PARTISAN ACTIVITY AND GENERAL CONDITIONS IN LITHUANIA

Created: 10/27/1952

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mi

REPORT

NO. CD NO.

USSR)

SUBJECT Partiaan Activity and General Conditiona in Lithaanla

DATE OF

INFO. Up to1

D1STR.2 NO. OF PAGES 13

NO. OF ENCLS.

ACQUIRED

TO REPORT NO.

[CI

The following report,vhloh duplicates annevhut informal ion in

Ifrcsi tlie aeaa aource, narratee In eoaa detail im imo

1 is being disseminated to convey an Idea of the in*

ana type or part wanithuania aa well aa the living conditions of ths partisans theuelvas.

of

General ihforaatlon on Partiaan AotWitv

1. Source heard that? the local partisana in the area ofwere receiving thair instructions from elsewhere. Ths belief bbong partisans van that tha partiaan leadership vbs located stas-where la Source understood that bbrtisans active in all of Zeawltlja (Lev Lithuania) vara directed by the partisan group active in tha araa of the Plokstyne forest, In tbe vicinity of,

a. The arrival of partisan landers in IgAT was generally known to local

partisans,

f artisan "geneo-al" visited thein tbe HoSstyne ferest. Be cameight motor vehicle and was dresjledoviet unitary uniform decorated, with various military awards. on the occasion of tbe /general's*ajor conference took place. In addition te local participants, liaison men from other areas attended. It waa decided at the conference that partlaaa unite should be broken up Into

small groups, and appropriate Instructions vere Issued to accomplish this. Previously, units consisted of from nineen up toersons. Chbasis of the conference deciaibn, units were split up in groups ofour, or five men, in order that they could hide and subsist more easily.1

Roundups, and EneixcJjattSH.ta

3. In spring and fall of adon roundups took place inunits transferred from other places participated in them. Theyby officers, and the soldiers proceeded inay thatwas always in sight of another. There were no combats withartillery in the Zemaitlja area, but the partisans verbfrom planes,the Aulu^taitlja (Ofcper

Ijjjhuanla) area, artillery and planes participated ln the rcunsnps,p

r-mtnrj rduntwpB Werfc aace-unltd

k, any Soviet garrisons left Lithuania for the Ukraine. A spread through Lithuania that these garrisons vere sent toevolt. Partisans attacked the outgoing units,'and There was also another rumor that, because of the arrivalAmerican committee to investigate the situation in Iithuaoia,were to be sent from Lithuania to non-Baltic Sovietactivity was increasing. HcwsvW, after several weeks,returned to Lithuania with the intention of eartsrmlnatlng;

5- Athereoundup, resulting, it was said, from soma, one's having betrayed the partisans.. unkerarmhouse Vas encircled. Garrisons fromlateliai, andarticipated. There ware seven partisone, four of them Lithuanians and three of themwho were in the farmhouse' having their breakfast when the Russianswo partisans ran upstairs and five hid in the bunker. Itoncrete bunker and the partisans could fire from it. Tod fight lasted until evening. The houss was burned down and its only legal inhabitant, an old woman, escaped. The partisans were killed by grenades, The Fuse Lane found meat,nd nine csvhideB in the bunker. Theytraeed the. farmers who had cdTered the cows to the Toxtisans. Seven formers vere arrested and,ery short time, deported.

6. During an encirclement /date" not stated/ in the Voveraioiai forest

rmy unitsunker. eader of the Lithuanian national Guard (sia-.il.lu Siijunga) and his two sens were hiding In it. All of them woreniformsj they were all killed.

7- strebitell often independently make encirelements in their own areas.0 theyarge-scale roundup /location unstated/. The partisans succeeded in dispersing and> after gatheringore distant place, they attacked the istrebitell. The leader of the partlsaas was taken alive, beaten, and killed. 'The othersn the morning, seven partisans were missing,

oWsneviks. dontiimally try to ekfceralnate the partisans, in asrlng'lohQ, large-scale roundups were arranged by the Eussians and, asof them, the number of partisans has become much smaller.8 vers killed and many hideouts discovered.

r^tjoan Corpaea

Spring to6 partisan corpses vers brought toor display. Also, one partisan waftand, subseoueatly, inquiries were made among the townspeopleconnections, etc. Ihe inhabitants of Bta&ena said that tli* Russians

burled the partisans In tbe garden of the security force grounds. Several bunkers vere found by the Russians in the Vaveraitiei forest and, after encirclement, nine partisan corpses were brought in. In Plunge, it is said tbat the partisans were buriedormer German trench.

10. Corpses of partisans were also broughtE) and inquiries vere made about the names of "these sons." Sometime later.at meetings, the townspeople protested against such Russian actions and said tbat their children were frightened and dreamed about the corpses at night,-etc. The priests said that the townspeople, not the partisans,when the Russians acted inay. After this, the RuBsIaHB; changed their means of "Investigation." he corpses of slain partisans vere no longer left on squares but were brought into:the yard of jthe security forces and were buried or were transported to other places. Beftore being carried off, the corpses were washed by prisoners from the cellars of the security force. Photographs were taken of the corpses in*a, sitting position with only loincloths covering them.

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U. esult of skirmishes with partisans the Russians also suffered many losses, but they tried to conceal them. Russians were mostly buried in .rayon towns. Solemn funerals vere arranged only for high officials. Death notices of soldiers vere never published* they were buried like partisans In places no one knew about.

Anti-Partisan Propaganda

Bolsheviks propagandize against the partisans. At meetings andfairs, the security chiefs try to prove the uselessness ofor of supporting such activity The townspeople are urged tothe Russians about the partisans. It is promised that the;not be punished and that fewer persons will be deported toIndividuals trust the Russians and give them information. Ina church fair In Berzal (noteeting was held atchief of the MVD addressed the Inhabitants. He assured them thatUnion had sufficient bread and weapons and that the Lithuanians

' should not wait for help from elsewhere, since the Americans suffer, from hunger themselves. He stated that by partisan activities the Lithuanians only devastate their own country. This security chief was later trans-

""rerred'from Platelial to the volost of Kilial (probablyE) and source heard that be was killed there.

Clothing mid Equipment

wear uniforms of tbe former Lithuanian Army, the Soviet Army,MVD, the istrebitell, or ordinary civilian clothes. Soviet Armyand civilian! clothes were moot common in the summer. of clothing worn is dependent upon the need of the situation. Atof Lithuanian partisans, participants would probably allLithuanian uniforms. At such meetings, news is exchanged. Init was not permitted to arrange parties, since the leaderswas no reason to be geyi tbe parents of most of the partisansdeported, the country was suffering, taxes were high, etc. Inthere is danger, the partisans wear MVD uniforms or ordinarytherereat number of istrebfcteli everywhere, istrebitellvery popular among the partisans and ore worn whenever partisansone locality to another. The alternating of partisan uniforms,from one type of uniform to another as circumstances require,the Russians and affects their morale.

ih. Many partisans wear light clothing, including summer trousers likeortf by afcalWeB, and army shoes-which contact men purchase on the market. It Is difficult to get caps andince these cannot be bought on the market. Besides regular boots, thepecial boot,

tbe top of which is made of canvas and tbe bottom part of which ia made of leather) tba soles are indented rubber. These are rarely found in ahops. Particularly in fall, winter, and spring, the partisans need these boots because tbey do not leave suspicious tracaa when tbe partisana walk around (slo). Daring campaigns' the partisans often switch footgear. For example, If they wear regulation boots whanorest, tbey change into shoes when leaving the forest and coningoad.

the beginning, tbe Soviet Army had large reserves of clothing, and

the partisana ware on good terms with the warehouse men. Tbe Soviet soldisrs used to exchange clothing for hone-made whisky. Partisans even acquired weapons end decorations fro* soldiers in exchange for whisky. Tarn were greet quantities of various weapon* In army unit stockpiles. These weapons vara registered and vers mostly German weapons, sollsotsd as trophies. Wide-Baals exchanges took piaoe. Partisan liaison man exploited toe situation and involved Soviet officers ir. such salts, so that the Letter vould not dare report these exchanges to the authorities.

wai also obtained whan the partisans frightened thewith threats. runken soldier aeked for mor< whisky,by the partisana that ha could not gat any without paying forthe soldier had no money, tbe partisans offsrsd to ex0hanga whiskyboots, soot, pistol,nd when he asked why these thingsbe was told that they ware needed for the partisans. If tbethreatened to Inform tha security polite, be was vamad that, if hedo eo, the partisan*.would tell tbe police that ha had sold things to

* then, Anotnsr means of obtaining Soviet equipment was to got soldisrs drunk and, on the way home, attack them and take their uniforms and weapons.

17* Persons discharged from labor units or from ths army are allowed to keep their uniforms. Such uniforms are mostly worn and are vary is Idem in good condition, In spring, the partisans era able to got the special boots, escribed above from labor units in exchange for food. Reliable personagive elothlng or uniforms to the partisans voluntarily) from otherit is merely taken Sway. Th* partisane always try to get what they needriendly manjery but,if tbey oannot gat it In that way, tbey use foroe. Persons who give something to tbe partiians end persons from whom something is taken are obliged by the partisans to keep this fact to themselves.

16. It is getting more and more difficult and is) preotloallyto obtain clothing through exchanges or by other means. There are now no trophy weapons left snd all other weapons have been registered. It is almost impossible to obtain cartridges. The partisans have only old weapon* with shattered barrels) tbe cartridges and grenades do not explode.

- oig.catcJi.and, injuries-

tried to destroy the propounds, center, they threw nine grenades through tho window end all of than failed to explode. Three partisans vers able toa* vu allied*

19. Toe part loans do not plunder large stores, because tbey would need more time and'more personnel for such actions. They merely take what they find after theirource new heard of partiaan* receiving weapons fro*

the eiflf.Y

amjar of tbfl lecml security fores searching the clothes

d that be thought tbe

of nve or six ea^Uan.a found an automatic piatol capablefiring 3CO shotsCcasroniets that .

auch automatics were not uani. uufjjogxast var ai

partisans were supplied with such weapons from the air. Pood

fl the beginning, food van taken from warebousea. partisans jo not take anything from decent farmers, not even when they are delivering their

contributions to tbe State. Sometimes tbe partisans oak tbe farmers to give then apples or something alee to eat. on the other hand, from farmers who sympathize withts or who are activists, the partisans, after warning these persons, take everything they need. From the kolkhozy the partisans take pigs and other animals. Tbe kolkhoznikl often support the partisans and give them what they need. At tbe present time, because the number of partisans ie much smaller and their activity diminished, they can bide in email groups and, for the most part, can get their foodeaceful way.

21. In the beginning, partisana fttrnlsbed themselves with money by taking govern* ment money from offices .or from officials. Formerly, tbe plundering of cooperatives occurred frequently-^nostiy when the cooperatives were supplied with goods or when some employee was going to the rayon bank with cooperative money. Receipts were issued by tbe partisana to persons from whom money was . taken. There were always Judicial investigations after such plunders.

Suspicious persons were arrested and were released only if there was noagainst them. Money has been taken also from the smaller /railroad stations. Individuals also collect money for the partleans and'everyone willingly contributes.

Women andV"

22. Lithuanian women participate in partisan activities and help tbe partisans.Of them do liaison work) they are armed and fight beside the men only when they have no other choice. It sometimes happenshole family will join the partisans, snd the wbmen and cMldren live, among tbe partisans With the father. Source beardoman from tbe village ofE) was sentenced to eight years' imprisonment because of her partisan activities. In the0 inhabitants, including women, of Kartena escaped inio tbe forest.

Communications

nevspapera were published in Maxeildai (Jg-Slny

ud-mui),newspapers which were printed with en epolografos

longer aay or heard about these newspapers. 5 high school pupils were arrested ond the Russiansrinting press, newapapers, and weapons. Several pupile succeeded in escaping and joined the partisans.

artisan groups ccomwnlcate only through their liaison men. These liaison men travel to Klaipeda, Vilnius, and other places, supply the partisana with weapons and documents, and final-Jobs for tbe partisans with the MVD and other offices.

Operations .

25- The partisans know the MVD methods of operation very well. Tbey know their Bignala and, therefore, can easily trick them during encirclements. The partisans send their members clandestinely to work with tbe security entboritieB, Such members have various falsified documents and travel by train to various places. Some partisans participate in encirclements of partisans as kgb members.

Specific Examples of partisan Activity

incidents.derabi^ '

26. ormer ininor partisan leader wasSarnelial In seda rayon.

gymnasium graduate and served in the Lithuanian Army. He

trict disciplinarian and expected obedience from his men. Be did

not drink and did not permit his men to drinfc. In

many combat missions and escaped from several encirclements, like the one

nearE) In tbe Kaglai forest Hero be escapedour partisans and five Soviet Anny soldiera who had Joined partisan ranks.

27- slater lived nearlocated). Once

whento visit her, 'ue sisyeaand then went to

hide for the night in the house of neighbor Thewas not

inhabited, since the owner waa living on the former Soviet

garrison soldiersoutine search attacked H ho succeeded in jumping from theend of the house. Firing during his escape, bev reached tbe

Some time later,his group were surrounded near Alsedzlal

riend ofkilled. Tbe friend came from the area of

AukBtaitiJa (Upper Lithuania). During the roundup, the friend was only wounded in the legs but asked that he not be left behind. With an automatic pistol one of his friendseries of shots into his chest. The remaining men swamiver and escaped. The friend who died thuseautiful voice and liked to sing. Be composed several partisan songB and hymna Including: "Mes neturlm aukso, nei brangiu metalu, turim braagla zene, lalstoma kreuju.* ffWe have no gold nor valuable metals, but weeloved country steeped in blood.",

visited many places in Zemaltlja.

laid not mala their'^acquqlntance. Beaoes not know

' wnerner orpersons are still alive. Be did hear that the comedian B ne of tbe members of tha group, was killed. imself was 'killed8oundup near Alsedsiail

three brothers were partisan group-leaders. They were from

the village of Slektyne (probablyE) in the vicinity of Platelial. One was bornhe other tvo vere older and bad both served In the army. The -three brothers had escaped Into the forest when their parents vere deported to tiiberia. These men were brave andacted .alone, though each bad several men under his supervision.

9 the eldest was encircled by Russians when be left his friendssomeone from whom he wanted to get Information.

from bis pursuersayalfwamp. Thee he triedhis group nearE) but, being veryfell asleepye field. rigade of Russian Communisthim snoring when they passed the field and they tried toalive. ery strong men and wrestled with one of the

Russians. While doing so, be wasespite tbe wound, he succeeded ln shooting himself in the forehead with an automatic pistol which he held ln his strained-hand. However, he Was still token olive and brought toon,

31. In Kosedls,beaten, questioned, snd tried. When asked about

the composition of"his group und those who supported him, he'saidonly support was the automatic pistol. He also told thehe had,spon and visited many places, had shot many -Communists, andwaa fighting for the freedom of Lithuanian It is said thatin hiding an egg-shaped grenade even after he was searched He died after several days of torture in the cellar ofin Mosedis. Many individuals were excited when they hearddeath and feared that he might have betrayed farmers and liaisonno one was arrested, these people were sure tbat he neverthem. The secondwas killedoundupin the village of. His group vasattacked in early morning by MVD sen who arrived in threefight lasted four hours. Two partisans succeeded la escaping. included z himself and two others.

SECrn^

The youngest Z brother wan taken prisoner in latef>ill in his bunker InE). onthcapture he ban been wounded in the legoundup inforest (not located), from the village of Pussorlal,

wooember of theand was in the bunker during the

roundup. Also in the sroup wasfrom ruskorial, who had been

a liaison man for the partisans until nine months fcefore the roundup when he came to the bunker to Join them. Be did -so because he was being drafted into the army.

33. onth before the encirclement,when returning

et as activist. As the two partisans did sot wantthey chased the activist into the bushes and let his white After this they went to see P s brother vhu was livingthe same village as tba .activist. TKey cade-an appointment with the)for the delivery Of some food and whisky, to tb* bunkerr Afterreturned to their bunker, it began to snow and the trollsthe tunker wore covered, this condition lasted for quite somewhich the partisans could not leave. . 'c brotherdeliver the food as moon aa the weather improved. One night whensnowing, thinking that hia footprints would be covered, the brotherto the bunker. When he. arriwae, it stopped snowing and hisin the enow. The activist, wbo probably followedbrother

on horseback. Immediately informed tke security police ln Platellal.

3*. Tbe region around the bunker was encircled at dawn. The bunker Wasthe Hussions and they asked the partiasms to surrender. The Then the security forces seatthe entrance of the

bunker. S _^ ho probably lived. In She same village In which

brother lived, had been stomped .by the isftroMtell on their way toQney thought aa,would-be able to persuade the partisans But the partisans- aWMid ta.sard- 8 t had totke lotrebiteli. The lasts* Itriad- onae more to persuade thesurrender by saying that they would be sentenced for only eightyears. It did not help. After tbls, grenades vere thrown intoand the shooting lasted two hours. The security forces,the partisans still would not surrender, forced their aeninto tke bunker, Which consisted of two cells. Threealready dead and the sickbeen wounded snd waa act able

te get up and blast his bunker. Be was taken alive sad, dressed onlyunderwear, was transferred to the prison in Platellal. On thethe security police transferred him to some other frlstee. "aald that he is now dead. In thethe security police

found automatic rifles and other weapons', among them an electrical machine gun (sic) weighing AO kilograms. These had previously been captured by ths partlsono from the istrebltoli.

tated which brother Is meant? was one of the old partisans.

He joined the partisan ranks during the first deportations fromactive, and was wounded several times. Be exterminated suchAgota Stonkienej her sonommunist Tooth memberi andistrebitel Stropus (fnu). rigade of lBtxebitellthe Kantvidine forest,in separating and killing

VallnsklenB (fnu) and several other persons. He tried not to Kara decent people. He preferred to Buffer from hunger than to go to Lithuanians' bouses, not because he wsa afraid to go, but because he did not want to cause them any difficulties. Ss was very strict and was convinced that beatings or threats would not improve an activist. He felt that, by using such methods, the partisans only harmed themselves. ii or example, twice warned the activist ZskS^utis (fnu) of the village of Dovalniai. When ZUkstutls moved to Klaipeda, he proceeded to betray the partisans and told everyone that all the inhabitants of the village of Dovalniai vers bandits. After. o longer warned the activists. H* Vould not torture them but killed thett Without pity.

activists did have merit. In tha beginning the Llthuaniana werepropaganda and vere encouraged by the Ccaaunlate throughworked for the occupation because they had valid reasons for However, it was felt that,later, persons who worked for theBO because of conviction, because of their desire to distinguishbecause they wanted to avoid deportation, because they wantedposition, and because tbey wanted to profit In an easy way. felt by pertloans such assuch persona should be killed

without pity. Charity toward such persons could not be Justified, since, whan they were discharged or had to Leave the activists* ranks, such persons vere deported to Siberia anyway. Source doles that nany betrayers were well-to-do Individuals who Joined tbe kolkhozy because they wanted to flatter the Communists. Tbe poor people, on the contrary, weremore resistant and often much more careful.

ls brother, andall from tbePuakoriai, participated:ight near Giedrenul) on the way from Zen.OOE) Tbe pertiaana livedswll hunker and the(fed) Informed the garrisons about its. location. It seemsbetrayed the partisans because they had attacked him andand burned their property. Tba partisans were encircledBoldlero from Mazelhiai ouu iieda. ic thoee days oneofoersons, The bunkarwas attacked at night and

the partisans fought for twoalf days. They were wellcartridges, and townspeople aald that after this fight basketsabells were gathered. Tbe- partisans succeeded inencirclement-bynlywo-antfec; he lost his thumb.

bad escaped and Joined taa partisana when bis parents vereto Siberia. Reiaison man -with the partisans andto Mb relatives and lived legally. However, he was laterand sentenced to eights made nobis trial '

killed in the winter of loV3 InOovalnlai. When be was visiting

his' uncle, his footprints were tracedoundup. He fought from morning to evening but, because he was wounded, he could not escape. He killed himself. HIS brother waa killed at Ms uncle's in the village of Puakoriai.

1 in their bunker. Doforo this, tn Gildlbial at the home of A group used to have meetings with another partisan group. Itafraid of the Russians and betrayed tbe partisans, Tbe

partisans had never trustedtherefore were very careful. They

were always ready to fight when tbey came to his house. At tbeof the partisans, the Russians hid inbora. When tb*

^partisans arrived, tbey tookhis bob inio the born with them.

- Thereight with tbe Russians snd both and his son were

killed. One of thewas wounded, but he succeeded in

hiding in the straw and was not discovered. Tbe three remainingsaaped. The corpaes of the father and son were taken by the RusBiana.

kZ, ff . was from tho village of Virteal (not located) orE). He attended school and, during the German occupation, waaby the material distribution point in Flateliai, He was killed near Darbenai during the harvest. Ail his personal documents were found in his clothes. Itiaison man betrayed M_ .parents bythe Russians that tbey were' hiding weapons. omparatively large store of weapons was found by the Russians, including automatic pistols, rifles, grenades, and even ecnie machine guns. Tbe store was underground and potatoes were planted oh the surface. The parents could prove that they were ignorant of tbe store* but, in spite of thia, they were! thoroughly questioned and then banished to Siberia. riend .of H . fs was found deadarmer when harvesting rye. Kear the corpse, the' former found antautomatic pistol and grenades. It was said thatartisan pbxfcograpba 'were found tn the friend's clothes.

Food. .Procurement Activity

k3. inhree partisans went after dark to the storekeeper of

E) betweenl*tEi) and Flunge. Tbey locked the storekeeper in Ms house, took tbe warehouse keys, andtook several cartloads, (about six tons) of rye. The carts were found the next morning nearE) andlthough the partisans had left In the. opposite direction. This happened when contributions had to be delivered to the State.

kk. Ond evening in fallseven partisans came to the Griecine mill in

the village ofE). up

tohe miller's fee In Lithuania waa still paid in corn. Only the sovkhozy pay for the grinding with money. Tbe administrator of the mill was .a'Russian who spokeittle Lithuanian. One of the

partisans appeared to be. This group of partisans took 'Browning

rifles' from the administrator and asked him to show them the comto the State. They loaded this corn into three carts, gavea receipt, and said he could enter the receipt In bisthe morning. The partisans warned the mill workers not to leave,until

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One evening Inbe partisans came to the kolkhoz inB) between Plunge andE). They asked tbe feeder to enow them the pigs belonging to the kolkhoz. They took threefour of them and also two cows. hite horae (probably taken to transport the Stolen animals) was found later in the garden of the security forces. It bad blood stains on its back. .

In Augustn the Alsedineorest, the Russians discovered andartisan bunkerarge quantity of butter which tbe MVD guessed come from the dairy in Zem. KalvaAiJa. The bunker was large, had several cells, and was well-furnished. It bad water,kettles,artridges, and even bed 'linen. Several partisans, foughtwamp and Succeeded In breaking ttoough the encirclement. Three partisans were killed and many Russians were wounded. Tbe partisans in the bunker blew it up at tbe very last moment and all the Russians who were Just entering-were killed. Later, four partisanshipment of one carload of butter which was headed for Zem. Kslvarija. After these, attacks, food shipments. Including shipments of butter, were escorted by Lstrebltell.

^" cbe kolkhoz in,

21JflE). Several farmers from the kolkhoz and also some inhabitants of

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Money Procurement Activity

Q partisansOCO0 rubles from tee ranger's house in Kretlnfla. They veranot caught, although the garrison was stationed only onealf kilometers fraot the ranger's house.

*9. he directorbe Salinlai center (probably, which canslate of seven aovktaozy, van attacked whenfrom tbe bank with money for ths payment of employees. Theithuanian Cf member, waaruck with an employee of tbe central administration, The directorun, since directors are alwaya anted. The two were- attacked from the brushwood. Twenty thousand rubles fell into the hands of tke partisans^ The director waa questioned for quite some, time but was finally released.

50. Inhe cooperative at Satelkial was plundered- Materials, whisky, food, and money were taken- The administrator tried to prevent the plundering, but he was beaten up. Employees of the cooperative were arrested, but after two or three weeka they were released, as tbere was no evidence against them.

51- 8 the railroad station InE) waa plundered. Two persons made the attack and0 rubles. One of the attackers wandered about eight kilometers from tbe atation and started to drink. He waa discovered and, when be tried to escape, was killed. The Ruaalana0 rubles irtfcfel ciotbea. Tbe other attacker eacaped Into tke forest.j

Activities Involvingand Families

oa. In the rayon ofan who wasember of tbe Lithuanian Rational Guard and whoorest keeper by profession Joined "the partisans With hie whole family, consisting of bis wife, daughter, and son. This partisan familyiaisonmail farmer who waa living near the forest and who supplied the family with food. After acme time this liaison man wus arreated by the Russians,who forced him to show them the bunker ef tbe partisan family. The townspeople say that tbe liaison man walked into tbe forest and around the bunker. Thia seemed to be tbe signal for the Ruaalana. The next day tbe bunker was encircled by tbe Russians and tba family, with the exception of the daughter,was killed. The daughter was not In the bunker during the roundup The liaison nan tried to move to Skucds* but was killed by the partisans; when be returned to bis bouse to take tbe furniture.

53- 8 tbe twowere well-known partisans. The D

groupiwas famous and was known under tbe namegroup

acted without pity. One of the brotbera used to say, "It is batter to kill two innocent persons than to let one guilty person escape.'1 Both brothers were very strict. This group always acted .on its cWn responsibility and punished ito liaison men as it thought best. Other partisans often did not approve of their -actions. One of the brothers waseacher. The wife of one brother Wax arrested and tortured by the Russians. After finally being released, she also Joined tho partisans. She broke through encirclements several timea. Thia group waa betrayed and attackedmall. tbe fringe of tbe Mantvldlne forest. It waa raining on that

th* village participated in this action vlth the partiaana. Tha Russians found out who didand three faimers vere arreated. tour fnxaors fled_ into the foreats.

evening and-the partisans had no guards. pproached the house and started to throw grenades through the windows. artisan woman and three male partisans wore killed. The owner of the house, whose husband was serving in the amy, was killed, as was her son. an who hado the house owner asking her to'Join him in harvesting potatoes was also killed.

9 hear Kartena, thereoundupunker inhabited by four partisans. The. woods were encircled by garrisons from Kretinga, Salantai, and Kartena. Two partisans escaped andomanan, were killed. The woods were searched for two or three daya for the escaping partisans, but they wereTfibt"found.

'j-* . .'

Actions. Against Transports

partisans unload or burn trucks carrying goods and guns belongingsecurity units. They throw grenades into the trucks if 'they This happened once in the Vovftraiciai forest when someon their way to Kretinga. In the same foresta .vehicle carrying three Russians, and some time later .oneRussians. In the neighborhood of Darbenai, they destroyedcarrying Istrebitell. This was done .with machine guns andmajor rounaupa followed such activities, the partisans alwaysregion immediately after their

Action Against. Bailiffs

ussian bailiff was killed in the area of Rletavasj twosucceeded in escaping. ig funeral with on orchestrawas arranged for the slain bailiff.

3

tne slain oaiiirr nad notad man. sourcehose who have arrived from other Soviet republics are bad-For example, there areho do not inventory all thei an individual, or household, who do not interfere-unless necessary, wid who reduce thd age at which animals are to be confiscated. Source explains that,when property is taken from kulaks, the bailiff IS not present. Generally, several persons from, the rayon administration come1 to the person or family and check and inventory all property. The bailiff appears.only to .help in political cases .or to. carry out court decisions. His recordsert of the court records.

Activities toyolvlng.Prcyr^^teurB

Ccmmunists send provocateurs to inhabitants who live near thewho are suspected of being partisan liaison men. Thesethathave escaped from the Rose ions and want to Joia tlie. partisans.

IB aLBiirdss, came to thehouse. It was known that V .

was helping persons who escaped and who were hiding from the Russians. The provocateurs asked him either to show them the way to the partisans whom they wanted""to JJoin or to give them some food and Weapons, since otherwise they would'be lost. Y mi gave them some food and also gaveffcwhing rifle. When the Russians got the Brcwking, one- of them left, the house andhe house was immediately surrounded by Russians and was thoroughly searched. The Russians raked the papers in the stove andewspaper and three more Brownings.

arm woman named ft* rom the Village of Mlciukalsaw three men crawling frat the bushes of the nearby forest. the. men was D l'-huaiiian, who had been prohibited by theapeaking to anyone or from leaving the forest. These men asked H

to show them the-way to the partisans. The woman said that she knew only where three Germans were hiding but. had not heard anything about Lithuanians. She promised to.meet the three men the next day, to bring, tbem food, and to contact the Germans. Tbe following day the woman brbugTit them some'food, but- the German partisanawhom tbe woman bad promised to contact ffWne* show up. When tbe woman caught sight of D , she at once understood that she had been deceived. Sbfl threw the food] to the ground and Some time later, D as arrested and was sentenced toears' imprisonmenti

individuals are also sent to the IithuanianB by the Russians One wasFlateliai. He wandered aroundtownspeople for about"three months. The partisans did not wanta, farmer gave bim some food,betrayed bjm.

sentenced tp eight years' imprisonment because heheep.

The. Russians also sent women. irl sent by the Russians Joinedand lived with them forear. When she left them,many partisana and showed their bunkers to tbe Ruseians, onnwnist Touth member and is now' employedaid by thethe Kartena

Illegal Activities of tbe latrebjteli and MVD.

Aftereven or eight, istiybltell came to the mill In Bebringas (probablyB). Tlie administrator of tba ill was Tbe jstrebitell said that they were partisans and took the corn belonging to the State, as veil as the com left by the farmers who were present. On the way back, when the iBtrebitell were drivingorest> tbey were, stopped by MVD troopers who' werear. They vere asked for their documents, but, instead of showing .them, the iBtrebitell opwa fire and started to run into the forest. An istrebJtel waa killed and, when the MVD troopers examined the corpse and saw that it wus an ifltrcbltel who belonged to the same security unit, no searches were made: and the "ITtrebltell who succeeded' in escaping into the forest were not followed or

In tbe winter, two MVD troopers came to the bouse of two eisters who were living at the market place in the village of Karkolikai in the vicinity of Skuodaa. The; two troopers were in uniformpeaking Russian, asked for gOld coins. One of the sisters succeeded in .escaping by Jumping through the. window. The other sister refused to give the gold coins and was bit on the. head with an automatic pistol and lost eonsclousnesB. The troopers searched the cupboards and every corner of tbe room looking for the gold ,coins but could find. none. They discovered two or more gold watches.

The sister who escaped ran to the nearby kolkhozy center and summoned the kolkhoznlki. She returned to the bouse;roup of shouting friends. The MVD troopers, seeing tbe approaching crowd, left the house. The second sister, who in the meantime bad recovered and saw an automatic piatol and cartridge belt left Behind by one of the troopers, took these and ran through the .woods to her neighbor and told him the story. The MVD trooper saw that he had forgotten his weapon and .belt at the house and returned to search for it.

The next day tbe slater and her neighbor decided to submit the pistol and the cartridge belt to.the security authorities or to the prosecutor. Tbey were sly and knew that tbey would be watched. By roundabout ways, they finally brought these articles ta the Judge. There were Initials' on the belt. They told th* whole story to the Judge and the latter Immediately phoned tbe security authorities. Records were madeavBult was opened In Skuodas,where therepecial court for political lawsuits. One of

the MVP troopersarty member and was sentenced to eight years*ent. It was especially emphasized in tbe course of the pleading that the MVD trooper had disgraced the Soviet Union.

- ': ':l

everal time* in Klaipeda militiamen and sailors were caught while plundering. oliceman and several Russian sailors vent by trues, toKretinga. Tbeyewart. This Jew- was purchasing provisions andarge sum of money. Tbia crime was traced by the truck used by the plunderers. Tne policemanut the sailors were arrested,nd rimprisoned. on snfltner

a cooperativeity was plundered by Bailors with the aid of militiamen. hisky, and money were stolen. Theere tracedoman tried to sell the stolen material on the market.

the wintercoosuniat Party Secretary Mykolsa joksas of

Platellai and seven ifltrebiteli stole atncrae free faraer B

In bovainlsi.ntal was protecting the faraer and

started to snoot with' an automatic pistol which he" bad grabbed from

The iBtrebitell who aecoSfcemled Joksas escaped and ran to the volaot bailiff, asking AaV hfclp. JOksas, who was wounded during the. fight, escaped,MBnp, He waa. found later and it was said that he bad been asleep. He died from bis injuries and was solemnlyn Kretlnga cemetery- aa alsos was the stolen sgrBe,

three days the corpse of B dragged from one place to another.

Then bis'mother came and, when she wept before his carpee, she wasarrested by the Russians. They also vent toan

bfl arrest his father. But tbe father said be. was glad that tie sonkilled, because the. sonhief and bad evenorseownhe bailiff confirmed, the fact that the father wagabout his son and that he was not informed about the.and never visited him, D s father thus clearedhis property,was not confiscated. Vbe 'townspeople said thatas

General Conditions, in Utauanla

are being^sprcad about thear in spring or fail.UtauanlanB believe these rumora, because tbeyfor their liberation.

66. Loud-speakers are inatslled In factories,iving quarters, squares, railroadn trains, etc. Tbey are. set up inay that .individuals are savsye within earshotoudspeaker. These loudspeakers transmit local news, news from abroad, musie, and nformation, about the. suceesses of the soviet vnlon, about plans vhieh have been accomplished, work aeroa who promise to increase the percentage of their work, etc. t% addition, they tell of the miserable situation"he capitalistic countries, the refusal of tbe British soldiers to fight for the imperialistic interests of Americans, the pretests of American' "'" women against sending their sons to the fighting army, etc. Neva of tab collection o* signatures <er psace, pw^aganda against tbe Pope and religion, information about thousands of poor workers, their refusal toships,s also ineluded. Propaganda from tbe newspapers is also transmitted.

Commen.tS!

I. The mention-visitartisan leader from Vilnius

not he considered canfirmatlonl' ^

3- The story aa told here differs in aomo detail* from the episode as described In

m

Original document.

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