized at all levels. Governmentare becoming increasingly aware of theof- village and tribal education. Scholarships for instruction at higher and better-equipped schools have been instituted especially for rural students. Schools have recently been opened in considerable numbers among tbe tribes, and there areew mobile schools traveling with the Bedouin. Rural teachers' colleges have been established, and experimental rural education,instruction in agriculture, has been In Iraqi Kurdistan the translation of Arabic school books into Kurdish and theof original Kurdish texts arc helping to ease the serious shortage of textbooks.

Evening primary and secondary schools for adults have been in existence4 In the larger cities, but the number of prospectiveis far in excess of the facilities available. The Society for the Education of Illiterates, which beganigorous nongovernmental movementas taken over by the Ministry of Education0outine evening program in the towns and villages.tudents of all ages were instructed in elementary hygiene, civics, and the rudiments of reading and writing.

6 RG



overnment schools

The pattern of public education in Iraq, from kindergarten through college. Is shown graphically inhe number of government schools and the enrollmentre shown in

As Illustrated Inore than four-fifths of Iraq's registered school children are in public as opposed to private schools. Articlef the Public Education Law0 prohibits Iraqi children from attending foreign-supportedschools, and the number of nongovernment primary schools operated by Iraqi citizens is onlyercent.

. Kindergartens and juniorMinistry of Education, which tends to leave nursery schools and kindergartens to privateoffers courses of kindergarten level In only six schools. "Juniorhich startedas kindergartens but dropped theircourses, consist with but few exceptions of the first four grades of the public primaryewive- or six-year course and differ from the usual primary school only In theirof coeducation.

b. Primary sciioolsGovernment primary schoolsenerally uniform curriculumfrom four to six grades as shown inoys and girls are usually taught separately but receive basically the same education. Figure

ictureirst-grade class in the Ma'munlyah school, Baghdad.

c. Secondary schoolsWhile publicschools are theoretically open to all children who can pass the required public examination,ery small percentage of those who might qualify are admitted. The limited number of schools, their concentration In the provincial capitals, their ban on coeducation, or the financial burden of additional schooling, act as Insurmountableto the bulk of primary school education has become highlyand is consequently the object of competition, because of the lure of government positions and special consideration In regard to compulsoryservice. Under the Military Service Lawand college students are exempt from service until graduation and then are given nine months of reserve officer training rather than the usual two years in the ranks. None of theseis extended to students of vocational schools.

The two stages of secondary education,and preparatory, correspond roughly to American junior and senior high school, and are usually separately housed. The public secondary school curriculum, almost Identical for boys and girls, is rigidly fixed by the Ministry of Education; there are no electives and stress is laid upon the study of the Arabic and English languages. Most










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preparatory schools, however,hoicea scientificiterary program, the "former being required lor entrance In the Colleges of Medicine, Pharmacy, Engineering, and tbebranch of the Higher Teachers' College.

schoolsIraqirange from simple trade schools,the public primary school certificate forto the Colleges of Law and Medicine.

All professional education, tbe Law College and College of Commerce and Economics excepted, is at government expense. Tuition, board andbooks, medical care, and tn some cases even clothing and travel between home and school, are provided. Despite these advantages enrollment in the secondary vocational schools is low. Iraq is not psychologically adjusted to the concept of formal schooling leading onlyanual skill which is obtainable as well through the deeply-rootedsystem..

The colleges in Iraq arc: the Higher Teachers' College, Queen"'Aiiyah Institute, the Royal College of Medicine, the College of Pharmacy, the Law College, the College of Commerce and Economics, the College of Engineering (civil engineering only)he College of Arts and Sciences, and the College of Islamic Law. The College of Arts and Sciences, foundeds being groomed, by the Ministry as the nucleus aroundational Iraqi university is to be built

The College of Islamic Law {KttlUyaiwas established6 to prepare young Sunnis. for religious posts. Its course Is dividedecondary level of two years durationigher course of four years. The administration and expenditure of the college is subject to theof the Directorate Oeneral of Waqfs under the supervision of the Ministry of Education. Graduates of this college are preferred to others In appointment to Waqf Directorate posts, and for posts in Islamic law courts. They may also beto teach religion and Arabic Inschools.

consisting of students sent abroad atexpense, were until recently directedLebanon because of the popularity of theUniversity of Beirut Increasingare now coming to the United Statesin the technical fields.tudents were assigned to the Unitedto Lebanon.ach to Egypt and England,to France.tudentsn the United States

Students are selected for study abroad on abasis, with no apparent cognizance taken of their need for government aid. The wealthier students, having superior educational backgrounds,reater amount of influentialarge percentage of those chosen for this program.

on-government schools

Outside of the government system, Iraqi children are educated In Islamic religious schools. In the Bible schools of the Christian and Jewishand in private schools, owned and operated by Iraqi citizens or by foreign individuals and groups.

asuoious schoolsIn manypeasant communities in Iraq, theseoften called Koran or mulla schools,only education obtainable. Some evenlarge towns for children whose parents feelschools are over-secularized. Thehowever, cannot compete with theand their virtual disappearance seemsIt is probable that the enrollment1 Is substantially lowertraditional location of the Koran school isand the Instructor Is the mulla,corresponds to the parish priest. Theconsists of approximately three yearsand writing, with the Koran as thetextbook, and elementary arithmetic.

igher level is theological school orof the Shiah holy cities, whose positionthat of al-Azhar at Cairo In theStudents are drawn to Iraq from allof the Shiah world to study undersavantsheof these schools provide quarters whereeat. sleep, and study in Spartan-likeThe Koran and the Traditions areof all study. No enrollment figures arefor these

schoolsA number ofeast of Mosulew Jewishmaintain ungraded schools of much theas the Muslim mulla schools. Eachhurch or synagogue andwriting, arithmetic, and religiousthe Old or the New Testament as theIn Jewish schools Hebrew isChristian schools, usually Arabic or Syrlac. ,Torah schools,a-Mldrashils the most Important and is still at-by hundreds of pupils.

c Iraqi private schoolsMost private schools are located in the largerfew-privatekindergartens have been established Jririvate primary schools are more6 numbered only* against ;the_. Private secoridaryachpoUimthe same year also numberedhile 'there were: onlyovernment-administered schools^ Among the



secondary schools more are privately-run than are government-controlled. Private schools in Iraq are in three categories:

private ventures, conducted primarily lor profit;

schools maintained by associations;chools.

Iraqi associations which maintain schools are usually composed of persons wishing to enlarge upon the educational provisions made by theThe Tafayyud (Mutual Benefit) Society, for example, maintains kindergartens, primary schools,ay and evening secondary school in Baghdad, as well as six intermediate schools In the towns of central Iraq.

Sectarian schools are best Illustrated by those maintained in Baghdad, Mosul, and Basra by the Jewish community.5 the Jewishmaintained kindergarten, primary, andschools accommodating almost all Jewish children in Iraq and thus shouldered almost one-tenth of the total educational effort of the country. In addition to free and tuition schools of all levels the Jewish communities have workshops for the very poor which provide training In sewing and crafts and elementary work in reading,and religious literature.

Some smaller religious groups such as the Syrian Orthodox, Syrian Catholics, Roman Catholics, Chaldeans, and Armenians also maintain schools of their own, though in contrast to the Jews most of their children now attend government schools.

Private schools follow the government curricula closely so that pupils will not be handicapped in the public examinations. In general, privatestudents, most of whom come from better and more progressive homes in the larger cities, compare favorably with those of public schools. On the otherarge number of pupils it-tending private secondary schools are those who have failed in public schools and thus do not reach the attainment level of public secondary school students. The Jewish secondary schools whose students, having studied both English and French language and literature, are prepared to takefor French certificates, are an

d. Foreign-sponsored schoolsWith theof five primary schools for Iranian boys in Baghdad, Basra, Karbali and An Najaf, and the English junior school for the children of foreign employees of the Iraq Petroleum Company, there are no schools classified as foreign-sponsored below the Intermediate level in Iraq.

Above the primary level, there Is oneIranian school and four other foreign-sponsored schools, three of which are controlled and financed by American agencies, and one by the IraqCompany. The American School for Boys in Basra, founded by the Dutch Reform Mission In

eaches only at the Intermediate level. nrollment, mostly poor boys from the surrounding area The American School for Girls in Baghdad, founded5 by the United Mission in Mesopotamia,ompletecourse Its student body. Both of these schools also have primary sections, which are classified as private rather than foreign-sponsored schools and have Iraqi principals. The largest of the American schools is the Baghdad College for Boys, founded2 by American Jesuits andive-year secondary course.tudents,ercent wereIraqis. The American schools generallythe public school curriculum but emphasize the study of English and, in fact, teach some subjects in the preparatory sections In that language. All three American schools are highly regarded by both Iraqi officialdom and the public. Tuition is charged according to ability to pay.

The Iraq Petroleum Company hasraining Centre whose function it is to tramyoung Iraqis in trades relating to theindustry. Approximatelyear have beenwo-year course. Including both theoretical and practical work.

While not registered as schools, institutesby the British Council (an informational organization) in Baghdad, Basra. Mosul, andoffer specialized traininghosen few. Young men and women are prepared In thefor proficiency examinations in English as well as for matriculation examinations for British universities. The Council has alsoodel kindergarten In Baghdad which is attended largely by children of English-speaking parents.

D. Public information

The high illiteracy rate (overercent) In Iraq, as well as the scattered character of thecircumscribes the effectiveness ofmedia. Vehicles such as the press, radio, and films directly reach only the upper fringes of the population, mostly located in the larger cities Wide secondary circulation of news Items, however, is assured by the never-ending gossip of coffee houses) and bazaars, where groups of middle and lower-Income Iraqis pass their leisure hours. The uneducated rural masses, generally indifferent to major Issues, depend mainly on oral transmission, leading to the rapid and uncontrolled spread of rumors, for their Information. Among the tribes, views are exchanged and fragments of news disseminated In the majtis or council, the desert equivalent of the coffee house.

Because domestic sources of information are often inadequate, foreign material, mainly British, has wide circulation in Iraq, either directly or by secondary use in the domestic press or radio.

6 ro 3

Bo* Tab


omestic sources

All primary sources of domestic information are government-controlled (see Chapter V, Sections, and the bulk of the informationthe people is slanted in accordance withwishes.

ewspapersThere are now aboutoll Ileal daily newspapers of four to six pages each to Iraq,otal circulation ofhe more important newspapers are listedith the exception of theIraq Times, all are in Arabic,

The most influential newspapers are published in Baghdad and distributed from that center. Mosul, Basra, and Kirkuk dailies and the numerous weekly and bi-weekly papers published throughout Iraq are of secondary Importance.

The character of the Iraqi press is difficult to follow, for the turnover is high. Suspension or abolition by the government isaper suppressed one day may reappear the nextifferent masthead with the editors and backers, many ol whom obtain licenses for several(see Chapter V,emaining theew well-organized and strongly-backed papers, such as AUAkhbar, Al-'Ahd, Uwd aU Istiqldl, and Az-Zamdn, haveeriod of some years. .

Newspapers in Iraq are mostly owned andby private individuals. Anyoneittle money canournalist or newspaper publisher, and Journalistic ability is unimportant. Many young Iraqis, however, study Journalism inlandsiew to establishing aof their own.

Because papers are published primarily as organs of groups rather than as commercial newsthe Iraq press is single-mindedly keyed to politics. Since politics in Iraq arc dominated by party leaders rather than by political parties, the average newspaper will usually be the personal mouthpiecearticular politician. As alead stories generallyood deal of editorializing,ingling of factual matter, opinion, speculation, and argument AnLs the Iraq Times, owned by the StrandLtd. of London, edited by Britons and morally dominated by the British Embassy.

Iraq's newspapers, operating on meager funds, cannot afford to purchase foreign news services, and none have their own foreign correspondents. They arc dependent for the most part onin daffy press bulletins distributed gratis by the Directorate Oeneral of Propaganda or onfrom the British-controlled radio (ash-Sharq al-Adna) In Cyprus. The bulletins Includefrom Reuters, the British-controlled Arab

News Agency (ANA) which operates from Cairo, and the United Press, as well as news originating with the Iraqi Government. Reuters, whoseIs comprehensive and in general conforms closely to official British policy, is used far more widely than any other news agency. UPreceive only nominal placement.

Disregarding copyright laws, the Iraqi pressa great many articles from Egyptian and Syrian newspapers, and many of the morepapers are almost daily users of featurefrom the Paris edition of the New York HeraUI-Tribune. Editors also borrow from any magazines or clippings they can get, and printwhich they have gathered on their own from both voice and Morse radio transmissions.

Iraqi newspapers supplement these sources with feature material from foreign legations andservices. All papers are serviced by the British Embassy Public Relations Sections and the United States Information and Education Service (USIE).

Circulation of Iraqi newspapers is Invariably small, usually. Copies pass from hand to hand, however, and reach an audience four or five times greater than suggested by the number of copies printed. They arc also read aloud by the more literate in coffee houses and In other idle social groups so characteristic of Iraqi urban and village life.

While the reading public discounts much of the contents of its newspapers as politically inspired, the press remains an effective means ofin the public mind tbe opinions of the several influential groups in Iraq. Because only the small educated class Is articulate, however, newspapers fail to provide an accurate Index of general Iraqi thought and feeling. They do not contribute their sharc to the enlightenment of the public, and they serve often as an Inflammatory and disruptive

MagazinesIraqi weeklies andhave never been successful. Because of poor content and management, and inadequate funds, they tend to disappear almost as soon as they come into being; with the exceptionery few they liave always been second or third rate. Among the comparatively popular local magazines and periodicals are the following:olitical weekly; Al-Umm(Mother andedical monthly emphasizing child care; andu 'alilm al-Jadid (The Newnional literary magazine for teachers publishedonthly by the Ministry of Education; , *

Books and librariesUntil-very" re- -cently Iraq imported almost all of. its books, and it must still Import all ofaper. Considerable quantities of Arabic books are still imported from Egypt and some from Ubanbri. and Syria, but








4 [





NIS 30


al-'Arabt (The Arab World) Baghdad

AL-HlTir (The Caller) Baghdad

P. M.

Al-Uawadith (Events) Baghdad

Al-Ittioad ao-DcstOiu Union}

Al-Ummab (Tbc Nation)


Am-NahSb (The Day) Baghdad

tiuAU (Tbe Renaissance)

Ash-8ma'b (The People) Bagbdad

P. M.

Aa-SuiLb (The Rooord) Baghdad

Ai-Zaman (The Times) Baghdad

Iraq Times Baghdad

n a


6Wr and editor; Ja'far al-l

r and editor: 'Adil'Abdailih

Editor: 'Abd ftl-MaJio 'Abbis

Oitmr and editor; Railq Sayyid 'Isa

Owner aod editor: Salman an-Hafw&al

Oliver and editor: 'Ab-dallah Hasan

Outer and editor: 'Abd al-Malik al Badri

PubtifAer and editor: Yahya Qasim

Owner and editor:ammad Tahfc' al-Fayyad

Owner and sditor: Tawthj

writers: Tawflq as-Suwaydl.'Ali MumtiU, 'Abd al-Wahbib

Oirw: Times Printing and Publishingtd. .Vaaaeiag editor aod director: G. Rcid Anderson. AfaiaflMiff director: Fred Oakley.

pro-communist, pro-Russian. Moot extreme left of Iraqi press. Second rate.

Neutral; normally cautious, influential among the Shiah.

Pro-Nnri; pro-British; friendlynti-Soviet Opportunistic; clariOD of old-guard politicians.

Mouthpiece of Norl os-Sald's Conatttii-tional Union Party. Friendly to Britishnti-Soviet,.

Mouthpiece of SJjih Jabr. Pro-British; friendlyoti-Soviet. Leading Shiah dally.

Organ for Independence Party.noisy. because of Palestine; anti-British and aoU-Sovlct.

Friendly to British; friendlynti-Soviet. Islamic in tone; opportunistic

Supports Independence Party; variableBritish;friendlynti-SovieL Opportunistic.

Fairly Independent; pro-British; friendly.. Shiah paper; friendly to ei-Prcmier Salih Jabr.

Anti-British,nd anil-Soviet. Fanatically Islamic in tone; Sunni.

Nonpartisan; pro-democracies; anti-Soviet. Informational, Ronareumentativc. One of most respected papers in Iraq.

Sulctiy pro-British; frfeodlynti-Boviel. Strand Nominees,avainteresL Little local news; read by foreign colony and educated Iraqis.

al-Ieno.lal. (The Banner of

.Baghdad *

Sada ai^AhaU (Echo of thoa



Ats-Thaor (Tbe Port) Basra

Fn'iq Edtimol writor: Sidiq Shaosbal

Editor: Kfimil aJ-CMdir-chi. Editorial wriUr: Muhammad Hadid

Editor: Sbaklr an-Ni'mah

Party; strongly nationalistic; antl-NOri as-Sa'id; variable toward Britishnti-Soviet.

Organ Of National Democrats. Anti-British,riendly to Soviets.

Ultra conservative; pro-Brillsb, said to be British-supported. Small; only paper of consequence appearing in Basra.



i* '


Kurdish said Arabic books, especially educational texts, are now being printed in Iraq to increasing numbers

Most ol the few libraries In Iraq are connected with, educational, institutions and belong to the Ministry ol Education. Books in Libraries of the higher'schools are rnalnly in Arabic and English, with the English'book* sometimes outnumbering the Arabic:,

Iraq's only.public libraries are in Baghdad.and Basra and are small and poorlyew smaller towns have very small privateopened by enterprising local citizens. The Iraqi.National Library (connected with the Iraq Museum) is an exclusively archaeological

b.broadcasting in Iraqovernment monopoly operated by the IraqiStationn integral part of theOeneral of Propaganda. The one large radio station is located In Baghdad. Withalf-kilowatt power it operates on one medium wave lengtheters and two short-waveinmeter band. Its equipment ls obsolete, and transmission to northern Iraq isew broadcasting stationkilowalt short-wave transmitter is now being constructed at Abumlles west of Baghdad. This station, expected to be fully operative bys to providehigh-speed radiotelegraph service to London, New York, Bombay, and Cairo and directservices to all neighboring countries. There is to be also direct radiotelephone services, first to Arab countries and later to New York and london.

The number of radio sets in Iraq was estimated in0 to0 of which are believed to be obsolescent prewar models. In Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul almost every middle-or upper-class homeadio set and some have two. While there is no public square loudspeaker service, most urban coffee shops, as well as those in villages equipped with electricity, carry radios with noisy loud speakerseans of attracting customers. Many small storeowners also have sets.

Onlyercent of Iraqi radio sets are battery-operated, and outside the towns, where there is no electric power, radios are few. While many sheikhs own sets, large areas are often totally cut off from radio communication

No radio components are manufactured in Iraq and sets are imported, mainly from Oreat Britain, the Netherlands, and the United States. All are able to tune In at least medium- and short-wave, and half receive long-wave as well. While the Baghdad area uses medium-wave to receive LBS, the rest of the country listens to IBS short-wave transmissions and usually must wait until evening for good reception.

IBS transmits programs in Arabic, Kurdish, and English. The Arabic program,otal of eight broadcastingay, covers the wholeuntil. local time. It includes news bulletins four times dairy, talks, and music. News items, provided by the Directorate Oeneral of Propaganda, come mainly from Reuters and the UP. Occasionally items supplied by USLE areOther sources are foreign broadcasts and newspapers.

The talks, presented in simple language, cover subjects as diverse as religion, health, science, the theater, and sports. Musical programs generally feature oriental music, either recorded or played by local orchestras sponsored by the also placed on Iraqi folksongs andsongs popularized by the films.

The Kurdish program ls transmitted toareas of Iraq for two hours everyIt Includes two news bulletins,and talks. When the Kurdishon* the air the same transmitter carries aEnglish program of Western music andIraq for foreign listeners. Although somemusic is provided by the British Council.of classical, light, and dance musicnucleus of the Western musical broadcasts

While foreign broadcasts are: easily, received In Iraq, IBSarger audience, particularly in and near Baghdad. CofTee-shop owners areby law to tune in TBS exclusively, and grow-


NIS 30


nationalismimited knowledge ol foreign languages even among the educated leadsreference for Arabic-language programs from Arabic-speaking countries.

c. Morrowmotion pictures are required yearly to supply the Iraqi market, the Baghdad Studio for Film and Cinema Company, Limited, which suspended operations ^definitely after the production of two films, Is the only domestic producing company. Its first film 'Ahyah and 'Is&m, was exhibited inInfter one year of preparation and six months of filming. The studio hasfacilities for good production, but Itshas thus far been poor. Its first film, which was not shown by exhibitors in otherubstantial loss to the company. The Baghdad Studio owners nowew industry in the dubbing of foreign films with Arabic and Persian dialogues. No short subjects, news-reels, or educational films have yet been produced in Iraq.

Although there are still many communitiesr more population which do not receive any kind of entertainment films, the number ofin Iraq rose from1 ton6 of which were In Baghdad. Total seating capacityorty-one of the theaters are open-air and operate during tbe summer months only. All theaters arc wired for sound and most are far more modern architecturally than the buildings around them. Only one thus far is air-conditioned, and much theater equipment, bought mainly from the United States and Oreat Britain, needs replacing.

Motion pictures, one of the cheapest forms of entertainmentolls (US. Illergenerously attended by all classes of society. Women sit In somewhatboxes at ordinary performances, andmatinees are set aside for women exclusively. Audiences usually prefer emotional drama to other types of films, but action and oriental-typewith much singing andappeal to the public

oreign sources

Foreign information not primarilyin purpose enters Iraq chiefly from Egypt. Syria, Lebanon. Oreat Britain, and the United States.

Propaganda and directed informationalare conducted by foreign cultural societies and diplomatic missions. Apart from the United Kingdom and the United States, no foreignhas an effective overt informational program in Iraq,ew legations, such as the Egyptian, distribute publications at irregularThe United Kingdom's Indirect influence In Iraqi politics gives It an advantage in the dis-

semination of propaganda, and the Britishprogram is the most active in Iraq. The principal British disseminators of information are the Public Relations Division of the Britishassy and tbe British Council. The activities of tho Public Relations Office, the largest single branch or the Embassy, include the operation In many towns and villages of reading rooms equipped with propaganda reading material, radios, and posters. The Public Relations Office alsomotion pictures, collects and distributes news and news photographs, and supervises the releases of Reuters and the Arab News Agency in Iraq. Provincial branches of the Public Relations Office operatemaller scale in Basra and Mosul.

The aim of the British Council is tonowledge of British culture and institutions among Iraqis, encourage the learning of English, and strengthen British-Iraqi friendship. Its chief work is done at its Council Institutes in Baghdad, Basra, Mosul, and Kirkuk, where Iraqis areto attend courses and lectures. The Council shows films, and its institutes sponsor musicalteas, art exhibits, chess clubs, and discussion groups for both men and women.

Information about the British way of lifeew upper-class Iraqis through British-Iraqisuch as the social and sports Alwiyah Club in Baghdad. Membership in the Club is made up of one-third British and two-thirds other nationalities, chiefly Iraqi. Iraqis, however, arc not voting members and control is entirely in the hands of the British. Since the Alwiyah is the top-ranking club in Baghdad where Iraqis and foreigners mix. its British members are able to exert considerable social influence on those Iraqis who wish to mingle in the European diplomatic and 'commercial community in Baghdad.

U.S. informational activity is centered inoffices In Baghdad.ssues newsin both Arabic and Kurdish, recordingsandibrary and reading room.sponsors lectures and concerts on itsexhibits photographs on life In thePhoto displays are on occasion lenteducational institutions. The effect ofinformational program variesa time United States support ofo partition Palestine almost completelythe use of USIE facilities byn the other hand,ercentnews Items released by USIE were publishedIraqi

nnd 6






dswa krc


. Soviet propagandists, whose output is uaiuuiy banned by the Iraqi Government, must resortentirely to covert activity (see Chafts> V,. The Soviet Legation hasress attache nor an information officer, and the Soviet Information Bureau has no office in Iraq. While the Soviet Legation distributes by mailmaterial to newspapersimited number of government officials, the material Is seldom used for republication. . has no agency for the sale of Soviet books, nor does Iteading room or lending library locally. No Soviet agency shows Soviet films, nor are Soviet films distributed in Iraq.

a. PressThe inadequacy of the domestic press has resultedependence among literate Iraqis upon imported newspapers, books andwith emphasis upon Egyptian and British publications. Egyptian dailies such asnd Al-Misrt, and weeklies such as Akhbar al-Yawm and Al-Musawtcar, are widely read in Iraq.overage of literary or scientific subjects Iraqis turn to Egyptian and, secondarily, Lebanese Al-lthnayn, the Egyptian equivalent of Tfme,irculation in Iraq greater than all Iraqi magazines put together. Despite increasing domestic production of books in Arabic, the great majority of Arabic books In Iraq are imported from Egypt, or less commonly, from Lebanon and Syria.

Books in languages other than Arabic orare; without' exception, imported into Iraq, principally from the United Kingdom. Tbe British Public Relations Office arranges for theand distribution of British books andin Iraq. The British Council, whichperiodic exhibitions of British books, alsotheir sale.6 an exhibition of this type was visited byeople and resulted in the placingrders.

The devaluation of the Iraqi dinar In9 and the consequent cut In dollar allocations resultedecrease in the numbers of books and magazines entering Iraq from the United States. While thereimited number of Iraqi subscribers to American magazines andf all types reach Iraqis chiefly through the USLE distribution program and the USLEUSLE distributes copies of the New York Herald-Tribune, the Neto York Timet, Time, Newt-week, Life, the Rome Daily American, the Medical Newsletter, the Surgical Newsletter and theDigest to key Iraqis and to educational and scientific institutions. Copies of the pilot Arabic-language version of America, an official VS.magazine, which first reachedUSlt, inere turned ovor by USLEocal distributor for sale. They were well received by Iraqis.

In9 the USLE libraryotalegistered borrowers, the majority of whom were students and young government officials. Visitors lo the library and reading roomatalogued bookside variety of American newspapers and magazines.

There areolumes of Americanmany of which were contributed gratis by American organizations, in school libraries. The Iraqi National Libraryollection ofworks contributed by the American School of Oriental Research in Baghdad.

b. RadioRadio listening, in contrast to other overt informational media, cannot beby the government, and foreignis one of the most effective means ofin Iraq. Many Iraqis, especially Inlisten to foreign broadcasts in preference to tho weak Baghdad station, and under normal conditions broadcasts from the Middle East, Europe, parts of Africa, and the United States are readily received on Iraqi sets. Broadcasts, with the exception of the more inclusive British andprograms, are primarily concerned with news presentation

Because the listening public overwhelminglyforeign transmissions beamed in Arabic, or In the case of the Kurds, in Kurdish, many countries ire either beginning or expanding theirbroadcasts in those languages. The most popular Arabic broadcasts beamed to Iraq arc those from ash-Sharqritish-controlledIn Cyprus. The public likes both its music and its news bulletins. Second in popularity are Arabic broadcasts from Cairo.

Near Eastern states almost without exception use short wave for propaganda purposes. Iraqi listeners receive broadcasts from Tel Aviv InArabic, Hebrew, Turkish, and English; from Jordan-controlled Jerusalem in Arabic and English; and from Damascus in Arabic, French, English, and Turkish. Short-wave broadcasts can also be heard in Arabic from Beirut, in Turkish fromIn Oreek from Athens, and in Arabic,and Turkish from Teheran.

British broadcasts, including those from ash-Sharq al-Adna in Cyprus, are more frequently and more widely received than those of any othercountry. BBC English programs, which can be heard in Iraq0 am0ocal time, come tn well, and the'BBC English broadcasting schedule is published, dally in the Iraq Times. BBC also beams In Arabic;directly to the Near East and opens each dayeading from the Koran. BBC Arabic programs, however,

are characterized by Iraqis as propaganda, while BBC English news bulletins are highly trusted.

The United States entered the propaganda-by-radlo field in the Near East onith the Initial broadcast ol the Arabic Voicehe VOA is beamed daily to the Arab world. Its thirty-minute program, heardonsists of news,features, and music. Its listening audience is increasing rapidly.

Soviet broadcasts are very influential In Iraq. While listening to the Soviet radio is forbidden, many Iraqis tune in Soviet transmissions because they are easily received even on small radios-Tales originating from Soviet broadcasts often reappear in bazaar gossip, particularly inwhich is fertile soil for the spreading of anti-government rumors.

Soviet short wave, originating from manycenters, is beamed to the Near East in Arabic, Turkish, Armenian, Kurdish, andBroadcasts in Arabic, directed to thepopulation rather than to specific groups, are audible throughout Iraq from Moscow athours: dally.0. and Fridaysn Arabic can also be heard morning and evening from Tiilis. Soviet commentators arein Arabic, butlassical and literary style which is often unintelligible to the rank and flic.

Broadcasts in Armenian from Radio Moscowe heard dally0. Sovietin Kurdish, directed to thepeople of Baghdad as well as the Kurds in Kurdistan proper, are beamed daily0. Broadcasts intransmitted by therom Moscow, Azerbaijan, and Tashkent, serve an audience irr Kurdistan and in the four Shiah pilgrimageof Iraq, where there are Woes ofInhabitants.

While other European countries beam programs to the Near East, their broadcasts are not widely received in Iraq. Radio Paris broadcasts in French to the Near East each evening. Madrid transmits infrequent short-wave broadcasts in Arabic

c. Motion picruaia


ntertainment filmsThe majorityntertainment motion pictures shown in Iraq are produced in the United States. Egypt, and England. The following tabulation shows the origin of films imported in the first six months

United Slates Egypt

United Kingdom Others


Because new films are not readily available, many foreign films are kept for several years and brought

outecond or third run. Neither the age ofpicture nor familiarity with it are

American films, nearlyercent of the total films shown in Iraq, are well received and, with the exception of Egyptian films are preferred to all others. While the English-speaking audience is very small, Iraqis are quick to catch the trend of the plot and toituation without the aid of subtitles. Several American fllms have been given subtitles In Arabic and some in French as well.ore common method is to run ain Arabicmall screen at the side. The success of subtitles, however, is limited, both because of the high rate of illiteracy and because spectators miss many scenes when they turn their attrillion to captions-American films are one of the chief means ofthe Iraqi with the "American way ofnd often of distorting his impression of the United States. Hollywood has popularized western dress styles as well as such items as refrigerators, radios, chairs and tables, and automobiles.

Egyptian films, both because they are in Arabic and because they are oriental in type, with eastern music and theme, compete with American films for popularity in Iraq. The limited number offrom Egypt play to capacity houseslong engagements.

Newsreels, considered by exhibitors as anexpenditure, have not been shown in Iraq sincehe demand for short subjects, mainly imported from the United States and Great Britain, is limited.

nformational and educational fllmsAlthough informational fllms are of great value bothropagandaood-will medium, only the United Kingdom and the United States have film programs of consequence In Iraq. Films are shown from time to time in the Frenchbut the French have no distribution policy and the. audience for their informational fllms is relatively small.

British informational fllms, which tend toBritain rather than to betraighttype, are shown frequentlyIraq by the eight mobile vans belonging to the Public Relations Section of the British Embassy. An audience total0 was estimatedhe British Council regularly exhibits films in Baghdad, Basra, Kirkuk, and Mosul, andeducational films to schools andIn Baghdad.

USIE shows fllms both on and off its premises, and makes fllms and projectors available to Health films are shown throughout Bagh-



dad by USIE under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Social Affairs, and general informational films are shown in schools with the cooperation of the Ministry of Education. USIE films are alsoregularly to Iraq: army units.obile unit began operation and has been enthusiastically received by Iraqi audiences. USIE films, which often have an Arabic or Kurdish sound track prepared on tape, are generally more popular, though less widely distributed, than those of the British. In8 programs of .USIE films were givenotal audience






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