A SPECIAL REPORT ON THE POLITICAL SITUATION OF GUATEMALA AND ITS RELATION TO HE

Created: 3/3/1953

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CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM

RELEASE ASaSAWHxJEDieport oh the political

EITUATIOH OP UUATfcWALA and ITS Rfc>

inaasPHmc security.

S, Prontlgo Oi

o ond of tho war tho prostlge of tha UnitedGuatemala haa boon deolining, Thia la duo to severalr-Vflhaa boon steadily gaining ground In

Guatemala, not only In tho govesnraent, but also in tho labor Conrunism has taken hold In the peasant movement by noons of Infiltration of oorcrunlot agents in the local agrarian cononlttooa.second plaoo. tho United Statoo haa not boon careful onough in the fostering oi* dorcoorrd lng to the woatom pattern. The oopnunlota have had wide-open fields to toko overlabor mo variant Labor loaders have roceivod training in Moscow, ond United States has fa Hod to uoe the intur-American agreement [Tn order to bring moro people to the United States to bo properly rtrainod In tho donooratie prooesooo. In theplane, foroos njppoelng cosmunlam fool that they have not been getting proper understanding of their problems on tho port or. embassy in Quatomala. Poroeo opposing coranunlan have not boon fully equlppodnstructed in the ways and noons to fltfftnd therefore thoy have boon only ablo to accomplieh an amateur 'lob. Intho fourth place. American offlolals have denied theo If umiuJUUl'! IrT'TOatonala. Inasmuch ao tho domocratio oppoeltlon has not boon able to produce tangible evidence of the existenceoviet conspiracy, they have not oven boon hoard. CJt has not boon until tho last twelve months that the Amorloan jpublio has become aware of the proa ant danger of oonsaunlatof Ouatemala.

Sver alnoe Ambassador Kyle went to Guatemala, embassyhave explained tho social movement of Guatemala asemocrat io movement tending lightly to tho loft, and slightly tainted with nationalism. Embassy officiala have staunchlyany charges of conmunlst Infiltration in ths Guatemalan government. Tho attitude assumed by tho Amorloan government In regard to cooruniaai in otherf the world has off not upon coBsnunisto In Ouatemala. Every tlrao tho United States has failed totrong stand against oomrtunlsm In other parts of tho world. Guatemalan cornnunlata have gained ground. Strong attitudes, like intervention in Korea, haveeterrent to furtherof the Oua tonal en communists. Buthole, they have been loft alone to the extent that at the present tins thoymost of the bey positions in the government.

Democratlc-forces. in Guatemala feel disgruntled about tho failure of the United States to prevent tho spread of oonrjunism in the western hemisphere. Thoy feel now that they would bo better off now in their democratic progress if they had only been left alone without the domocratio propaganda poured into the oountry

during thohoy fool that Ubloo's dlotatorahlpo-torrent to the spread of oonrainlnn. and that democratic progreso vould nooonnarlly have boon mode without tho Intervention of tho extreme left* Although no ono either Justifies, or wis has to return to, the typo of dlotatorahlp ejcoroieed by ubloo, thoy fool tha needtrong government which at tha same tinsthe growth of communism,and prepares tho oountry forprogress In accordance with. typo of de-ncraoy. Guatemalans also fed that the evils ofictatorship have been groatly exaggerated, ln view of the prooont existing conditions, and that communistsot to do with tho propaganda campaign directed against many Guatemalans who honestly supported Ubloo's pro-American policies during tho war.

A^Communlat Beachhead

During tha war It was feared that Guatemala couldazi beachhead, on account of tha presonee of several hundred Oormans, settled ln the country as Ubico lent full cooperation to the united States In averting this dangor* Out after theore serious condition has developedthe socurlty of the hemisphere* Kxtreme leftists have taken over strong positions ln the Quatomdan governnent. They control the labor movement, the social security, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Economics, and have boon Infiltrating heavily in the rank and file of the array, Communist deputies have boan sent to Congress, due to the faot that the opposition has not boon properly organised. Althoughommmlata have demonstrated that their numerical strength Iscompetent has been dons to organise them. Personal ambition haseterrent to- an organic and unified opposition. uprisings have only resulted ln the Jailing or expatriation of the ablostleaders. ew of the anti-coEBnunlsts have sought to obtain dlreot help from abroad. In their efforts to throw the oooBnunlsta out of tho oountryi but the majority of theo nrruniflt tileook only for moral support and They feel that their efforts have been obstructed byresenoe of leftist elements ln the foreign missionsy various governments to Guatemala. Several times when theemnunlsts tried to secure recognitionew government,ound that word had been passed to the communist governmentuatemala.

They have come to believe that the United States is notto throw the oormmlsts from Guatenala beoause tho oommunlsto do notlear and prosont danger or beoause they can be quickly disposed of ln case of an armed conflict.

The faot that so many communists In high places In thegovernment are dn such friendly terms with Russia, makes It

I

dear that under their leadership Guatemala will side with the Soviet ln case of an armed conflict. oting record In the United Nationsear Indication that the present government Is to bea member of tho Sovlot bloa.

Bven If the Guatemalan government dares not openly side with the communist countries, the preaonoo of communists In high positions will enable the enemies of the United States to sabot ago any offorts mad* for protecting the Panama Oanol. Pur* thermore* every Guatemalan oommunlntotential spy In tho event of war* They have aooess to diplomat lo filoa, and are able to prevent tho use of Ouatemalan labor in the building of military airfields* should the ease arino.

The destruction of any remnants of opposition may turn out toery dirfioult problem in the event of war* If no democratic opposition la allowed to survive under the communist domination* lt may become imperative to oooupy the oountry sndilitary government* ondition may in turn resultill on she part of the masses of thw people* Real nationalist i< - pride will be touched off and suoh an occupation will beot only by guatomalans but also by the people of the rest ofmerica. The fruits of the Good neighbor polioy will be lost. rfj and if any understanding between the peoplos of Guatemala and thenited States Is to be roached, the work will have to be done all over again.

Tho Monroe Dootrine and

For several years lt lo apparent that no one but the stu* dents of International law has taken into consideration theo or the Monroe Dootrine. To the present condition oftha Monroe Doctrine la an applicable Instrument. The Monroe Dootrlne was Intended to utop colonialism ln the western hemisphere. Especially lt was Intended to prevent Intervention on the part of the European powers In American affairs* to stop compulsoryof foroign debts and undue privileges for foreign interests looated south of the Rio Grande.

The tumultuous history of the Latin American republios gave rise to the establishment and oonsecutlve aooeptanoe of two dlf- ferent doctrines regarding Intervention. The Tovar poo trine waa the first doctrine of American solidarity beaea'TTporrtflB'maintenance of democracy ln the wstern hemisphere. It gave authority (noral) to the governments of the wostern world to Intervene in the domestic affairs of any Amor loan oountry in which demooraoy was ln danger* or where demooraoy had ooasod to exist. In other words* whenever an American republic would fell under the ruleyrant* the neighboring nations would have the right to Intervene and to restore the democratic processes*

Development on thehe United States of high-handed methods towards the Latin Americanhe existence of tbe so-called "big stick"and'Hollar diplomacies'1 gave rise to acurrent of nationalism on the part of the Latin American republios. Latin Amerloana thought that the United States was brandishing the Monroe Poo trine only as an Instrument of their own imperialism, nnd thatootrlne wan no longer useful Inwith tho European powers.

Tlie Estrada Dootrlne cam* Into beingesult ofin domestic affairs of tho Latin Americanone upon another, or on tho port of the United'atrada Doctrine forbids Intervention in the domesticthe nations of this hemisphere. The principle Involveda dootrlne haa been embodied ln the Good NeighborLatin American republios have been following itears. uatemala,under communistbroken tlio prinlcplo of lnt er-Amer lo on solidaritydur tig the so-called revolutionary regimes*

the oountry was governed by the Military Junta that prooeded Arevalo* Ouatemala gave oldroup of revolutionaries,whoHI Salvador. Guns of tha Guatemalan Army were captured by the Salvadorlan Army and were exhibited ln ^an Salvador's show-windows. Arevalo'a government organized the Carrlbbean Legion and lent support to the Costa Rlcan revolution* piano ft, loaded with rifles and ammunition, were flown to Costa Rloa* to aid the rebels. argo number of officers of tho Carrlbbean Legion were token to Costa Rica In Guatemalan Army transport planes. overnment also organisedttempted revolution against Nicaragua, and gave aid to tlieLegion and the government-in-exlie of Arguello. under Arevalo's administration, supplied she money, the arms, and tho air bases* for the unsuccessful attack on Luperon. The Guatemalan goveiruoont alsoot to do with the Cayo Conflteo expedition. The present president of Guatemala* Jaoobo Arbenx, was Minister of Defense during the whole administration of Arevalo, and there is no doubt that he was instrumental In Guatemala's Intorvontlon In the domestic affairs of the Carrlbbean nations.

At the present time, communism is actively engaged ln the domination of the Carrlbbean Soa. Communism is activelyin tho domestic affaire of Guatemala, and has completely seised control of the country's domestic and foreign poliolea* Communism as an International weapon depends entirelyuropean power. Through the cominf onn, Russia is intervening ln the affairsatin American republic, and has been constantly trying to Intervene in the domestic and international problems of Latin America. The purpose of this lntorvmtlon le to establish*first in Guatemala, and later ln other countries of thisorm of democracy entirely foreign to the Amorloan tradition* Soolallsm* and not demooraoy, is the goal of the communists, and by that* we mean that the real purpose of the communists Is to secure for the Imperialistic movement of Russia the completeof the peoples of the wertern world* and tha resources therefrom.

In view of the danger* lt laoo toevision of the International principles which have guided Axserlcan policy towards the countries south of the Rio Grande. The Latin American republios were born to demooraoy, Inspired by the principles of the FTenoh and American Revolutions. The upheavals which haveIn Latin America are not conclusive evidence that democracy as such lias failed there. Several Latin Amerioan countries have

given an oxanple of good demooratio government, and democracy baa boonuitable form of government for the beatof the Latin American peoplea.

Outright Intervention la not oontamplated, inasmuch as it ma; prove toourceill and resentment, and Is far from being an Instrument of hoaleplierlc cooperation. However, the denooratlc foroos of Latin Amerloa nay be aoonor or later in tho sano position in which aro now tho foroos oppoalng Arbons and his communists in Guatonala. The problem now is to remove as soon as poanlble tho olear and proaont danger existing inwhich lo at the sameource of unrest and fear on the part of tho nations of the Carrlbbean. The next problem In order of importance is to consolidate democracy by means of an active policy of cooperation, by training the leaders to whom may be later entrusted the responsibility of maintaining the demooratio system, and by giving ths domocratio forooo tho moans to achieve aoclalwell ahead of any plans propounded by the extreme left or by tho oom-unlsts. Democratic leaders,of well-known reaponaibllity and capacity, trained and educated if possible In the democratic way of living,e compelled to carry out the social and economic reforms which aro needed, thereby preventing tho reform movements from falling into the hands of tho comunists.

^vldonoe of Communist Success,

Anyone familiar with political conditions now Inknowa thut thorea rgs number of forelgnere In highin the government. Communists by the do eons ars on the gover mont payrolls, without an; apparent apeolfio Jobs to do. They novo around the country, and the most Important ones are Spaniards who form the communist brain-truat of the government. Minor Spanish coBtmmlsts hove even taken jobs in private concerns, and there are atosen or oo who hold jabs as traveling aalesmon, in order to novo freely around the country* They are known to have boon attending conmu-iiat meetings in towns and hese Spaniards were carefully oho sen by Munos Moony, former Minister to France, and an avowed comrrunlac, among the rank and file of the Loyalist Army.

The opposition papers reoently reprinted full pagoe of Hungarian, Polish and Czech papers, which give an account of tho auooese of tho Cominform in Guatemala. It Is evident that the eomnunleta haveot froa their previous failures in other Latin American countries, and the foot that thoy have suootedod in Guatemala shows that they haveroven method of conquest tor several other republics which are under similar olroumstances. Havingtronghold In Guatemala, the task of oonquoring other countrlee willuoh easier one. The conwunlet auocess makoe It alao clear that public opinion in tho western world cannot be only sentimental in regard to tho social and economio problems ofall country! it has to beoome aware that the situation is to bo handledealistic and dlroct approach* The people of Quatomala have demonstrated that thoy are not oonsminiats but rather that communism haa been lnpooed upon them from above. The

Guatemalan people do not have herd feeling against the United States, but rather are pro-American* However, ISijunvMniBm continues Its vlotorlous path ln Guatemala the people willthe vry existence of democraoy In America, and any onoto survive will have to bow under the communist yoke.

The Offlolal Preaa

The Ouatemalanpross Is entirely eubservient to communism. They play the communist line all along* The war in Korea as waged by the United Nations Is labeled an imperialistic war| the United States Is brandedar-monger| and anyto maintain the rule of law is considered reactionary. ln Guatemala, who oppose the advance of communism aro also labeled reactionaries and slaves of Imperiallam. The official press follows strictly the line ofhloh la the offiolal organ of the Communist Party. Several communist Spaniards hold Jobs an either reporters or wrltozs in tho official preaa.

Official newspapermen are being laviahly paid ln order to -rasp tnsn ln line with the offlolal polioiea of the government. The editors of official newspapers have traveled to Vienna and Mosoew in order to attend Peace Congresses. The general attitude of the Guatemalan official presa la one of antagonism towards the United States and the United Nations. Lies and innuendo are constantly printed, and the official newspapers are delivered free In every hanlot or village.

Courts

Untilertain amount of independence was preserved in the courts. Only lastudges of tlie Supreme Court were dismissed by the Congress for having admitted the revision of an expropriation under the agrarian reform, whloh vas based on the infr ipgement of civil rights. The l* Justices elected by the Congress are completely subservient to the communist policies of the government, and the first step taken by the new oourtefusal to review the oase. Several coses related to back taxes stllLpending.were quickly disposed of, and rogardloaii of the prlnciplea Involved, the defendants lost all of them.

Several magistrates and district Judges have recently runder ooramunist pressure. Scores of other Judges,whose appointment rests with the Supreme Court* have been summarily dismissed* Up to thle time thereair ohanoe of legalagainst Infringement of civil liberties* but under the present set-up, cltisens do not have any legal effective measures to prevent tha encroachment upon their rights. Any person, holding rural property, is liable to get fined, with fines ranging up toif he dares to bring legal action against the government. At tho prosime tha people have been left with no protection uhoteoover from the actions of the agrarian authorities. Under the agrarian sot-up, the civil oode cannot be applied or invoked for the protection of personal rlghta, inasmuch as everything is related to tho agrarian and political authorities, and the few remaining democratic officials do not dare to issue Injunctions or to start

criminal proceedings against any official or authority, dua to fa or of boing flnod, imprisoned or dismissed.

The Organisation of Central American States

agenda

Oueember of the Orgnitation ofstates, but has constantlyooting efAssembly. The reason foreluctanceher sleter countries In dealing with their costeonIlea in the foot that El Salvador Introduced In thethe next meeting of theroposal to fightem. Twice the Assembly haa been oallsd, and twiceGuatemalan government has prevented the meeting* Assembly is to oonvone in Hay, many political observers that the Ouatemalan government willretext for Indefinitely the

Guatemalan snti-comunlsts feel that tho United States Is aware of tho problems related to communion,and especially have token due notice of tbe fact that president Eisenhower has stated that the United States will fight coweonism Thoy fool that, as part of hemlsphorb .solidarity, the fight against communism is also to be carried in tho woatern world, and that oonPtirjlom must be fought In Guatemala inasmuch aa the country Is right in the backyard of the United States and in the heart of the woatern world and not anywhere oleo. If Guatemalan antl-coramuniats are prevented from doing byselvee what they think is best for the country and for the western world, resontment may result in desertion to communism.

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