SOVIET-SATELLITE DRIVE AGAINST WESTERN INFLUENCE IN EASTERN EUROPE
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SOVIET-SATELLITE DRIVE AGAINST WESTERN INFLUENCE IN EASTERN EUROPE
USSR has beenroad campaign to reduce Western Influence among the Eastern European Satellites In order to facilitate the accelerated sovletlzatlon process now under way in those countries. This campaign, which has been Intensified inmonths, has consisted of harassingon the part of the Eastern European Satellites against the US and other non-Com-munLst nations, including the expulsion of certain Western cultural, religious, andagencies, the curtailment ofactivities, the trial and Imprisonment of US citizens, and the Communist pressures which led to the break in diplomatic relations between the US and Bulgaria. The aim of this campaign is to transform the satellite countries, while they are still nominallyInto facsimiles of the Sovietlo the end that they may be more readily governed from Moscow and ultimately will be more easily assimilable Into the USSR.
Because the Eastern European populations are. for the most part, opposed to sovietiza-tion. any influence tending to preserve orpopular hostility toward the USSR is
intolerable. Western missions, bothand diplomatic, have served to sustain the people of Eastern Europe in their belief in the superiority of Western culture as well as to keep them informed regarding theof Soviet-aims. It is also evident lo thc USSR that the Western missionsacility for the collection of covertas well as of Information aboutconditions which may be disseminated to thc non-Soviet world.
A concerted effort has therefore been made to exclude such agencies as the Red Cross and various relief missions, and radical measures are being taken to destroy the effectiveness of diplomatic missions Moreover. It isevident that the USSR is prepared to accept the risks short of war that Its anti-Western campaign involves.
It seems probable that the satelliteagainst Western influence will continue, directed primarily against the US but also against other Western nations, until allinfluence considered dangerous by the USSR has been eliminated from the area.
SOVIET-SATELLITE DRIVE AGAINST WESTERN INFLUENCE IN EASTERN EUROPE
Anolyiii of Soviet Objectives.
The Kremlin's postwar program In Eastern Europe has been aimed at the transformation of the Eastern Europeaneconomically, socially, andinto facsimiles of the Soviet Republics, both to facilitate Soviet control over the Satellites and to eliminate obstacles to their eventual incorporation in the USSR.onsequence of Soviet pressure, satellite foreign relations have been conducted to further Soviet, rather than national, objectives, and the Individual satellite economies arc being fittedomplex dominated and exploited by the USSR. The trade and industry of thehave been nationalized: an energetic and comprehensive drive has been launched with the ultimate purpose of collectivizingTlic upper and middle classes, as such, have largely been liquidated, and thc youth are being subjected to Intensiveinrogram which lsachieving some measure of success. Throughout the area, an extensive campaign ot training in the Russian language Is being carried out toommon medium of communication; an accompanying cultural reorientation program extols Soviet culture and emphasizes the superiority of Soviet to Western civilization. In addition, thedefense forces are being developed under Soviet guidance and with Soviet material aid.
The Soviet Union's vigorous andcampaign against the West inand the US in particular constitutes an integral part of the program to sovietlzeEurope. Long sympathetic toward the West and for the most part hostile to the "Easternhe satellite peoples have generally regarded Soviet Communism with antipathy and fear, generously admixed with contempt, Thus, the attack ontraditions, beliefs, and institutions de-
rives inevitably from the fact that sympathy felt by the Eastern European populations for Western traditions prevents acceptance ofalms and methods, and therefore acts as an Impediment to thc sovietizatlon process.
Realization on the part of the Kremlin and the satellite governments of the widespread general hostility to Communist ruleEastern Europe has magnified theirover the damaging cflects ofinfluences. The defection of Yugoslavia from the Soviet bloc greatly Intensified fears on this score, and has probably accelerated the present program against all externaltending to undermine the position of the USSR in Eastern Europe.
The Western missions in the orbit capitals are regarded with suspicion and hostilitythey have impeded the sovietizatlon of the Satellites in various ways. They have demonstrated the continued concern of the Western nations for the peoples of Eastern Europe. They have supplied information whkh forms an essential element in theeffort to disclose the goals and methods of the USSR. They have been able to keep the world informed of developments within the orbit and have thereby helped enlighten the people ot the world regarding differencesConununlst propaganda and reality. The intelligence provided by the Western diplomatic outposts has servedasis for estimates of Soviet capabilities and intentions, not only toward Eastern Europe but toward adjacent non-Communist areas as well. Furthermore, the informational and cultural activities conducted by these missions have been designed to sustain Western influence. Finally, the Western missions have also been instrumenUl in making possible the escape of influential political refugees from the various Satellites.
The Kremlin's estimate of the role played by the Western diplomatic posts in retarding
sovietliatlon process has promptedretaliation largely In proportion to the influence ol the Individual Western nations within the area. The predominant powerof the US, Its assumption of leadership In Western defense moves, and Its stillinfluence in Eastern Europe make the remaining US missions in Bucharest, Budapest, Warsaw, and Prague priorityIn this drive.
2. Consequence* for tho Soviet bloc
Thc anti-Western campaign (See Appendix, p.as been successful In that, as partong-range plan that was put intoImmediately after thc war, it has helped considerably In thc process of SovietIn carrying out the plan, the USSR has risked economic loss through theof Western economic ties In favor of political gain considered of greaterThus the Soviet decisions to reject the Marshall Plan7 and to Initiate the subsequent moves that invited Westernreprisals were made in the belief that the economic disadvantages would be more than compensated for by political gains to be registered In terms of more effective control over Eastern Europe.
The net result of less than five years ofcontrol hasearly completeand cultural severance of Eastern Europe from the West except in those areas of contact, such as the UN, still useful to the USSR. With the steady widening of the gulf between East and West, the ability of thesatellite countries to preserve their national identity has progressivelyandorollary, the sovietizatlon process has advanced.
Although the countries involved are but little more Independent than are theSoviet Republics, they maintain aindependence useful to the USSR In that it provides:emporary sop to local(b) additional Instruments for the furthering of Soviet foreign policy; (e) aof "independent" notions In the Soviet "peace" camp useful forotential means of improving the Soviet position In the UN in case Uie West
should agree to admit Albania, Bulgaria,and Rumania In exchange for Western-sponsored applicants; andeans fortraditional nationalistic Issuesulgaria's effort to exploit the Macedonian issue against Yugoslavia) for the benefit of the USSR.
The USSR has taken diplomatic risksesult of thc effort to destroy WesternIn the Satellites. The risks have not seemed Important, however, so long as It was possible to avoid the general alarm which would result from overwhelming pressure on all missionsingle Western Power or the simultaneous application of pressure onnon-Communist missionsingle Satellite. Despite the US-Bulgarian break, the Kremlin Is probably firm In Its belief that Western missions will be retained in Eastern Europe as long as possible. Consequently the Kremlin probably estimates that the future status of Western representation In theisoviet decision.
It is true, furthermore, that in any East-West contest involving diplomatic reprisals, the Soviet bloc isistinct advontage. The satellite missions in the West, bythe well-organized Communist subversive networks available there, can operatewith much smaller staffs lhan can the Western missions in the Satelllles. Whereas lhe Western missions represent sovereign powers and face consequent difficulties In pooling Information ornited front against the Soviet bloc, the satelliteoperate under central orders In termsoordinated plan. Communist efforts have made lhe collection of intelligence by the missions In Eastern Europe extremelywhile their Eastern counterparts In the West are relatively unhampered. Generally speaking, the loss of one or more satellitein lhe West would notatter of great Importance to the USSR
The Satellites have undoubtedly suffered from the economic reprisals incident lo the anti-Western program, but noterious degree. Thc dependence of thc Soviet orbit on certain types of Western industrialand raw materials still remains acute, thus making East-West trade of importance
E QJty. T
lhc Easlorn countries. In Soviet eyes, however, trade with the Westemporary expedient resorted to in the Interim before the East canigher degree ofMeanwhile, strategic items In short supply In the Soviet bloc are being procured from the West both by overt and covert means. In general, the total control of the satellite economies through the medium of the Kremlin-directed CEMA constitutes afactor in the process of furtheringIndependence from the West.
The Soviet program to assimilate theor Eastern Europe has been undertaken despite the obvious dangers of arousing the West to vigorous countcrmoves, such asmilitary preparations, organizing hostile blocs on the Soviet periphery, andsubversive activities within the Soviet-controlled area. The USSR has met these dangers by maintaining preponderant military strength, consolidating the Soviet bloc, and extending security and policewithin the Satellites so that with the passage of time the task of carrying onunderground activity ln Eastern Europe
will become Increasingly difficult and
3. Estimate of Future Developments.
The Intensified Soviet anti-Western effort throughout Eastern Europe will continuethe Kremlin estimates that Westernand Influence In the area have been neutralized. The satellite governments,Soviet direction, arc gradually bringing the missions of all Western Powers, andthose of thc US,tate of complete paralysis, while at the same time attempting to convince the satellite peoples that the Western nations arc powerless to help them. Tlic USSR will probably continue to instigate measures to reduce the staffs of the Western missions In the Satellites and ensure their isolation from thc satellite populations,believing that it can nullify Westernand capabilities in theeverance of diplomaticII, however, the relentlessof current pressures goads any Western nation into breaking relations with one orSatellite, the Kremlin is probablyto accept that eventuality.
TREND OF RECENT EVENTS IN ANTI-WEST CAMPAIGN
9 there liasarked acceleration In the campaign throughout the Eastern European Satellites to reduce theof the West in the area. The pace of the anti-Western campaign has generally paralleled thc degree of sovlctlzation In the various Satellites, the greatest progressbeen made initially in the Balkans and Hungary, while Poland and Czechoslovakia have only more recently taken aggressive steps along similar lines. The main attack against thc West has been Increasinglyat the US as the moving spirit of the anU-Cocnmunist forces.
Since the postwar establishment ofrule in Eastern Europe, thc chiefof Western influenceroad mass appeal, such as schools, reliefthe YMCA. and variouscultural and friendship societies, have, generally been eliminated or greatlyThe present campaign is focused on the Western diplomatic missions whichthe major remaining targets in the Soviet drive. Although the US missions have been singled out as the primary targets in this attack, one or another of the Western Powers has on occasion been the object of Communist pressure.
The intensified anti-Western campaign in the fall9limax in0 with the US-Bulgarian suspension ofAlthough this diplomatic rupture may not have been foreseen or intended by the Communist regime, subsequentin the other Satellites seem to indicate that the Kremlin was reconciled toossibility.
Throughout thc Soviet-controlled area, US diplomatic representatives and their staffs are being increasingly circumscribed in their movements and hampered In their contacts with the local populations lo such an extent
that they cannot perform the usual functionsiplomatic mission. At the same time, pressures of various kinds have been exerted on the US to reduce the size of Its diplomatic representation. Hungary, for example, has formally requested the US to reduce allof officials In that country, andwhile making no formal request, has achieved the same end by refusing to grant visas to replacements for the present US staffs. Rumania has also closed the cultural offices of both the US and UK legations and subjected the acquisition or transfer ofquarters to state control. Inthe pressure on both US and British missions has Increased markedly since the mid-December tirade delivered against them by the Czech Communist leader Slansky. The Czechoslovak Government has forced theof the US Information Service, expelled the US Cultural Attache, and demanded that the US reduce Its Embassy staff by two tliirds on the grounds that US officials had engaged in "anti-State" activities. Anti-WesternIn Poland have so far concentrated on the French, although Warsaw has already succeeded Ineduction in theof US service attaches. Meanwhile, throughout Eastern Europe the secret police are actively attempting to implicate US and other Western officials in illegal activities in order to obtain grounds for furtherdesigned to discredit the West.
The Eastern European governments are also taking active measures to diminish the effect of Western radio broadcasts on thepopulations The satellite regimes nave already begun to jam Western radioThere are also Indications that "people'sapable of receiving onlybroadcasts, and loudspeakers broadcasting similar material In public places, will be used more generally throughout the area.
E CWK T
The current campaign against the non-Communist diplomatic missions was preceded by an extensive, thoroughgoing effort to drive out Western cultural and charitable As In the case of the more recentagainst the diplomatic missions, this campaign progressed more rapidly in thethan Ln the northern satellites. Thus, by the late summerulgaria andhad closed all foreign-sponsored schools ln the country on the grounds that they were nests of Fascist reaction and medieval By the springoth countries had virtually concluded their campaigns against Western relief agencies, although UKICEF (United Nations InternationalEmergency Fund) continued toin Bulgaria. In Hungary, the American Red Cross had been withdrawn at the endhe American Friends Servicewas eliminated inARE ceased operations the same spring, and UN1CEF withdrew in the fallporadic moves against the Westin Poland and Czechoslovakiaull-fledged attack against Western relief and welfare agencies In Poland was not launched until the fallnd innot untilheRed Cross, CARE, the Foster Parents' Plan for War Children, the International Refugee Organization, and thc JointCommittee were all eliminated frombetween early November and the end of
nexpelled the IRO, the Joint Distribution Committee, and the missionaries of theChurch; CARE has been requested toits operations by the inimmerhus, of the numerous important relief and welfare agencies once operating throughout Eastern Europe, only UN1CEF remains InPoland, and Czechoslovakia, and the American Joint Distribution Committee in Hungary.
A similar campaign against Western press and radio correspondents hasarked reduction In their number,onsequent deterioration both in the quantity and quality of reporting. The Balkanhave alrendy succeeded In ejecting or Imprisoning nearly every Western Journalist unsympathetic to their regimes.
ajor persistent source of Western and anil-Communist Influence, the Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches have long been under attack. The satellite regimes have succeeded in subordinating theProtestant, Jewish, and Orthodox Churches to state control and at present are trying to detach the Roman Catholic clergy from thc Vatican In order to organize tbein into national churches submissive to the state. In Bulgaria and Rumania, where the state religion Is Greek Orthodox, thc lack of Western ties facilitated Communistof the hierarchy.Original document.