John p. Hayes .FROM
John P. Hayes, the China-barn, American missionary who was put under brainwashingrolonged periodd China, has given me the following impressions:
his success in surviving this agonizing period:
attributes this first to faith. In this he agrees
with the statements made to me by persons such as Robert
F- Olin Stockwell and others withave discussed this
None of these menoment on their reply. Hayes said
had recourse to prayer, and it literally gave him stamina for
Hayes amplifiedignificant manner. He said, "I
strength from feeling that other people, friends and strangers
were thinking about me, and praying for me." Thiswofold
titude he revealstrust in an unbeatable, divine order,
certainly that in some manner other human beings can influence
destiny, too, by their sympathy and feelings for him. avei
across this frequently, tfae. Kaslenko, the Soviet
who leapedindow of the Soviet Consulate General in Hew
has testified to the strength she derived from hearing her nameradio froa time to time, although she couldn't understandseeing reporters in front of the building. Fellow travelers
so-called liberals were then uttering cries of indignation over her "persecution" by not being let alone. Far from persecution, it was the decisive element in saving her. Allelieve from my whole background and experience, is closely related, and to the situation in Red China. The feeling that there is no hope is the main weapon that the Communists have utilised, and in this we have been manipulated into supporting them. They require, just as Hayes had toeeling of faith, that there is hope, before they can shake off Communism. ound certainty inayes also said.
also attributes his survival to "ay sense In this, he superficially disagreed with some ofwho had gone through similar brainwashing. Re was closerProtestant attitude than to the usual Catholic, as told aewho survived. The difference, however, is not in howto the listenerto the Communist indoctrinator,butman hijnself who is being brainwashed. "After all, I'm a
e said. He retained this sense of mission work
the time, and this, too, gave him strength. This was, in other
0 Acpravsd for/
a sense of duty, deeply felt. The question arises whether this sense of duty can be felt equally in other fields, such as theelievethat patriotism can be such an element. The point is not which of these faiths or loyalties is concerned, but whether the individual has developed an attachment to it that cannot beayes .said he was sincere in all that he told the Beds. Re said he never lied. This was in direct conflict with what other missionaries did, and other non-missionaries. They told me they had kept their minds busy by outwitting the Reds, by "lieingrooper" to give the impression that they were being convinced by the Red logic, which took every ounce of one's acumen, for theexert great efforts to make sure that their victims actually are sincere, and not trying to put over an act.
Then Hayes explained his interpretation of sincerity and truth-telling. He said he told the Reds that, indeed, he was guilty of not showing the proper feeling for the plain people, the masses. His contacts had been theChinese. id not go to the peoplehould have done." The Reds were right in this, he said. Actually, Hayes was selecting this portion of the Redwith which he might find it possible to beo agree. He was being cooperative, not "stubborn." He said, too, that he confessed he hadpy. old themadpy under their laws, but not in spirit." He pointed out to me that Chinese Communist law forbids the sending of news or any otherto America, allowing this only to go to Soviet Russia. nI sent information to my mission board in America,e went on. In this, he showed that he was seeing the Redenabling him to answer yes to them, while his reply to the same question asked by anyone else would have been in the negative.
(That he was doing was showing that his "sense of mission" worked out very much like the deliberate contest of wits engaged in by the others who said they were "deceiving the Reds" as to their views. Hayes, however, was intellectually fitted to do the same thingramework that was truthful to him, and therefore no special strain on his conscience. Where an individual is able to do this, it is muchhould think, from the survival viewpoint, than having to think out what untrue twist you might be able to get away with. This is the method utilized by Catholic priests and nuns on most occasions, the Jesuitical approach. It works.
c. Theretriking contradiction even here, which revealed how against the grain even the thought of lieing is to this upright character. He remembered eagerly his "sense of mission'1 and how he had been "sincere" and "told theven though this was cutting hairs. He admitted, though, There werepparently said thingsouldn't remember afterwards having said, and
which were false." Re had told untruths, buturessin it the most sinister aspects of brainwashing. All whothe Reds in this, it is to be noted, have confessedCommies wanted them to confess. Some, like Bryan, hadmore rigorous treatmentBryan told tae he wasonto the floor, and given an injection in the spine,didn't tell ae anything of this sort. How he explained-
i. Hallucination, he declared, is part of the Red-imposed confession technique. it hungry all the time. You neveratisfactory diet. Tou're sleepy all the time. Tou forget things, get them confused. Tou admit, and believe things that never happened, while in this fog." In this, he is in completestwith everyone toave spoken, who has gone through brainwashing, Chinese and non-Chinese alike. This imposed mental and physical fog is the secret of the Communist confession technique. (See analysis of Communist movie on germ warfare,liers who confessed."
is primarily the determinationerieshe pointed out, and their synthesis or juxtaposition toconclusions. Facts are rearranged ir.anner asa seemingly logical pattern, only it never happened. This
is nothing new; only it's callous use in this manner is new. Editors of'our newsmagazines and foreign affairs specialists in public and private life, who collect facts from items and articles culledhole series of different agencies and sources, and who arrange themattern to give cn analysis that sounds perfectly logical and indisputable, do this all the time. Wherever the individual is cut off from sources, or operates through third parties, this is the result. Where the environment can be controlled completely, the result is even more pronounced, as it was with Hayes.
pointed cut emphatically that this calculatedof facts to create the illusiononclusionoccurred in reality requires some form of threat, There must be pressuresoo, hethreats differ according to the individual being treated,giving the treatment, the time and thelike in any psychiatric establishment or hospitalis geared to the patient. erson is hungrythe implied decrease or increase of rations orconstitutes threats of the most effective kind. Thesepressures, too. The foreigners are not threatened or putas openly as the Chinese, but threats and violencepart. These are adjusted to the need, though, which isconfession so you can be trusted to go out andpublic, or react in public as the authorities desire, under all
circumstances. Hayes did not go deeply into thie with aeope to do so later with hia. He was emphatic about this, though.
g. He, as did the othernterviewed, aaid it wan most important to keep your sind busy so as to survive without actually being brainwashed. He .did this through his sense -of mission, he said, by his sincerity. elt deeply hurt that the Communists shouldadpy, and the Communistsase said. cculd tell, and wereere again he gave evidence of an elewent of strengthelieve would be difficult if not impossible for many of our intellectuals to attain. Hayes did not sees bothered with evident contradictions; they were in different grooves in his mind. Our trained thinkers, who arc mechanically logical, indoctrinated by our higherof learning this way, would have the greatest difficulty being able tc do things and say things that did violence to their sense cf harnony, of logic. They would have to be "insincere* about it, and this would create another problem, for Reds work hard to see through "insincerity."
3- Regarding his future Dlans:
a. He eagerly desires to go to Korea, to talk to the Chinese Reds who have been caught by us, and are in our pow caicps. He believes that they can be brought over to work for us. He feels they would, in turn, be our best and most effective approach to other Red Chinese, and others who have been unOer Communist influence.
' b. He feels that in order to win against Chinese Communism, "we oust get into the minds of these people." The language pattern is one way, he fervently believes. He was born and brought up in China, and reads and writes it, apparently fluently. In hiswith me regarding Chinese Communist lmgo, he showed an intense knowledgeeep affection for fine points in the language, and in the written characters. By using the terminology that the Reds use, he feels, we canapport that can enable us to plant anti-Coamninlst ideas and turn Reds into decent folk. This analyst agrees that thisost important factor. The Chinese, Hayes points out, have been hearing andertain type of language for some years now; inevitably they are used to it. Other ways of speaking would sirikt them as strange, and couldostility even among those who want to free themselves from the Red bondage. Hayes pointed out that the Communists are extremely clever in their propaganda terminology. They make sure they do not shock dectnt feelings. They operate inalculated manner that they can do this, whereas we, confident of our sincerity, use terminology thateemingly callous approach, and this makes our task harder, and somotlmes impossible, oftenevelopment in
our favor that otherwise seemed assured. For instance, Hayes aaid the Red Chinese do not refer to this conflict as "psychological warfare.0 Heit over the term. The Reds call it "ideologicale pointed out. This pits idea against iflei, and doesn'tly or underhand connotation. For instance, he didn't like the translation, "thoughts used in the book, "Brain-Washing in Redlthough he said the book was
thoroughly accurate, Lid could not understandriter could
produce it without having himself gonerainwashing.seduction" wasn't wrong, but doesc't quite convey the Chinese tone, he said. He said the Reds talk frankly about this,
referring openly to "thought control." This open approach removes
much of the suspicion cf itmakes it seem perfectly natural and desirable. Itost affective propaganda trick. Hayes feels * that he has the experience and ability to "get into the Chinese
mind" this way, and wants more than anything else to be given the
opportunity tc do so.
c. He stressed that we must not underestimate our enemy, or his motives. This is another matter onntend to go more deeply with him. eel that here he is stressing the approach that ha used when ho was "sincere" and remaining true to his "sense of mission" while under brain-washing, which enabled him to determine what the Reds insisted on his confessing, ana finding points on which he could confess without doing violence to his own loyiltios, while yetthe Commies. erson who can do this it natural psychological warfare material!
U. He io robustall, strong-looking can, broad,eard. He remarked that his beard helps him lookissionary, and he is proud toissionary; ho wants to uppear like one. His wife, whom he married in China, does not have hla intimate knowledge of the language and its writing,ery good knowledge of it. She is Britisha Scotswoman. o not know whether she. citizen.) They have five children, four born in China. Shehin, elderly lady who shies away with harsh reactions and harsh verdicts. They went through prison camp under the Japanese, but sha had no bitterness, nor harsh words, .'he eagerly sees the other fellow's side,ronouncedly Christian manner. "The Communists are not all bad; some of their motives arehe pointed out. Sheood wos*n, but veryI feel, than her husband, whoood man, but more realistic.
5. In prison in Red China, Hayes had three booksall in Chinese, and all written by Mao Tse-tung. now then: by hearte said. This is part of his training to "get into the minds of the Chinese Reds." He feels that what he went under waa for eventual good. This could, indeed, be the case, in our cold war.
6. Another point which he stressed was the "conditioning" of the Chinese for Red propaganda pressures and brainwashing. ould ratherlimatewe in. have known thia sort ofolitical cliaate that made it alaost impossible to ferret out Coraaunisa or criticise Conauaisaong period of time. What this really means is that reactions and attitudes are "conditioned" to consider certain approaches, certain points of- view, as fundanentally normal, as natural, and other standpoints as basically wrong, and to have an open or closed mind to everything they see or hear in accordance with this. Hayes believes he would not jar against the Chinese Red, that he could fit into their prejudices, and ao betrategic position to underaine Communism. Thisorm of mind infiltration, of individual fifth colimnism, that can be invaluable, if correctly pursued.
?. Ke is under his modest mission pay. If he wont abroad, to Korea, for instance, this would continue normally, but he might be helped by having his expenses and other costs refunded.
8. ave talked toumber of theseentry. r. convinced ao far, byave noted, that everyone who goesrainwashing carries traces of it far prolonged periods, or always. This is not necessarily bad; this can be good. Vftiat is important is to keep it in mind.Original document.