THE FOOD-CANNING INDUSTRY IN THE USSR (RR PR-38)

Created: 9/21/1953

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PROVISIONAL INTELLIGENCE REPORT

THE EOQD-CftNNING INDUSTRY IN THE USSR

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CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

OFFICE OF RESEARCH WslQ REPORTS

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PROVISIONAL INTELLIGENCE REPORT

THE FOOD-CANNING INDUSTRY IK THE USSR

CIA/RRORR

notice

The data and conclusions contained in this report do not necessarily represent the final position of ORR and should be regarded as provisional only and subject to revision. Additional data or comments which may be available to the user are solicited.

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Office of Research and Reports

Page

I.

II.

Canning under the Tsarist

Canning under the Soviet

III. Organization IV. Location . .

and Vegetable-Canning

of Focd-Canning Plants by Economic

or Individual

V. Recent Developments

Developments in the Location of Plants

Assortment of Canned

Pattern of Canned Pood Utilizati

17

of

VII. Vulnerabilities, Capabilities, and Intentions

Page

Appendix A. Production of Canned Food in the 27

Appendix B. Input Requirements of the Soviet Food-Canning

30

Appendix C. Imports of the Soviet Food-Canning Industry from

the 57

Appendix D. Organization of the Soviet Food-Canning

59

Appendix E. Sizes and Locations of Soviet Food-Canning

65

Appendix F. Varieties, Sizes, and Markings of Soviet Canned

Ill

Appendix G. Estimated Utilization Pattern for Canned Food

in the lay

Appendix H. Estimated Production of Canned Food in the

USSR by Economic Region,

Appendix I.

Appendix J. Gaps in

Appendix K. Sources and Evaluation of Sources

Tables

of Cans of Food Produced Annually in the USSR,

23

Production of Canned Food in the USSR by

People's Commissuriat, 28

Page

Production of Canned Food In the USSR by the

Ministry of Food Industry, 29

Production of Canned Food in the USSR by the

Ministry of Food Industry, 30

Fish Catch and Production of Canned Fish in

the USSR by the Ministry of Pish

33

Percentage of Total Production of Canned Food

Produced in the USSR by the Ministry of Meat 35

Production of Canned Pood ln the USSR by

5 36

Production or Canned Food in the USSR,

Showing Breakdown Into Tin Cans and Class 4l

Input Requirements In the Manufacture of

Glass ln the USSR by the Food-Cunning 43

Raw Material Requirements of the Food-Canning

Industry ln the US and the 45

Numbers and Regional Distribution of the

Labor Force of the Food-Canning Industry in the

USSR, 51

stimated Production of Canned Food in the USSRof Electric Energy by the 53

Haulage Required by the Food-Canning Industry

In the USSR, 54

Investment of the Food-Conning Industry In the

USSR According to the Five fear 56

Lend-lease Importa of Canned Heat Predicts

from the US, 57

Distribution of Food-Canning Plants in the

USSR

17. Food-Processing Plants In the USSR: Location, Type,

Labor Force, and Capacity by Economic Region

Id. Regional Distribution of Enterprices Servicing the

Food-Canning Industry in the

Varieties of Csnned Food Produced in the USSR,-

Comparison of the Contents of Military and Commercial

Tushonka before 1x0

of the Contents of Military and Commercial

Tushonka after

Contents of Sboynyye Konservy (Canned Offals)

Ket Height of Cans and Caloric Value per Can for

Various Varieties of Fish Packed In the

2k. Standard Sites, Volumes, nnd Heights of Cans for Fruit,

Vegetables, Heat, and Fish Used in the MO

25. Standard Sites and Volumes of Cans for Fruit and

Vegetables Used in the US.

Standard Sites of Cans for Fish Products Used In the

US

Estimated Civilian Consumption of Conned Food in the

USSR According to Type of Container,

mrnmmtr-

Consumption of Canned Food In the USSR by

Commodity and Consumer,

Production of Canned Food in the USSR by

Economic Region,

of Fish Canneries and Types of Fish Canned

in the

31- Estimated Production of Canned Fish in the USSR by

Economic Region, .

PR-38

(ORR

THE FOOD-CANNING INDUSTRY IN THE USSR"

Sunatiry

The food-canning industry in the USSR has grownmall-scale, cottage-type industry, whichillionanso one of the major branches of the food-processing industry, whichanillion cans Planned production of canned food in the USSR2 is estimatedillion standard cans andillion standard cans.

Three ministries, tho Ministry of Food Industry, the Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry, and the Ministry of Fish Industry, arefor canned food production in the Plants under theof Food Industry produced anillion cansercent of the total Soviet production) and oncansercent of the total Soviet production). Plants under the second largest producer, the Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry, produced anillion cans1ansercent of the total Soviet production in each year). Plants directed by the third largest producer, the Ministry of Fish Industry, produced anillion consercent of the total Soviet production)illion consercent of the total Soviet production).

Fruit and vegetable canning is centered in the following economic the Ukrainehe Lower Don-North Caucasus (TV),

* This report contains information available as* The standard, or statistical, cananet capacityubic7 cubicet weight of *KX> grams (lU.ll ounces). The standard UOO-grom can is the unit by which production of canned and preserved food products is measured.

Since the completion of this report, the government of the USSR has announced (onhe integration of the threepreviously controlling the production of canned food into one ministry, the Ministry of Food Industry.

The term region in this report refers to the economic regions

as defined and numbered on CIASSR: Economic Regions.

tbe TranscaueAnushe Volgahe Kazakh SSRndAsia (Xb). The two largest fruit and vegetable canneries are the Krymskaya Canning Carabine of Krasnodar Kray in the Lower Don-North Caucasus (TV) and the Stalin Glgant Canning Plant of Kherson Ob last in the Ukraine (in). Meat canning In the USSR is more scattered then fruit and vegetable canning, tending to concentrate In areas where pastures and meadows offer cheap feed for livestock. The more important rent-canning regions are the Lower Don-North Caucasushe Volgaentral European USSRhe Uraleest Siberiahe Kazakh SSRentral Asiand East Siberia (XI). The Ulan-Ude (Buryat Mongol ASSR) and Moscow meat combines are the biggest and most Important Soviet meat-packingecent development in meat canning has been the growth Inof the Ulan-Ude Meat Combine and its subsidiaries at Irkutsk (Irkutsk Obhita (Chitand Borzya (Chita Obhich Import livestock for slaughter and canning froa the Mongolian People's Republic and Manchuria. Milk canning is most prominent in the dairy cattle regions of Northern European USSRelorusslahe Volgaentral European USSRnd West Siberia (DC). Fifty percent of the Soviet fish pack is canned in the Far Easthich has access to the Pacific Ocean. Access to the Caspian Sea makes the Volga (VI) an important fish-canning area, and the Lower Don-North Caucasus (TV) and the Kazakh SSRach of which fich several seas, are also significant.

Since the end of World War II the Soviet food-canning Industry has made efforta to modernize and mechanize its plants and equipment. Although reparations from Germany and Imports fro* tbe US haveSoviet attenpts at modernization, the Soviet food-conningremains backward by US standards. Inefficient utilization of plant capacity, lack of adequate refrigeration, shortages ofliuidcquatc transportation, and unreliable sources of canning machinery tend to retard the development of this industry. An especially Important Inhibitor to rapid expansion is thouse of labor in relation to available machinery.

Under peacetime conditions, canned food produced in the USSR is either stockpiled, exported, or consumed directly by civilian con-suners and,esser extent, by the military. It la believed that the greatest share of Soviet canned food output goes Into stockpiles.

The concentration of food-canning facilitiesew areas close to the raw material Source-of supply, tho great distances from the plants to the consumers of canned food, and carclessncus In preparing and

handling canned food render the Soviet food-canning; complex vulnerable to attacks of various sorts- To offset these weaknesses and toavailability of certain types of canned food, Soviet fruit and vegetable canneries, through the use of additional machinery orof their canning lines, might be capable of canning meat or fish. More thorough utilization and exploitation of the resources of the Soviet Satellites might make larger quantities of canned food available to the USSR.

Soviet intentions may be indicated by (l) the priority the .Russians give to food canningegment of the over-all economy in any given period, as contrasted with the priority placed on this Industry in otherhe utilization of the output of the food-canning Industry;he size of cans. The Fifth Five Yearalls for an increase ofimes in the consumption of canned foods by civilians. An increase of this magnitude could be brought about onlyubstantial cutback in stockpiling of canned food

products. utback in the stockpiling program would seem to imply

either attainment of goalshange ln policy.

I. Introduction.

The food-canning industry is one of the most important branches of the food-processing industries ln the USSR. The canning of suchfoods as fruit and vegetables, meat, and fish makes these foods available for consumption throughout the year. The balanced diet thus available aide the population inear-round level ofefficiency. Canning furthers the state policy of substituting processed food products, sold only through state channels offor raw foods available from private individuals on thefarm market thus tightening state control of food distribution. Canning facilitates stockpiling of perishable foods and,ertain extent, offsets the serious lack of refrigeration facilities in the USSR. 2/ Canning further supplies choice luxury items such as crabmeat, caviar, and salmon for export to the West and thereby provides much needed foreign exchange. 3/ Finally, because of the relative ease of

" Footnote references In arable numerals arc to sources listed in Appendix K.

transport and storage, canned foodery importantof the rations of the armed forces, especially in time of war. The Soviet Army lives off the land as ouch as possible in time of war, but as the tempo of destruction increases it becomes more and more difficult to live off the devastated land- Canned food becomes an ever more necessary supply component, ultimately representing, as in the late stages of World War II, an important source of protein foods for both the armed forces and the civilian population, 4/

II. History.

A- Food Canning under the Tsarist Regime.

In Tsarist Russia, food canningrimitive small-scale industry, largely of the cottage type, producing hors d'oeuvres, delicacies, relishes, end desserts. Meat and fish were thefoods canned commercially, with most of the production being used for army supplies. Meat canning had been Introduced into Russia lns toeat ration for the Russian Army in the Khiva War. Production of canned meat tended to keep pace with the needs of the Army, increasing somewhat during the Russo-Japanese War anduch greater extent during World- Compared to other European armies, however, the absolute quantity of canned meat supplied to the Russian Army was relatively small. 5/

* The total of standard 'iO0-gram cane given may actually include 'lOO-gramilogram cans, und other cans of varying sizes as well as glass jars, all of which are convertedram-can equivalent. 6/ Any reference to cans of food in this report will be in terms ofrum cans unless otherwise stated.

In prerevolutionary Russia there wereonning plants, of which onlyoere commercially important. 3 the Russian canning industryotalillionram cans* of meat, fish in oil or tomato suuee, fruit, vegetable hors d'oeuvres, und tomato puree. 7/ Much of the canned food eaten in Tsarist Russia was imported. 8/

Following tbe outbreak of tbe Bolshevik Revolution, theproduction of canned goods, with the exception of canned meat for military needs, was almost completely

B. Food Cunning under the Soviet Government. 1. Early Years.

The food-canning Industry developed slowly during the early years of the Soviet government,emicottage Production of canned food8 wasans of food of whichillion were fish,illion meat, and the remainingllllon,fniit and vegetable Some of the factors tending to retard the developmentodern canningIn the USSR during this period were poorack of modern plants, equipment, and technical skill; and an Inadequate supply of raw foodstuffs.

2. First Five Year Plan .

Starting with the First Five Year, the USSR made strenuous efforts toodern canning industry. Mostexcept those which formed an organic part of meat or fish enterprises, were brought under the administration of Soyuzkonserv (All-Unlon Canning)pecial decree Issued by the government0 organising the

Substantial investments were mode in the construction of fromoew canning plants including the large plants in Krya-skaya (Krasnodar Kruy) and Kherson (Kherson Oblast). Although Soviet representatives visited the US to study in some detail theof US canning plants, US engineers and technicians wereby the USSR to install many new canneries which were largely of US design and equipment and to train Soviet personnel ln their Kryaskaya was one of tbe canning plants installed by US engineers. lUf

The collectivization drive of thes directly aided the Soviet canning industry byore easily accessible source of supply of the raw foodstuffs necessary to keep the canning

plants in operation. Collective fares furnished overercent of the fruit and vegetables required by the canning Industrys compared withercent*

3- Second Five Year.

Under the Second Five Yearhe food-canning Industry made marked advances. illion rubles were invested in the industry, and aboutoew canning plants, including the Nakhodka fish-canning plant In the Far East In the presont Primorakiy Kray and the Kherson cannery in the Ukraine, were put into

Further efforts were made to improve the supply ofavailable to the canneries. Collective farms In the vicinity of canneries were obliged to supply the canneries with fruit and vegetables, and numerous state forms vere set up directly under the Jurisdiction of the ministries controlling the canning industry.

A problem frequently encountered Ins was the poor quality of the canned goods/ For example, at the Petropavlovsk Meat Combine, spoilage of canned meat products6 amountedercent of total canned meat production,ans of meat did not meet minimum

U. Third Five Year.

The primary objectives of the Third Five Year Planfor the food-canning industry were increases in plant production attended by an increase In the foodstuff base; decreases incosts; and local development of the industry in such economic regions as tbe Far Eastiew to cutting transport costs, eliminating bottlenecks, and making various outlying areas as nearly self-sufficient as

Canned food output increased slightly duringears of the Third Five Year Plan actually completed (see

8 ollective farms vere supplying aboutercentetric tons) of all vegetables canned by plants of the People'sof the Food Industry and about0 metric tons) of all/

- 6-

Thereecrease uf abr-ulure ant- in canned food production7 The official explanation given by the Russians for this decrease was that numerous unprofitable assortments of canned fruit und vegtable's had been Output of canned food leveled off9otalillion cans 1 Plan, uncompleted because of war activities, called for tho productionillion cans of

Significant expansion of the foodstuff base of the food-conning Industry was achieved during the completed portion of the Third Five Yenr Plan. Just before the outbreak of World War II,plants were supplied with foodstuffs bytate farms andollective farms, which had0 hectares* planted ln vegetables andectares in In addition to these farms specifically serving the conning Industry, numerous other state and collective farms also supplied some fruit and vegetables to canning plants. 2U/

By the outbreak of World War II anillion rubles hud been invested ln the rood-canning industry under the Third Five Year Plan (sec Much of this Investment vent into the development of plants in regions where food canneries were not previously located. Although World War II interrupted this plan, it did speed up decentralization of the canning Industry. During the war years,anning plantslass container plants were constructed in Central Asia and

5- World War II.

a. Wartime Difficultly.

The Pusso-German phase of World War II, which surged back and forth through tbe key food-producing and food-canning areas of Moldavia, the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Lower Don-Horth Caucasus, and Stalingrud Oblast badly crippled the Soviet food-canning Industry Ln these devastated regions. The area planted with vegetablesto canneries was reduced to half tbe prewar acreage, and overanning plants were completely cut off from their areas of

In addition to the losses ln foodstuffs, theindustry also lost over half of its equipment. The productive

hectarecres.

capacity of the industry decreased by aboutercent. Among tho larger canneries destroyed during World War II were the Krymaltaya Canning Combine imeni HIkoyan; the Stalin Gigant Canning Plant; the CdeBsa canneries imeni Lenin and Imeni Voroshilov; the"First of May" cannery; and the Krasnodar, Kropotkln,Adygey, and Cherkassk

During World War II, limited resources of food for canneries, shortages of labor,carcity of materials forresulted in utilizationariety of low-quality rawandowering of standards in the preparation of various recipes. An example of the substitution of low-quality forfoodstuffs was the substitution of wild berries for cultivated

b. Lena-Lease Imports.

The Soviet food-canning Industry vas buttressed by US Lend-Lease shipments throughout the war1 Thehort1 metric tons) of tinplate to tbe USSR during World War II. Substantial amounts of this tinplate wereby the Soviet food-canning industry, especially by Far Eastern fish-canning plants. The food-canning industry was also supported by such measures as the shipment oT '{ million tin cans by the American Cun Company to the Soviet Far Eastern fishing

illion metric tons of canned meatrimarily pork and beef tushonkaype of stew) were exported to the USSR by thesee Although most of this tushonka was used to feed the Sovietivil lone consumed sizableas Indicated by the fact that tushonka cans were scattered about village dwellings from abova the Arctic Circle to the Black Sea.

6. Postwar Recovery.

During the immediate postwar years, dismantled Germanplants supplied machinery and other equipment for reconstruction of Soviet canningnd German, Japanese, and otherof war furnished the manpower necessary to rebuild and re-equlp old plants and to set up new plants in various sections of the22/ Under the Fourth Five Year,holly or

partially destroyed canneries wereanneries were put Into operation, collective faros Ln the vicinity of canneries vere re-established, and their prewar production was restored. 3V

The re-establishment of the food-canning industryin significant increases in production. Output of canned food increased from anillion cans5 to anillion canshus exceeding) productionears after termination of hostilities. Production of canned food rose to anillion cans0 and anillion cans 3 Plan indicated an estimated production7 million cans (see

The Fifth Five Yearnticipatesillion cans of food

III. Organization.

Administration of tne Soviet food-canning Industry is divided among the following ministries: the Ministry of Food Industry, which cans primarily fruit and vegetables) the Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry, which cons meat and dairy products; and the Ministry of Fish Industry, which cans fish products,*

The plants under the Ministry of Food Industry, are estimated to haveillion cans0 percent of total canned food production. The plants under the Ministry of Meat and Dairythe second largest group of canned food producers in the USSR, are estimated to haveillion cans13 percent of total canned food production. The plants under the Ministry of Fish Industry, the third largest group of canned food producers In the USSR, are estimated to haveillion cans6 percent of total canned food production.

TV. Location.

a. Fruit- and Vegetable-Conning Plants.

of Fruit- and Vegetable-Canning Facilities.

two largest fruit and vegetable canneries are the Krym-skuyu Canning Combine of Krasnodar Kray and the Stalin Gigant Canning Plant of Kherson Oblast. Other important fruit and vegetable canneries

e footnote, p.eferring to merger of ministries.

in European USSR are located inray; Rostov, Stalingradoznyy oblasts; the Dagestan ASSR; the North Osetian ASSfiTtha Ukrainian SSR; and the Moldavian SSR.

t years the Moldavian SSR has become increasingly important in tho canning of fruit and Theiraspol canneries, "First of May" and "TKachenkof^and tbTrecently

annln8Ith numerous smaller SmSTaaf abledthe Moldavian SSR to double its prewar output^anneTfc^ds1 despite slipshod work by many Present plans call fw

2. Eastward Expansion.

,Durln8War II,ew canneries were constructed in eastern regions and since the war there has been an even more sig-

m eStT* OOVCBCnt of the fruit- and vegetable-canning in-T ll Sotbeatlcparticularly to tbe southern Kazakh ssr, which1ines ss many canned gocdTas before the war and to the Kirgiz ssr, which1 quadruSedits ore

^rt0ntcSttrs^ .tbcte ^adznlk ssr in Central Asia, as well^ thH* republics of thehe Georgian ^ ssr, and thc Azerbaydzhan

R- Meat-Canning Plants.

Location of Meat-Canning Facilities.

thc cqnned mat ln tne ussr Is produced by tho

large meat-packing plants of Ulan-Ude, Hoscow, Leningrad, SeciDalatinKk Petropavlovsk, Baku, Lenlnakan, Chkalov, and Alma-AtT ^ also canned in numerous small- and acdlua-slzed -nt-pac^ ^fs of the Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry throughout thHountry^nd u

suedes kry^ayaTrST'^ ^

2. Eastward Expansion.

anrtoro8 *lnoxpansion eastward In meat canning, and one of the largest meat-canning plants in the country ls now In

at^kulsklan-Udeplant, along with iL subsTdlorles at Irkutsk, Chita, and Borzya, builtartime canning industrv vMch supplied the army with canned neat, taking the plil mportant packing plants overrun by the Germans. Lsportscattle^

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sheep, goats, and horses froa the Mongolian People's Republic and of swine from Manchuria, hi/ as well as the Increasing Indigenous herds which were augmented by wartlne livestock shifts eastward, wouldthat these eastern plants have continued large-scale operations in the postwar period. Ug/

Plants.

Milk canning is most prominent in the dairy cattle regions or the northwest (la) and West Siberia Important milkarc the Sukhona, located at Sokol in Vologda Ob last, the Kansk In Krasnoyarsk Kray, the Alekecyevka ln Tatar ASSR, the Yalutorov in Chelyabinsk Oblast, and the reconstructed Rogachev nilk cannery In Bclorussiakj

Plants.

Fish canneries are operated primarily by the Ministry of Fish Industry and are located along the shores of various seas, lakes, and riversew inland exceptions including the Krymskaya cannery of the Ministry of Food Industry, where, as in the case or meat, fish canninglack aeaoon operation during the winter/

In the Par Eastoot of the crab canning arrf some fish canning is done by floating canneries, several of which werewith the dispossession of their former Japanese owners. ercent of ell Soviet fish canning takes place in the Far Kast.

of Food-Conning Plants by Economic Regions.

The packing plants of each or the canning Industries operate In the areas best adapted to supplying thee with the raw materialthat they require. Thus the Ministry of Food Industry, asln Appendix H, packeercent of Its output in the Ukrainej/ercent in the Lower Don-Worth Caucasus5 percent in the Tronocaucosusndercent in Central Asia (Xb).

The Ministry or Meat and Dairy Industry has distributed its packing plants more diffusely but tends to concentrate in areas where pastures and meadows offer cheap feed for livestock. Fourteen percent of the canned meat output in packed in the Kazakh SSR? percent

in East Siberiandercent in the Urala (Vlll). Someoercent of the canned milk is processed in Northern European USSR (lb) and in West Siberia7 toercent in the Volga2 toercent in Central European USSRndoercent In BeIoniania (lib). Fullyercent of all the USSR's canned fish is packed in the Far Easthich has access to the resources of the Pacific Ocean. 5 percent is packed ln the Lover Don-Horth Caucasus Region (EC) which has access to the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea, and the Sea of Azov;ercent, largely from the Caspian Sea, is packed ln the valley of the Volga (VI). orebreakdown of the canned food production by region and byof food canned is given in Appendix H.

hows the location of individual food-canning plants by economic region and by republic, oblast, or kray. that is available on individual plant capacity and labor force Is also Included.

V. Recent Developments.

A. Postwar Developments ln the Location of Plants.

After World Waretermined effort was made to rebuild canning facilities near their prewar locations and thereby utilize those resources of local skilled personnel, living quarters, and transportation and power facilities which had originally made the sites good cannery

For example,odern giant canneries of the prewar Soviet fruit- and vegetable-canning industry, the Krymakaya Canning Combine imeni Mikoyan of Krasnodar Kray and the Stalin Gigant Canning Plant of Kherson Oblast,ombinedcapacityillion cans, which accounted for overercent of the prewar total Soviet production,were destroyed during World War Since World War II, these plants have been reconstructed, with dismantled German canning plants initiallythe necessary machinery. Subsequently, new us and Soviet equipment has been Installed. At present the Krym&kaya and Kherson canning plants have core modern equipment than before World War II and have already regained and perhaps surpassed their

F. Location of Individual Plants.

1. Utilization of US and German Equipment.

Modern US canning and tin-plating machinery vas sent to the USSR during World War II under Lend-Lease and. since World War II, through normal tradesee Among the tin-plating machinery exported to tne USSR were two complete hot-dipunits. The hot-dip process Is considered obsolete ln tbe US,been supersededreat extent by the electrolytic

Much German canning machinery was transferred to the USSR as/ Moot of this Ge,rman canning machinery is reported to have been exceedingly useful to the USSR, although it is similar to equipment used ln the US duringeriod and Is therefore obsolete by US

2. Soviet plans and Achievements.

Plans are under way to replace obsolete canning machinery with more modern equipment and to mechanize time-consuming handsuch as the washing of glass containers and the loading,and sorting of raw materials. 5V The planned construction of steam and electric power plants at Kherson, Tiraspol', and Kamyshin will increase the power base of food-canning plants located in the vicinity of these

Despite these grandiose Soviet plans for mechanization of canning equipment and actual increased production of canned food, the food-canning Industry in the USSR, with the exceptionew big plants, is still backward by US standards. Recipes sent to OS canners for the wartime production of tushonka called for hand labor in many operations which are performed by machines in the US. Filling cansand operation broken down into several activities, with each component of the final product, onion, spices, neat, lard, and bayleaf, requiring separate handling. Preparation of the various raw materials, cooking, and loading and unloading of kettles, all of which are mechanized in the US, were also hand operations in the/

C. Current Problems.

1. Utilization of Capacity.

Canning plants are supplied with seasonal foods. fruit and vegetables coincides with the nonths in which theseare harvested in the USSR, roughly the middle of May throughof October. Meat canning coincides with the period ofslaughter of livestock, which runs from the middle ofJanuary. Some fish ore caught and canned throughout thethe periods of heaviest catch and, consequently, maximumin the spring and in the fall. Milk is canned on a

If the canning industry were locatedmall area, the pattern of production outlined above would provide some form offor canning plantsear-round basis so that these plants could remain active by switching from production of canned fruit and vegetables to canned meat and then to canned fish. However, except for Krymskayaew other large plants, switching from one product to another with the season has not proved feasible for Soviet canning plants. Areas providing fruit and vegetables are not always near livestock-producing or fish-catching areas. Furthermore, because of high transportation costs and the fact that transportation facilities arc operating near capacity, hauling of raw materials over longto processing centers is not practicable. onsequence, it is frequently cheaper tomall fruit-canning planton-meat-producing area idle during the off-season than to import meat. However, in the case of Krymskaya, which employsorkers and is equipped with modern and costly machinery, it would seemto import raw food if this were necessary to keep the plant operating continuously. Krymskaya doesich hinterland for the supply of livestock products as well as fruit and vegetables and is close enough to the Black Sea coast for the supply of fish. It therefore receives on excellent year-round supply of raw foodstuffs, but even this plant must import meat products from Hungary and Rumania to keep its assembly lines

The division of canning facilities among three ministries also actseterrent to year-round activity in individual Meat combines and fish-processing plants are set up toproducts in various ways, including canning, whereas canningof the Ministry of Food Industry are set up for canning only.

Although meat and fish canneries are equipped tohole animal, their facilities are not flexible enough to engage in the canning of fruit and vegetables. Canning combines of the Ministry of Food Industry on the other hand are frequently equipped to candifferent commodities such as fruit and fish by making relatively slight adjustments in supply, processing, and distribution channels.

Because of the long-enforced inactivity, the Russians are making strenuous efforts to utilize capacity to the fullestthe cannirj season. In spite of these efforts, tbe coefficient of utilization never exceeded two-thirds of capacity during the war years and dropped well below this figure in the postwar period. Even though the Fourth Five Year Plan called for special attention to be given to the problem of increasing seasonal utilization of capacity, seme plants were operating below capacity as late as1 fruit- and vegetable-canning

2. Lack of Adequate Refrigeration.

The lack of adequate refrigeration capacity to store foods awaiting processing, or already processed,erious weakness in canned food production and distribution. Although many plans have been made to increase refrigeration capacity, this vasa lor probleml/

3- Botulism.

It cannot be accurately determined whether botulism existserious problem in the Soviet food-canning industry. Foodwhich was called botulism, vas noted in Cttessa5 and was attributed to Botulism was reported in Lithuanial, where it was attributed to63/ Ho other information is currently available on theof botulism. Both pork and beef tushonka are'excellent media for the development of bacteria which produce the toxin. The toxin however, is destroyed if exposed to heatinutes. 6U/

*. Shortages of Containers.

0 the containers used in the canning industry consisted mainly of tin cans. However, since much of tbe tin utilized In the tin cans had to be Imported, attempts were made, to increase the use of gloss containers. onsequence of these efforts, the number

of glass containers used In the Soviet food-canning industry increasedillionOillionbout 8of total canned foodlmost half of the total canned food production was being put up In glass

espite greater utilization of glass jars, the shortage of containers in the food industry. HiXoyan, then People's Commissar for the Food Industry, to complain ofack of tinplate and glass for tins and jars." To alleviate the shortage of containers, the Ordzhonikidze (now Dzaudzhikau) plantapacity ofillion Jars per year, and the Stalingrad plant,apacity ofillion Jars per year, were set up to produce glass jars for the food-canning industries; and the Kovomoskovskly tinplate rolling plant was constructed to supply tinplate for canning

onsequence of tin shortages during World War II, there was an increased tendency to preserve foods in bottles and Jars that would normally have been preserved in tin cons. Becauseack of packing boxes, canned or bottled goods were often stored in the open and were loaded, unpacked and in bulk, on railroad cars resulting in considerable breakage and

The packaging of canned goods continues toroblem in spite of the numerous efforts thut have been made to increase theof containers. To compensate for the short supply of tin to the food-canning industry and to reduce consumption of tinplate, the use of lacquered blockplate cansype used in Germany during World War II has been introduced. Although Increased use is being mode of glasshe glass industry has experienced difficulty in meeting its obligations. This industry has too many small plantBhaphazardly and maintaining outmoded techniques andlabor methods. Another difficulty encountered by the glassis the unprofitable distribution of glass enterprises oftype among many different ministries.

Available information indicates that the Russians still rely primarily on the hot-dip method of tinplating, which has beenby the electrolytic method in the US. The hot-dip methoda higher ratio of tin ln the tinplate than the electrolytic method but requires less space and machinery and costs less. inplate plants of meat combinesillion rubles worth of electrolytic tinplate. 0 Plan called for production of 5rubles worth of electrolytic tinplate by the meat

boutifferent varieties of canned food were produced ln Russia, whereasarieties were being Thesearieties off fish,f vegetables, ISO of fruit,f fruit and vegetable Juices,f canned (Secor names of varieties and sitesons. )

VI. Pattern of Canned Food Utilization. A. Type of Container.

In the USSR, canned food is packed In tin cans or glasson the availability of raw materials for tbe containers,of product canned, and the utilization pattern of the cannedD briefly traces the history ofelative position ofto glass Jars in total canned food production. Based on thedevelopments and on information from numerous individualIs estimated that aboutercent of all canned meat, fish,products and aboutercent of all canned fruit andpacked in tin cans and that the remainder is pocked In glassthe estimated totalroductionillion cansillion were packed ln glass Jars and themillion packed in tin

B. Outlets.

Canned food produced In the USSR is consumed by the military or the civilian population or is exported or stockpiled. It isto determine accurately the quantity of canned food going into each of the above channels, but the military takes priority as aeither for immediate use or for future use of stockpiled canned

1. Civilian Consumption.

P_Soviet claims that,onsumption of canned

^/VUlaD^ Increasedimes In comparison

11 "le8Caaned

0nd that prices of canned fruit and vegetables had been reducedoercent, respectively,2 only small quantities of canned food aro

available to urban consumers. Sinceery small fraction of the3 population of Tsarist Russia consumed cannedenfold increase in per capita canned food consumptionyear period is virtually meaningless. As for the Increase noted inconsumption0embers of the American Embassy In Moscow frequently note the absence of canned food in Soviet food stores and the very small actual per capita consumption of canned food.

Since over one-third of1 canned food production was canned in glass Jars not useful for either stockpiling or army rations, it is assumed that most of the Soviet canned goods output going into civilian channels is preserved ln glass Jars. Circulars advertising the canned food products of the Ministry of Pood Industry for civilian consumption always show Illustrations of glass Jars of fruit and vegetables, never of tin

2. Military Consumption.

ritish Military Intelligence reportear peacetime divisional reserve of canned food atetric tons of canned meat andetric tons of canned fish, which, when converted, would totaltandard UOD-isram

Under normal peacetime garrison conditions in Germany or the USSR the Soviet Army apparently does not consume very much canned Each division's annual needs is met through consumption of the previous year's divisional reserves, and little or no canned food is consigned for immediate

3- Exports.

Exports of canned food by the USSR are insignificantfor canned fish. As long ago7 the Russians exportedetric tons of cannedr abouto id millionliOO-gram cans. The post-World War II expansion of the Sovietindustry in the For East, primarily caused by the acquisition of Japanese canning facilities and the attendant elimination from the export market of the Japanese canning Industry, formerly one of the world's leading exporters of canned fish and seafood, enabled the Soviet Par Eastern fish-conning industry to monopolize the Far Eastern export market until very The Russluns have long been capitalizing on the export of high-value canned fish products such as

caviar, lobster, and salmon to Western Europe, the Britishand the US while importing much larger quantities of cheap Norwegian salted herring for domestic In thisthe USSR gained in total food tonnage and also picked up much needed foreign currency in exchange. mall tonnage of canned fish from other areas such as the Baltic (Ila) or the Volga (VI) is added to Far Eastern exports, an estimate ofillion cans of fish is obtained as the export total

Inew All-Union export-import association, Prodintorg, was set up to handle among other products the export of canned fruit, vegetables, meat, and fish. Prodintorg thus replaces the former Eksportkhleb in the handling of conned

h. Stockpiling.

Stockpilingajor factor in Soviet wartime supply It has been indicated that considerable quantities of canned food are currently going into Accurate figures on the number of cans of food stockpiled are, however, not obtainable (see

Two factors qualify the implementationtockpiling program: (a) production must be maintained or increased, or coo-sumption decreased; (b) canned food must be stored for long periods of time to enable production to meet annual turnover and add to tbe stockpile.

The theoretical limit to the number of cans that can be stockpiled, given available storage facilities, depends uponand the rate' of stockpile inputs und withdrawals. Canned food cannot be stored indefinitely, but must be taken from storage and used afterears. Thus, if increases in production or decreases in utilization permit larger inputs of food than must be withdrawn, stocks will show net increases. If,ecline in production occurs or the government, by decree, reduces annual inputs below thewithdrawals, stocks willet loss. onstant rate ofmay even be accompaniedet lowering of the level of Stocks -If, for example, inputs level offnits but withdrawalsnits because of highew years earlier, the level of stockpiling will show an absolute decrease until withdrawals likewise level offnits.

KTh?lieveJefctgiven time are not therefore

the8lone' but "tloates nuat be baaed on

the moving and ever-changing ratios that exist between theand withdrawals from

_ Swiet production of canned food has shown continuousfrom year to year since the end of the war, ranging from a

to^So 1ercent'incrlas?

9 -ithan average annual increase ofercent in canned Coed

afpereent increase1 production,5 production la toimes greater0 production (see ApSndix a*

Quered tintl"atoperiod for lac-

quered tin cans toears and for unlacquered tin

itSe"ptouturnovor of

VIT- Vulnerabilities. Capabilities, and Intentions. A. Vulnerabilities. 1. Location.

During World War II tho Soviet food-canning industrya loss ofercent of its productiverimarily because the oost important canneries were located withirT the areaby the Germans During and since World War II the Russian, have mode consistent efforts to move many of their plants eastward. T tf*!Se efforte' alBoat two-thirds of total estimated Soviet canned food production1 was still located west of tbe Urals Inasmuch aa canning plants must be located near the source of supply. Another i> percent of production is concentratedew industrial areas of Central Asia, andercent, representing fish canning, along the Pacific Coaet. The remaining food-canning facilities,re dispersed throughout Siberia. These Siberian plants, which are Important in the canning of meat and include such large plants as the Ulan-Ude Meat Combine, produce about one-quarter of total Soviet

canned meat output (see In the case of canned meat,seems toort of salvage operation. Only through canning and other forms of preserving is it feasible to transport to centers of consumption meat of poor quality grown in distant places.

2. Transportation.

The distance required to transport the canned goods from the canneries to the consumers mayartime source of weakness to the Soviet canned food Industry (see Canned goodsin the various canning centers In the southwestern European areas of the USSR and in the Transcaucasian -taxi Central Asiatichave their primary civilian markets In Moscow, Leningrad, Sverdlovsk, and Rostov-on-Don but are also shipped to the Far East and the Far

In the event of war, the output of these canning centers would have to be shipped to military forces scattered throughout the country. Strategically located stockpiles of canned food would tend to reduce the transportation difficulties of the food-canning industry.

3- Food Supply.

ite ^ , The raw food supply of the industryotential target. US chemical or biological attscks against livestock, crops, and fish might deny these sources of food to the canning plants. In addition blockade and strategic bombing might cut down production of tinteel, affecting directly the production of containers for the food-conning Industry.

a. Improper Handling of Canned Food.

. World War II, Improper handling of canned food

by the Russians resulted in very severe losses. Labor shortagescarcity of materials for containers motivated destructive shortcuts. Cans were frequently stored in the open and vere loaded unpacked and in bulk in railroad cars. 8g/

Since both pork and beef tushonka are excellent media for the growth of bacteria, careless processing and handling of these products con result inconsiderableushonka must be processed rapidly. If allowed to stand between operations, particularly between closure and processing, gassy meat with resultant loss of can vacuum may

Useui patent.

Finally, wartime speed-ups will result in additional pressures on already heavily taxed equipment and may well reduce the life of much machinery. Replacement of foreign equipment now being used by the USSR may be virtually Impossible, and replacement with Soviet-made equipment vill depend on the priority attached to food canning by Soviet planners.

on Labor over Machinery.

An especially important inhibitor to rapid expansion is the disproportionate use of labor in relation to available Such dependence on labor might very well prevent necessaryln canning productionime when labor is badly needed for other wartime operations.

B. Capabilities.

1. Unused Capacity.

Experience in the canning industry in the US has shown that expansion of production to meet military needs depends first on the industryotential capacity to produce in excess of that currently being used in peacetime. This potential is made up ofplant equipment that can be speeded up or used for longer periods than is the usual practice in peacetime. In the US the excesswas enough to permit an increase ln production of aboutoercent during World War II. It is usually not feasible in anyto build machinery, install it, and train men to operate therapidly enough to increase the production soon enough toeffective underears. Therefore, even though the USSR doesonsiderable unused capacity, it may not have the capability to utilize this unused capacity becauseack ofability and trained workers.

Likewise, the age of the available machinery and its life expectancy under more intensive conditions of use, forhifts per day insteadhifts,imiting factor in determining how much of unused capacity can actually be put touse.

2. Conversion of Fruit- and Vegetable-Carming Plants to Keat-or Kisib-Conning Plants.

IT the necessary fresh meal and fish were available, many plants such as Krymskaya,now canning meat or fish as an off-season sideline to fruit and vegetable conning, might be able to step up their canned meat or fish outputew additional adjustments. ualification should be noted in the Soviet conversion potential. At present the Soviet food-canning industry iside variety of products in relation to the total volume (see Speed In processing and elasticity in the use of machinery depends to adegree on specialization in the packingelatively small number of items, each in considerably larger volume than is presently the case in the USSR.

3- Other Sources of Supply.

Additional sources of canned meat and fish supply for the Soviet Army may be found in the Soviet Satellites, particularly East Germany. During World War II the German food-canning industry over-expanded and, since World War II, local civilian consumption has been unable to absorb moremall fraction of the canneries'91/ The Soviet Army ln East Germany is being currently supplied in part by the Germans with both canned meat and canned fish, eg/ anduture war the supply of German canned food to the Soviet Army could probably be increased, approaching World War II levels offor the German Wehrmacht.

C. Intentions.

Soviet intentions may be Indicated by the followingof the food-canning industry: (a) the priority which the USSR gives to food canningegment of the over-all economy in any given period as contrasted with the priority placed on this Industry In other periods, (b) the utilization of the output of theindustry, and (c) the size of cans.

During World War II the USSR considered the production of canned goods less Important than the production of munitions and

converted several glass jar and tin can manufacturing plants intn

Se frCe'Flint

tnlnr^Jr^ lants made land mines.ly Information on the diversion of tin, steel, coal, and other raw

ir^LtTon^rrL ^Roches to the canningrelation to the economyhole and, particularly, asof plant capacity to military

3- Utilization Pattern.

relative quantities of canned food allocated for

itaryfor exports, or for^tions. Continued extensive stock-

Hjfof other segments of the economy mightpreparations foreven

should be given to the canned food utiliza-

tion pattern as indicating the extent to which thecanned food to the civilian population. Evenmay desire to maintain the

animal protein and fat ration ofertain key indolescertain groups of governmentor

increaselanooks forward to

CnVisloncd b* 5 plannedmlSon lan^anTnthe

illion cans. It is probably for this reason that the PlanO-percent increase in the capacities of fish, fruit, and vegetable canneries during the period ending It is also planned to increase capacities of neat-canning plants by Uo percent and nllk canneries

It appears fron the steady annual postwar rise in canned food production that fulfillaent of the canned food production phase of the Fifth Five fear Plan would be possible If the Russians were willing to divert from other channels the raw materials and capital neceeeary to meet the planned goals.

Despite the grandiose promises outlined by the Plan, post consumption patterns indicate little likelihood of an increase in civilian consumption of the proportions planned. The atockpilinghas priority over civilian consumption. If the USSR actually Increased retail sales of conned food to the population as planned, it would be only because the stockpiling objectives hod already been achieved, or because the USSR had abandoned its stockpiling program'. Since neither of the latter two assumptions are regarded as realistic it seem* safe to conclude that the USSR will not increase retail sales of food as indicated by the Plan.

The application of the utilization pattern of canned food as an indicator of the USSR's intentions is valid because of theplaced upon canned food by Soviet planners and also because ol Its extensive use by the Soviet Arr^ in World War II. The valldl-

that changes ln canned food production andIndicate warlike or peaceful intentions of the USSR may of course, change with the development of different methods of preserving rood which car. be substituted for canning. It may be assumed that the Uotti la capable of adopting and developing innovations in foodsuch ao dehydration of milk and eggs and the manufacture of food similar to the US Army's WorldD"ood productigh concentration of vitamins and nutriento. If these concenlratca were manufactured In large quantities and becameant stockpile items, the appearance of greatly increased numbers of cans on the civilian market might, or might not, Indicate theof canned food stockpilingt might only represent the release of one type or rood product from stockpiles to make room for another type.

To the extent that these substitutions take piece, the use of canned foodeasure of Intentions become* less reliable- is,evelopment that sust be scrutinized at all times. At the present time, however, since canningery Important method of food preservation, its observation may reveal Intentions.

1*. Site of Cans.

The size of the cans of food packed in the USSR maylue to Soviet intentions. Based on US experience and depending on the commodity-ram can normally meets the needs of the average civilian familyeal and represents the most popular site of can for civilian For military-ram can, suitable foroldiereal, or -cutisrams and up, suitable for feeding groups of meneal, are thc most useful can sizes. Consequently, the size of the cans being produced will generally indicate the type of consumer, civilian or military, for whose ultimate use the can Ib intended. Furthermore, mass production of one size of can usuallyertain amount of retooling by the canning and auxiliary Industries. Any retooling activity by the Soviet food-canning and can-manufacturing industries wouldossible indication of the direction the Soviet food-conning industry was taking.

PrXJDUCTIOK OF CAKKSD FOOD IN THE USSR

1- Tsarist Russia to World War II.

nder the Tsaristhe following canned connedi-ties were produced: neat, rish ln oil or tomato sauce, fruit,hors d'oeuvres, and tomato puree. The total quantity produced was equivalentilliongram

roduction of canned food under the Soviet government had not yet reached prerevolutionary totals and was only aboutillion cans, of whichillion cans were rish;illion cans, meat: and the remainingillion cans, fruit and

A3 indicated innnual production of cannedillion standard cans2 and showed steadyfor theears,revar peakcans Production dropped sharply8ercent below the peak level of the previous year. drop has been attributed by the canning industry to theassortments of fruit and 8

* dtoillion cans,

of whichillion were turned out by the People'sof Food Industry, and theillionstry and

1 Plan called for the productionillion cans, broken down among variouo people's commissariats as shown in Table

ollows onollows on

War and the invasion by the Cormana of several regions important to the canning industry disrupted tho execution of1 PlQn. ediately following the close of hostilities, however, new goals were set by the canning industry.

Numbers of Cans of Food Produced Annually ln tbe

Millionram Cans

/

og/

Jjinr.ea.

Table .'

Planned Production of Canned Food in the USSR by People's1

Standard 4oo-Gram

Comaissariat of Food

1

People's Commissariat of Meat and

People's Commissariat of Fish

2. Postwar Years.

a. Ministry of Food Industry.

lanned production of canned food for the Ministry of Food Industry was setillion cans. Ill/ 6 planned total was reported to have beenercent igreater than5/ which would5 productionillionC. Sivolap, former Minister of Food Industry,0 publication indicated the progress of canned food productionercentage basis, as shown in Table 3-

Table 3

Reported Production of Canned Food in the USSR by the Ministry of Food Industry

5. b. Planned.

Tne conversion of these percentages into numbers of cans, era-ploying the5 productionillion standard cansase, indicates the annual output as showr. in Table

These figures aro substantially confirmed by other Sovietroduction7

was reportedercent greater than/illion cans, as comparedillion cuius

Table i4 follows on

Computed Production of Canned Food in the USSR by the Ministry of Food

Millionram Cans

Based on planned percentage

computed in Table *. roduction was reported to have been aboutercent greater than/illion cans, which is the same as8 total computed above. Production9 "as reported to have beenercent greater than/illion cans, as comparedillion cans computed above. Another sourceoubling of canned food production/illion cans. The accepted figureillion cans based on Sivolap's percentages falls between the upper and lower extremesillionillion cans.

According to one source, production0 wasercent greater than/illion cans and, according to another source,6/ orcans. Although these calculated production figures indicate an

appreciable overfulfilment of Plan, the lower figureillion* percent above Plan) has been accepted as the tentative approximation0 production.*

Production1 was reported by one source as havingercent/Sillion standard cans. Another source1 production for the firstonths as having beenillion cans more than during the same period/ This would indicate1 productionillion plus cans for the year.

To determine the approximate quantities of the variouscanned by the food industry, the detailed breakdown given by1 Plan was utilized. This breakdown showed aboutercent of the canning production of the food industry in fruit and vegetables,ercent in meat products, and theercent in fish and dairy/ Appliedhis breakdownillion cans of fruit and vegetablesillion cans of meat, fish, and dairy products turned out by the People's Commissariat of Food The figureillion cans agreestatement made by Zotov7 that the People's Commissariat of Food Industry producedillion cans of meat, fish, and dairy products/ The above ratiosercent for food industry products were carried throughince no contradictory material has been turned up for later years.

* Planned production2 was giver, by Slvolapercent/ans. Another statement by Slvolap in the same article0 productionercent/ans. This8 percent) is irreconcilable with all other figures available for the Ministry of Food Industry but may actually stand for canned production by all ministries,illion cons,0 as comparedillion cans The differenceillionillion cans mightproduction of local ministries, or, less likely, production of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Far Eastern fish canneries.

Additional confirmation for this breakdown by the Ministry of Food Industry is afforded8 statement that the Ministry'of Food Industry wasillion more cans of fruit and vegetables

for the firstonths8 an compared with/ Thefigures for canned fruit and vegetables7illIon cans andillion cans, or an Increaseillion cans betweenears. The planned increase for canned fruit56 vas/ or an increaseillionillion cans. The computed figure for6 production of canned fruit and vegetablesillion cans.

b. Ministry of Fish Industry.

The total Soviet fish catch0 has been estimatedillion metric tons landed/ The USSRof this/0 metric tons. On the basisrime per can, production of canned fish amountedillion standard cans The planned output of the fish-canning industry1illion standard/

Little data are available for the years1 through ISM, but the fish catch5 was reportedetric/ Baaed on theattern and the generally chaotic conditionsin the fish-canning industry during and Immediately after the/ it was assumedercent of5 fishrocessed equivalent0 metric tons, orillion standard cons, was produced

The next year for which data on canned fish production are uvallablchen the fish catch was reported as beingercent greater than/ orillion metric tons- Theof canned fish0 was reportedercent/illion standard cana, equivalent toetric tons. This quantity of Inputercent of the estimated cutch-

To obtain canned fish production for the yearsthe percentage of total catch was Interpolated betweenanning factor5 andactorllowing an annual increuseercent in thc percentage of the landed weight canned.

1 catch vas reported to beercent greater than thatillion metric tons. Inhe output of canned fish was reported to3 percent greater than/illion* standard cans, equivalent to an inputhousand metric tons. This quantity of Input is equivalentercent of the estisated catch. (Seeor figures on the Soviet fiBh catch and canned fish production in

Table 5

Estimated Pish Catch and Production of Canned Fish ln the USSR by the Ministry of Fish

/

Canned

Thousand , Million Standard

U.8

Metric/ ram Cans

c. Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry.

The Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry produces canned seat and dairy products. Production by this ministryOillion standard cans, the differenceillion cansby people's commissariats other than the People's Commissariat or Food Industry lessillion-can output of the People's Commissariat of Fish Industry.

2 output of the rish-canning Industry was also reported asercent greater than In/illion cans.

The fourth Five Year Pluii called0 production ofcans of milk, which would haveercentUO/ 0 production of canned nil*illion cone. Actual conned milk production0/ or fZ million cons. Conned1 was to have beenercent greater/illion cans, but was actuallybnS0/ On this basis, estimatedwas lCt million cons of milk. Production of milk Ingreater than the output ofillion cans9 which waspostwar year to exceed the0 production of The estimates78 are based on Plans,for subsequent years, and monthly performances in the

Total production by the People's Commissariat of teatIndustry0 has already been estimatedof whichillion cans vere milk andillion cons.meatproducts. omparison of postwar production of conned meatproduction chowsillion cans were producedimes greater thanillion cans, ln '

imes greater thanillion cans1 times greater than

Since9 Plan for canned neat vas fulfilledd actual production3 million cons,Plan must have called for production ofillionmeut. 9 planned production was to have8/ 8 actualillion cans, ln turn, production ofercent greater than/ indicating aofillion cans of

To56 production of canned goods by the meat ana dairy industry, the position or this industry's canned- -ductlon relative to total canned food production was obtained Tor ilmYl1, as noted in

* ollows on

The average of these percentages indleutes that the meat and dairy industry produces uboutercent of the total canned food "

Estimated Percentage of Total Production of Canned Food Produced in the USSH by the Ministry of Meat and Dairy

Year

i

output. Applyingpercent factor5ercentages, the5 production Is j6 million cans and1 million cans. Averages based on the relationship of meat to dairy products in total canned meat and dairy output for thendicate that roughly Wo-thirds of thisconsisted of meat products. The resulting breakdown56 showedillion cans of moat products andillion cons of dairy products5 andllllon cans of meat products andillion cans of dairy products (See Tableor aof the breakdown of the Soviet production of canned goods.) An independent survey of the Soviet food-canii* rig industry madeS firm5 estimated Soviet canned meat production5 atillion cans, thus agreeing with the above figures. The other estl-aates of this surveyittle further off, with canned fruit and vegetable production estimatedillionillion cana and canned fish productionillionillion/

ollows on

Kstlaiated Production of Canned Food,

ussr by5

Estimated Production of Canned Food in the USSR by5 (Continued)

e Commissariat Of Food Industry from* toarch I'y'ib; Ministry of Food Industry since/

Commissariat of Meat and Dairy Industry from9 toinistry of Meat andsince/

Commissariat of Fish Industry from9 toinistry of Fish Industryxcept for the perioday tohen the Idolatry of Fish Industry was split into theFish Industry for Western Regions and the Minlotry of Fish Industry for Eastern/

on the basis of5 total production, which is toimes greater than actual/

IKFOT HEQ'JIKKMKiTS OF THE SOVIET FOOD-CAHNIMS XJiDUSTRY

1. Tin Cans.

a. Tin Plate.

The analysis of the input requirements in the manufacture of tin cans for food was based on the number of tin cans required by the food-canning industry during the calendar

The total output of the food-cunning industry in the USSR1 was computed to be equivalentillion cansram capacity each. This total output was broken down by ccraoodities into tin cans and glass jars, as indicated in Tablef this appendix. Mo recent data ore available as to the ratio of tin cans to glassn the total canned food output, but figures on these ratios arefor the3k. ercent of the total output of canned meat,ercent of the canned fish,ercent of the canned fruit and vegetables, andercent or the canned dairy products were packed in tin/ These ratios were/

During the immediate prewarendency to increase the use of glass Jars in place of tin cans was noticeable. lmost half of ell the output or canned food was put up in glass/ Wartime tin shortages and losses of tin-plate manufacturing facilities because of enemy action contributed to the continuation of thetoward the use of glass Jars in the immediate postwar/

In the last few years, however, an increase In the relative number of tin cans packed by the food-canning industry as compared with the number of glass Jars has taken place. One of the primary factors in this development has been tlie greater relative increase in the output of meat, fish, and dairy products, all of which are usually packed In tin cans, in comparison with the output of fruit and vegetables which are generally packed in glass Jars.

ollows on

-kfe"^

Based on the devexopments noted above and on Informationnumerous Individual plants. It has been assumedercent of all canned meat, fish, and dairy products andercent of all canned fruit and vegetables are pocked ln tin cans and that the remainder are packed in glass jars.ased onas indicated inf Appendix a, shows the output of canned food by type of container.

Based on US standards and on analyses of Sovietet weightunces of tin plateram can has Applied to the totalillion tin cans,ur.ee weight factorotalillion ounces,2 metric tons, of tin plate, excluding solder, utilised lnthis number of tin cans.

In thetandard box of tin plateounds net wouldounds of tin5 pounds of steel. This US ratio is equivalent2 kilograms of tin per metric ton of tin plate. The application of this factor to the total requirements by the Soviet food-canning industry12 metric tons of tin plate.otal required inputetric tons of tin5 metric tons of steel.

Based on current US practice, anunce of tin would haverequired to solderram/ Theof tin for solderillion tin cons is computed to,etric tons.

Tin plate is also utilized in the screw caps of glass Jarsy^equirement averaging aboutilograms of tin platelass Joro equivalentrams/ An outputiT lion glass Jars would0 metric tons of tin plate, vhicl is equivalentetric tons of tin0 metric tons of steel.

Total tin requirements, excluding loss, for packaging theuantity of food canned by the Soviet food-canning Industry> thus computed toetric tons and the corresponding steel requirements for tin plate would have5 metric tons. ao3 suraingercent for loss and waste, the over-all requirements foij tin are indicatedetric tons, and for steel,

* Tuble ii follows on p. 4l.

Estimated Production of Canned Food in the USSR, Shoving Breakdown into Tin Cans and Glass Jars

Products by Ministry

Canned

Foodin

(MillionCans

ram

ln TinGlass Jars

(MillionStandard

UOO-GranJars)

of Food Industry

Fruit and Vegetables

Meat Products

Fish and Dairy Products

Total

Ministry cf Meat and Dairy Industry

Meat Products Dairy Products

Total

Ministry of Fish Industry Fish Products Total

Grand Total

786

147

Qh

366

70

5

111

*

330

10

5 5

6:0

29

kl -

metric tons. Since, ln tbe above calculations, no account has been taken of the USSR's ability to substitute lacquered thin steel plate or electrolytic tin plate for the hot-dip tin plate believed to be most widely utilized at present in the USSR, it is preferable toange ratherirm figure for tin and steel utilized. Tin is thus estimated to rangeetric tons, plus or minusercent, and the range for steeletric tons, plus orercent.

b. Vegetable Oil.

An important input requirement in the manufacture of tin plateegetable oil, preferably palm oil. If palm oil Is notcottonseed oil may be substituted. The vegetable oil, which must be edible since it comes in contact with food products, coats the tin platehin film to facilitate the feeding of sheets intoequipment and to prevent rust, scratching, and abrasion during fabrication by automatic equipment.

US practiceounds of oil per long ton of tin plate,2 kilograms per metric/ Applied to Sovietof atetric tons of tin plate, the vegetable oil requirement would be about 6o0 metric tons. Despite the inferior performance of cottonseed oil in comparison with palm oil, which has igher evaporating point, locally available cottonseed oil isthe principal vegetable oil utilized by the Soviet tin-plate industry.

c. Acid.

*

Unknown quantities of acid, generally sulphuric acid, arequired to pickle the steel, which must be cleaned prior tohe pickling operation consists of immersing the steelcid and water to remove scale from the surface of thc steel andxpose defects.

2. Glass Jars.

a. Glass.

1 the number of glass .Jars used by the Soviet food-can^ ning Industry was statistically equivalentillion Jars withig

capacity of UOO grams each.ar would containunces of glass,equirementetric tons of glass toillion Jars.

Based on standard US/ the Input requirements in the manufactureetric tons of glass are as follows in Table 9.

Table 9

Estimated Input Requirements In the Manufacture of Glass in the USSR by the Food-Canning Industry

Quantity

.Tons

Input Item

Sand Sulphate

Magnesium Borate (Asharite) Dolomi te Soda Ash Coal Dust

The loss factor is negligible, since broken glass, or cullet, may be utilised in the manufacture of glass.

b. Rubber.

Rubber is utilized in the screw caps of glass Jars at anrateilograms of rubber/ Productionillion Jars would requirendetric tons of rubber.

3. Additional Raw Material Input Requirements.

To determine Soviet inputs for various raw materials required to maintain existing equipment and for normal expansion of the Soviet food-canningomparison was made with the US food-canning industry. Soviet and US practices and equipment are not strictly comparable, because many machines considered indispensable in the US

are replaced by hand labor in the USSR. For example, in meat canning, rotary meat cuttcre and fillers utilized in the US are replaced by hand labor in the USSR. Moreover, the Russians tend to use equipment longer than the period considered feasible in US practice. Although squeezing additional years of usefulness from vorn-out equipment nay cut down somewhat on replacement requirements, the apparent gain In utilization of machinery is offset by frequent breakdowns and over-all decreused productivity per machine in terms of labor, fuel, and other input factors. Finally, since the Russians arc notorious improvlsers, scarce materials may bo completely or partially replaced by other For repairing any US machinery being used by the Soviet food-canning industry, however, US standards would have to be followed if thc machines are to function properly.

With the above qualifications modifying the results obtained, Soviet raw material requirements for the food-canning industry1 were compared with US requirements2 on the assumption that the Soviet food-canning industryhole is roughlyearsthe US industry. US canned food output2 was estimated atillion/ whereas Soviet output1 vas estimatedillion cans (seer roughly one-tenth of the US figure. Based on theatio2 US canned food output1 Soviet output, current Soviet needs for all materials required for canning machines and equipment were carried at one-tenth2 US needs as shown in*

h. labor Force.

a. Number of Workers.

The estimate of the labor force enguged in the food-canning Industry In the USSR was obtained by totaling thc number of workers in each canning plant listed in Appendix E. Where the number of workers were given, figures were accepted; where no figures were available Tor the number of workersiven plant, estimates based on the relative size of the plant were made. Slight adjustments were also made to allow for plants which may not have been listed.

6 the number of workers employed In the SovietIndustry was estimated/ 1 the number of worKera engaged in this industry had risen to an0 distributed regionally as shown in Table ll.**

" Tableollows onableollows on

Estimated Raw Material Requirements of the Food-Canning Industry in the US and the USSR

Short Tons

oviet Requirements Based on Productionillion Standard UOO-Cram Cans

mini

Brass and Bronze

Castings

Valves and

Copper

Rolled Copper

Screen and

TabJe 10

Estimated Raw Material Requirements of the Food-Canning Industry in the US and the USSR (Continued)

Short Tons

2

oviet

Based onBased

tionroduction of

lionBillion Standard

Commodity UOO-Oram CansCans

Monel

Stuinless Steel

Bars

Castings

Cutlery

Nickel

Nickel Silver

estimated raw material requirements of the food-canning industry in the us and the ussr (continued)

short tons

c conn

odlty

s requirements basedram cans

1 soviet requirements based pn productionillionram cans

metal

castings dairy metal

custings tin

Ingots

lead

sheets and bars vain-

53

oc

7.7

0-3

i.3

ingots solder Bare Zinc sheets

75

7I-

947

7.5

7.5

Estimated Raw Material Requirements of tbe Food-Canning Industry in tee US and tlie USSR (Continued)

and Steel

Heams Angles and T'S Channels Plates Reinforcing Black Sheets Galvanized Sheets Galvanized Pipes Black Pipe Well Casing Cast Iron Pipe Calvanlxed Conducting Pipe Miscellaneous Malleable Castings Gray Iron Castings Galvanized Pipe Fittings Black Pipe Fittings Valves

Bolts, Nuts, Screws, and Washers Wire and Kails Electric Conduit and

Fittings Boiler Tubing Spring and Tool Steal

13,

2o0

800

300

0

fto.c

0

Short Tons

Commodity

S Requirements Basedram Cans

1 Soviet Requirements Based on Productionillionram Cans

and'Steel (Continued)

and

Miscellaneous Steel and Tron (Welding Rods, Pulleys, Shafting, Railroad Sidings, Cable, Auto Parts, Lift

Rubber

(Gloves, Boots, Suits,

Rubber H

Chlorinated Washing

Phosphate Washing

Paper,

Paper, Boxes

Stitching 0

TransmissionAsh for Waste

Treats*

Lime for Waste3ulphate for Waste

Chromate for Waste

.

.

K.A.

K.A.

Tuhle 10

Estimated Raw Material Requirements oF the Food-Canning Industry in the US and the USSR (Continued)

Short Tons

Commodity

US Requirement's

tionram Cans

1 Soviet Requirements Based on Productionillionram Cans

Chlorine for Waste Treatment Zeolite Tor Water Treatment Lubricating Oil and Crease Boiler Compounds Lacquer and Enamel for Tin Cans

Inks for Lithographing Cans, Boxes, Labels Posts for Labels and Cases

Total

h.a.

n.a.

K.A.

k.a.

H.A,

.

N.A.

.

/

etric tons.n1 Lutes aboutercent of ths total.

b. Fmployment of Women, Prisot-AMS of Mar, and Forced labor

The number of women in the labor force of individual plants ranges fromoercent of thc total number of/ large numbers of German and Japanese prisoners of war ware alsoby canning enterprises as unskilled manual labor or forvork through/ Forced laborers areound in unknown numbers in canning enterprises, especially fishin thc Far/

Economicof Workers

northwest

Northern European USSR

Baltictoo

Belorussia

Ukraine.qoq

Lover Don-Horth Caucasus (

Transcaucasusaqo

Volga

Central European USSR<w

""Is

West-Siberia000

Kazakh SSR

Central Asia>30

East Siberia

Far East

USSR

5. Energy Requirements.

Consumption of electric energy by the entire Soviet food-prn-cesnlng industry* was computed to beillion kilo-vatt-hcurs. The food-canning branch of this industry Is estimatedave8 allllon kllovatt-hours of electric energy,ittleercent of the total energy consumed by theindustryhole.

1 Plan called for the output ofmtlHon kllovatt-hours or electric energy by the People's Cceolssarlat or Food Industry and an sdditionalillion kllovatt-hours output by the People's Com-alBsariat of Meot and Dairy Industry, vhlch*ranch or the food industry. Tbe electric energy output of the food and meat

and dairy industries was smaller than thc consumption requirements with the deficit being made up by power stations of other people's coE-niaauriats.

Based on4 figureillion kilowatt-hours'of electric energy by the food industry andI totalillion kilowatt-hours by the food and meat and dairyonsumption figure ofillion kilowatt-hourseasonable.

Although the food industry had lostercont of its electric power installations during World War II,0 electric energyhad increasedtimes as compared/ to an estimated annual consumption ofillion kilowatt -hours.

At the same time, the energy bass of thc food-canning industry was to have increased considerably with the construction of electric or steam-electric power stations at Kherson, Tiraspol', Kamyshin, and other canning centers. VJZf Based on the expansion and increase in mechanization in the canning industry, it is assumed that the food-canning industry would have consumedercent of tbe total electric energy consumption of the food lndusty, or aboutillion kilowatt-hours The average Increase per year in olectrlc energy consumption for thes computed to beillion kilowatt-hours. If this overage increase is added to the0 consumption figure, 1 electric energyby the food-canning industry may be considered to be about TO million kilowatt-hours. This total is shown in* broken, down by regionsirect ratio of output of canned food to clec-trie energy consumed. See' for the estimated output of cunncd food produced in each Soviet economic region.

6- Fuel Requirements.

Based on consumption patterns in the US food-canning industry, the? total fuel demand of the Soviet food-conning Industry would be 1metric tons of coal equivalent in terms of average Soviettu per pound). This figure for fuel consumption does notthe fuel required for the production of energy for the food-cjmnlng industry.

Tableollows on, below.

Tabic 12

Food

of

a/

Energy

Standard

Kilowatt-

Region

Cons)

(la)

European

(lb)

)

(lib)

(ill)

Don-North

(TV)

(V)

(VI)

European

(VII)

(VIII)

C)

SSR (Xn>

Asia (Xb)

Siberia (XI)

East (XII)

USSR Total

Sec Appendix IT.

The actual type of fuel utilized varies locally and may Include coal, wood, peat, or petroleum depending on the location of thecanning plants and the local availability of fuel resources.

7- Haulage Requirements.

Tableists the average estimated haul for each major input commodity required by the food-canning industry together with the canned food output (in thousand metric tons) and expresses thetransport requirements in ton-kilometers: that is, quantities multiplied by the average haul. Average haul for the various items vas obtained from Soviet figures where available; otherwise it was estimated on the basis of locations of consumers, producers, and rav material sources and the distances between'each of these elements.

Table 13

Estimated Haulage Required by the Food-Canning Industry in the USSR

Metric Tons)

Haul (Kilometers)

Ton-Kilcmetcr3 (Million'

5*1

for the total Soviet capital investment for thc Third Five Yearo the time of the Germaneriod ofears, vas also available as vas tbe planned figure for the food-processing industry and its food-canning branch for the entire Third Five Year/ The Third Five Year Plan figures for the food-processing industries were dividedo give average yearly planned figures, and the total forears was computed. The fraction of total Soviet capital Investment represented by tbe food-processing Industry was then determined for each of thcive Year Plans as was also the food-canning fraction relative to food processing for the period of thelans.

With the planned total Soviet capital investment for the Fourth Five Yearnown, the fraction representing foodfor each of theive Year Plans vas averaged; and then this average was applied to thc total Soviet capital investment to obtain thc planr.ed capital investment for thehole during tbe Fourth Five Year Plan. The food-canning fraction of the investment for the food-processing industryhole was calculated for each of theive Year Plans and then averaged. The average thus obtained was applied to the total food-processing Industry investment to obtain tbe capital, investment in the food-canning industry.

The figures for capital investment ln food processing and food canning for the three prewar Plans represent capital Investment by the People's Commissariat of Food Industry. Both the food-processing and food-canning figures for thc Fourth Five Yearthe planned capital investment of four ministriesoodteat and Dairy Industry, Fish Industry for Wostern Regions, and Fish Industry for Eastern Regions. The latter two ministries _ were merged in

Of the estimated planned capital investment of 9'5 billion rubles for food processing in the Fourth Five Yearrubles were planned capital Investment for the Ministry of Food/ Fifty-nine percent of total food-processing capital Investment seems to go into the Ministry of Food Industry. If the relationship between the Ministry of Food Industry and food-processing capital Investment is carried over for foodigureillion rubles is obtained for capital investment in food canning by the Ministry of Pood Industry. The remainderillion rubles

represents capital investment in canning by thc Ministry of Heat and Dairy Industry and the Ministry of Fish Industry. The capitalof the food-processing and food-canning industries is shown in Table Lk.

IM

Capital InvBBtarol of tha Pood-Cannlne InduBtr'3

to Uti Hit Flaw

hmd

Sfctor

Total Eeoofoj

roceutcg

(RlUlon

(Million

Foot ProceasinK Pareont of Total CtplUl

Tintear

i.BV

Canning us Percent of Pood

j:rubleactoal oafl'Uleplained capital liwtarrt.

1. Lend-lease.

During World War II the USSR imported (a) canned meat, (b) tin plate, (c) tin cans, and (d) canning machinery from the US under Lend-lease, as follows;

a. Canned meat products, primarily pork or beef/ (See)

Table 15

Soviet Lend-Leuse Imports of Canned Meut Products from the US

5

Metric Tons

Canned

Canned

Other Canned Meat

h. hort tonsof tin/

cans, with at leastillion tin cansSoviet For/

other canning machinery,was

Double-seaming machines for attaching bottoms to cans In the can-making process. Capacity: milltmeter bycansillimeterillimeter cans per minute.

Can-closing machines. Capacity: ans per minute.

Tomato-paste-cannlng machines, rapacity:oS No.ans per minute.

ouble-seamers and vacuum-sealers.mil-llmetermtllimctermillimeter,mllllraetermillimeter cans per minute.

0 the Russians were seeking the following canningfrom US firms.

Complete tomato juice installations. Capacity:allons per minute.

Complete citrus Juice (tangerine) installations. Capacity:oallons per minute.

Complete green-pea-canning installations comprisingmachines, hydraulic conveyors, blanching machines, washingportion-measuring machines, vacuum-sealers for cans andand machines for emptying containers into the spiral of the autoclave and for discharging the autoclave. Capacity: Sans per minute.

{*) Complete sweet-corn-canning installations. Capacity: ontainers per minute.

Apple-peeling and core-removing machines. Capacity; onours.

Machines for the extraction of pits from cherries. on per hour.

Machines for snipping cherry stems. Capacity: per hour.

Vacuum-sealers for fruit Juice.

Shelling machines for leguminous vegetables.

Machinery.

In the postwar period, among tin-plating machinery sent to thS USSR by the USompleteinch, three-waynits. This equipment consistedarge tinning pot ando convey sheet or strip steelluxing bath into the molten tin and, finally,alm oil bath. Buffing and polishing equipment was also furnished.nits were designed for an annualg combined capacity0 metric tons. Thisbsolete equipaentM in comparison with the electrolytic process now in use In thel

1- Ministry of Food Industry.

a- 1 Production of Canned Food by the Ministry of Food Industry.

The Ministry of Food/ has been the leading Soviet ministerial producer of canned food with its Main Administration of the Canning Industryurning out an estimatedercent,illion standard cahs, of all Soviet canned food

b- Main Administration of the Canning Industry.

The Main Administration of the Canning Industry, in turn, is broken down into regional canning trusts. Seme of these trusts seem to represent the areas of entire republicshe Moldavian/ the Ukrainianhe Azerbaydzhan/ and the GeorglanSSR canning trustshereas other trusts apparently only represent certain areas within republicsthe Kanibadam Canning Trust of the Tadzhlk/ and the Lenlnakan Canning Trust of the Armenian/ These trusts, however, appear to be ln every case subordinate to the Main Administration of the Canning Industry. It is possible that republican food ministries may also engage in food/

Tlie link between the Main Admin! stration of the Canningand the several trusts may not be direct. Administration (upravleniye),or comparuble units, may form Intermediateorgans between the Main Administration and the trusts.

* See footnote, p. l, referring to merger of ministries.

In addition to the production of canned goods, the Main Administration of- the Canning Industry of the Ministry of Food Industry shares responsibility with the Ministry of Trade for supplying fresh fruit and vegetables to industrial centers. o the canning Industry0 tons of fresh fruit and vegetables to Soviet industrial centers. Export regions supplying fruit to industrial centers include: the Crimea Oblast, Krasnodar Kray, the Moldavian SSR, and all the Transcaucasian and Central Asiatic/

c. Food Industry Canning Trusts.

The trusts appear to administer combines or Individual(canneries) . Under the Main Administration of the CanninRthe only distinction between combines end canneries seems to be the size of thc canning complex, with combines such as Krymskaya merely being very large canneries. In practice, some of the larger combines may actually be bigger than certain of the trusts und perhaps on un administrative level comparable to the main/

Scientific Research Institute of the Canning "Industry.

All-Union Scientific Research Institute of thc Canningmaintains research centers in several/

2. Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry.

a. 1 Production of Canned Food by the Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry.

The Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry is the second largest producer of canned food in thc USSR. Through its Main Administration of Meat Industry (Glavnyaso) and its Main Administration of Canned Milk Industry/ the Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry1 turned out an estimatedercent,illion cans, of USSR canned food production. Of this ministerial total, roughlyercent, or 2G2 million cans, was estimated as being the contribution of the Main Administration of Meat Industry, andercent, or IOU million cans, represented1 output of various types of canned milk by the Main Administration Of Canned Milk Industry (see

b. Main Admimstratlon of Meat Industry.

In the organization of the Main Administration of Meet Industry^ thereanning Administration directly responsible to thc There are also republican main administrations of meat industry, such as Rosglavmyaso (HSFSR Main Administration of Meat/

ew exceptions in the case of individual meat trusts, it has not yet been ascertained whether the individual meat trusts, which cover the whole of the USSRegional/ are sub_ ordinated directly to the Main Administration of Meat Industry under the Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry or to republican main ad-"idc "hether both types or Bubordination exist side by

There are apparently no meat-canning trusts as such. The meat trusts supervise canning activities merely as one of several forms of meat processing, such as sausage uanufacturing and bacon/ The relationship of meat trusts to the Canning Administration is not known.

c. Meat Trusts.

The trusts are composed of various meat-packing combines which are thc basic productive units, the equivalents of thein other/ For operational purposes, theare further broken down administratively into plants, the plants into shops, the shops into sections, and the sections into brigades In most combines, canning represents the functions of one particular shop. anning shop seems toart of most meat combines / In addition, there were in the past, and there still naymall local enterprises directly subordinate to the meat trusts which handle one particular processing operation such as canning, sausaRe manufacturing, or bacon production. gOi/

d- Main Administration of Canned Milk Industry.

There is as yet no form of information available on theof the Main Administration of Canned Milk Industry. The

established (seend it ray be assumed that there areorgans, possibly trusts, linking the canned milk plants and the Main Administration of Canned Mili; Indus try.

3. Ministry of Fish Industry.

B- Production of Canned Fish by thc Ministry of Fish Industry.

The Ministry of Fish Industry is the third most importantof canned food with an estimatedercent,illion cans, of the total Soviet canned food output

Administratively, canningore decentralized operation in the Ministry of Fish Industry than In the Ministry or Foodor the Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry. Main administrations have been set upegional ratherommodity basis Torhe iicportant rishlng areas the Northern, the Azov-Black Sea, the Caspian, the Siberian, the Amur, the Prlmorskiy Kray basins, and Sakhalin, and/

Although there are administrations subordinated to certain of the main administrations of the Ministry of Fish Industry, there is no record of any administrations under the regional main.Sectional trusts which bundle various phases of fish catching arid processing seem to be placed directly under the regional main Under the trusts arc combines, which represent anotherhe geographical delimitation of Finally, the combines ore broken down into fish-catching bases andplants which Include fish/

An example or the organizational pattern of the Ministry of Fish Industry may be traced in tho Main Administration of Pishin Kamchatka. Subordinate to the main administration, cither directly or through an intermediary, Is the West Kamchatka FishAt the next lovol of Gubordination are the Ozernoye Fish Combine, which has various plants under it, including Fish Canneryhe Avaehajr Fish Combine, which has, among other subordinate units, the Mokhovaya' Base; and tbe Kikhchik Fish Combine, which has canneries Hob. Uk andnder Its/

The numbering of fish canneries in the Far East seems to beonsecutive basis with all canneriesumerical Not enough canneries have as yet been identified toany/

U. Other Food-Canning Organizations.

In the paat, small-scale rood canning has also been carried out by various other organizations such as ministries of local Industry, cooperatives, and consumcre'/ It Is not known whether the KVD does any canning in Its own enterprises, but olave laborers have been obserwd in numerous canneries in the USSR, especially in the Far/

SIZES AND LOCATIONS OP SOVIET FOOD-CANNING PLANTS

1- Canning Plants.

lmost liCO food-canning plants were identified asin the USSR under the control of three ministries: (a) Ministry of Food Industry; (b) Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry; and (c) Ministry of Fish Industry. These plants are irregularly distributed throughout the USSR, both as to type and capacity, depending upon the nature and quantity of input food materials available in the various republics, oblasts, and krays ac shown in

Table 16

Regional Distribution of Pood-Cunning Plants in the USSR a/

Region

of

(la)

European USSR (lb)

(ila)

(lib)

(ill)

Don-North Caucasus (TV)

(v)

(VI)

European USSR (VII)

(VIII)

Siberia (rx)

SSR (Xa)

Asia (Xb)

Siberia (XI)

East (xil)

Incomplete: includes only plants identified as of

Canning plants vary greatly in size and capacity, ranging from the Krymskaya in Krasnodar Kray,orkers and having an output capacity of more thanillion standard cans per year to the Salyn Cannery in the Crimea, vhlch employsersons and has an annual capacity ofhousand standard cans.*

The type of the plants located in any given region isof the nature of the raw food materials available for processing. In the Fer East (XII) for example,lants ore engaged in canninglants can fish and crabs,lants can onlylants canlants can meat,lant cans whale meat. Hot only do the enterprises of the Ministry of Fish Industry in the Far East and other regions of tlie USSR engage ln canning, but some of the. conning plants, as well as other fish enterprises, smoke, salt, pickle, fillet, and freeae fish.

In the Transcaucasuslants are engaged in canning3 plants can fruit andlant cansegotoblos, andlants canlant cans fruit, vegetables, meat, andlants canlant cans milk;lant has not been classified. Enterprises of the Ministry of Food Industry also put out dried or frozen fruit or vegetables, which are sometimes listed along with conned food under tbe heading of Konservy (preserved foods).

* The estimate of capacity of the plants given in the accompanying tableppendix E) must be treated with caution since in most cases these estimates do not represent actual output but rather the potential outputlant workingour dayay week. In actual practice the plants will usually workeasonulear, but may work' around the clockhree-shift basis during the season.

ln the Urale (VIII) the Ministry or Meat and Dairylants conningf which also can fish. Theof the Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry processnd dairy products Including fresh neat, nau&ages, bacon, cheese, and whole milk, as well aa canned goods. The Ministry of Fish Industry|lants in the Urals and the Ministry of Foodlant conning fruit and vegetables.

ttempts to locate alphabetically within economicall plants in the USSR engaged in food canning. The products canned by each plant are also given. Available information on the number of workers and the capacity of various plants is listed as an indicator of the comparative sizes of Soviet food-canning enterprises.

Only those meat combines and fish-processing plants specifically cited ln available sources as having canning facilities have been Many additional meat combines and fish-processing plants may possibly carry out canning operations but have not beenack of specific confirmation.

In the listing of individual plants, one plant has been listed for each locality known toocal canning enterprise unless there is proof of the existence of additional plants in the vicinity. Vari--ant names usedlant may, however, have resultedingle plant having been listed twiceown, orr more towns. Far Eastern fish combines frequentlyain plant located at one point where the combine has its administrative headquarters andplants in other localities, but only the main plant may have been listed.

The constant geographical nume changes indulged in by the Russians have tended to obscure the location of some or the older plants which may be listed by an old name, or even by both old and new namesonsequenceack of positive identification.

War destruction may have resultedlant's disappearance or movement to another locality. Although most canning plants destroyed during World War II were rebuilt in their old locations, some were never rebuilt, and others were moved to new locations, where they may have retained their old name orew name.

* Tabicollows on

In approximating the number of workers engaged in canning food, the entire labor Torce was taken into consideration in the case ofbut, in the case of meat combines which perform processing functions other than canning,raction of the total are actually employed in the canning shops. Depending on the information available on the individual meat combines, the number of workers engaged inwas estimated atoercent of the meat combines' total estimated labor force.

Food-Process[of Plant* in the USSR: Location, Type, Labor force, and Capacity by Econonic Region

Plants bywlc Seglcr. Xorthvtit (la)

Republic, Kray, or Oblast

Type of Product Canned

Estimated

Labor Forceour Shift

Est lasted

Annual Capacity (Thousandram Cans)

Host Rsctnt

Date of Inf omstion"

K jgar-avolok/ Unlngrad

Kirov Keat// Pishchevik 5TT// Kuraansk// Vodlotero/

SSR Kuraansk Oblast Karelo-Flnnish SSR Leningrad Oblast

Kumansk Oblast Karelo-Flanisb SSR Lenlasrad Oblast Kaxelo-Pinnlsh SSP

Fish Pish

Hest

Vegetable Fish

Vegetable

Fish

Fish

Fish Fish

hOC

)50

LN

I'niesB otherwise Indicated, all Information is postwar.

y Economic Reglor.

Northern EuropeanB (lb)

////

Baltic (lla)

/

Jt Leave/

//

/

Republic, Kray, cr Oblast

Vologda Oblast Vologda Oblast Arkhangelsk Oblast Vologda Oblast Komi ASS3

Latvian SSR Latvian SSR

Kaliningrad Oblast Lithuanian SSR

Lithuanian SSR

Type of Product Canned

Heat Milk Fish Milk

Fruit and Vegetables

Fruit and Fruit and Fish

Fish, Meat, Vegetables Fish

Estimated

Labor Forceour Shift

no

OO

Estimated Annual

Capacity Thcusa::

Standard

rsa Cans)

500

Moat Recent

Date of Information*

8

Prtvnr

otherwise indicated, all Information Is postwar.

is I

Table 17

(CCAtlftUtdO

Plants by Economic Region Ukraine (ill) (Continued)

Rep-bllc, Kray, or Oblast

Type of Product Canned

Estimated

Labor Forcecur Shift

Estimated Annual Capacity (Thousand Btnafl :I

Most Recent

Data? -'.

Information*

no

Prewar

S

Plants by Economic Region

Ocraint (III) (Continued)

Mariupol*/

/ Molocharak Kukachevoisporeny

Novayu/

/

Odessa

/

/

Meat/

Republic, Kray, or Oblast

Stalino Oblast

Zaporoxh'ye Oblast Zaporcth'yc Oblast Trar.scarpatr.lan Oblast Moldavian SSR

Kamenctt-Podol'sk Oblast

Kirovograd Oblast

Odessa Oblast

?ype of Product Canned

Fruit and

Vegetables Fruit Milk Fruit Fruit and

Vegetables Fruit and

Vegetables Fruit and

Vegetables

Meat, Fruit, and

Vegetables Meet and

Vegetables Meat

Estimated Labor Forceour Shift

Estimated Annual Capacity (ThousandOram Cans)

Most Recent

Date Of Information*

7

Prewar

Table 17

(Continued)

Plants by Economic Region Lover Don-Ilorth Caucasus (TV)

Republic, Kray, or Cblaat

of Product per

Annual Capacity [fat MMOurna Canal

Most Recent

Date of Information*

2?-

229

0

0

8

8

Information is postwar.

-

Plants by Economic Region

Lover Don-North Caucasus (XV) (Continued)

Republic, Kray, or Colast

Type of Product Canned

Estimated Labor Forceour Shift

Estimated

Ar.r1 Capacity (Thousand Standard 4CO-Grem Cans)

Most Recent

Date of Information"

/ Krasnodar

Kropotkin Kryaskaya

/

Korth Osetlan ASSR Dagestan ASSR Croznyy Ob lost

Dagestan ASSR

Dagestan ASSR Krasnodar Kray

Krasnodar Kray Krasnodar Kray

Krasnodar Kray

Fruit Fruit

Fish, Heat, and

Vegetables Fruit and

Vegetables Fruit

Meat, Fish,

Fruit, and

Vegetables Milk

Heat, Fish, Fruit, and Vegetables

Fruit

8,oco

0

8

Plants,by Economic Region

Lover Con-North Caucasus (TV) (Continued)

Republic, Kray, or Oblast

iof Product per

Annual Capacity (Thousand Standard 'tCO-Oram Cane)

Host Recent

Date of Informatlon*

/

ASSR

3JI/

Autonomous Oblast

slyah SSB/

Kray

3

Kray

Ksat Coebine

Kray

rea

Oblast

and

table

and

/

and

3UI*/

Kray

Kray

and Vegetables

Meat/ Stavropol' Meat Combine

Kray

Kray

J50

0

; raanj Prawar Prewar

I11

Continued)

Plants by Economic Region

sui (v) (Continued)

/ Kutaisi Nlkoyan/

Heat/ Lenlnakan Meat//

Lenkoran'

Taliha/

/

nice* otherwise Indicated,

Megrl

Fruit Fruit Fish

Fruit and

Vegetables Meat

Meat

Fruit and Vegetables

Fruit and Vegetables

Fish and Vegetables

Fruit

Type cfKr*yf or

Axerbaydthan SSR Aterbaydzhan SSR Azerbaydthan SSR

Georgian SSR

Ar-rienlar. SSR

Azerbaydthan SSR

Armenian SSR Armenian SSR all information is postwar.

0

Estimated Annual Capacity (Thousandram Cans)

LOO

8fc -

Plants by Economic Region

Azerbaydzhan SSR Armenian SSR Nakhichevan ASSR Georgian SSR

Armenian SSR Kagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast Georgian SSR

Azerbaydzhan SSR Georgian SSR

'ran*Caucasus (v) (Continued)

////

Sevan/

/

/ Tbilisi

Meat/

/

Milk CanneryUnless otherwise indicated, all information is postwar.

?ype of Product Canned

Fruit Fruit Fruit Fruit and Vegetables

Plata Meat and

Vegetables Meat, Fruit, and

Vegetables Meat

Meat

Fruit and Vegetables Milk

Estimated Labor Forceour Shift

*00

Estimated Annual Capacity (Thousand Standard UOO-Graa Cans)

Most Recent

Date of Inf creation'

8

1

p|| 5

il

fm

Plants by Economic Region

Volga (VI) (Continued)

Cnnl'l Meat/ Ftdorovka Goroduche Kamyshin

/

Kuybyshev Meat/ Hadveditshoye (formerly/

/

/ Sarat'ov Ipl/

Republic, Kray, or Oblait

Saratov Oblast Saratov Oblast Stalingrad Oblast Stalingrad Oblast

Astrakhan' Oblast

Kuybyshev Oblast

Stalingrad Oblast

Stalingrad Oblast

Astrakhan' Oblast Saratov Oblast

Type of Product Canned

Meat Fish

Milk

Fruit and Vegetables

Fruit and Vegetables

Meat

Fruit and Vegetables

Fruit and Vegetables

Fish

Plah

Estimated Labor Forcecur Shift

GO

197

nnual Capacity (ThousandGram Cans)

0

0

Most Recent

Data of Information*

8

8

Table 17

(Continued)

Plants by Econ^alc Heglon

Volga (VI) (Continued)

Stalingrad

Bovyy/

Milk Cannery/ob/Q7/

Meat/

/ll/

Republic, Kray, or Oblaat

Stalingrad Cblaat

Kuybyshev Oblaat Stalingrad Oblaat Kuybyshev Oblaat

Stalingrad Oblaat

Astrakhan Oblaat Tatar ASSR

Type of Product Canned

Meat, fruit, and

Meat Milk Fruit Milk

Fruit and Vegetablea

Meat

Fruit and Flab

Meat, Fruit, and

Est leated Labor Forceour Shift

ioc

Estimated

Annual Capacity (Thousandraa Cans)

Most Recent

Data of Information*

1

ii3g

TableContinued)

Plants by Economic Region

Central European USSR (VII) (Continued)

Kirov Meatf/

govMoscow

Meat Combine hg6/

Red October*

///

Republic, Kray, or Oblast

Kirov Cfelast Kirov Oblast

Moscow Oblast Ryazan' Oblast Kursk Oblast Moscow Cblaot

Moscow Oblast Orel Oblast Vellklye Lukl Oblast

Type of Product Canned

Meat

Fruit and Vegetables Fish Fruit Milk

Meat

Fruit and Vegetables

Fruit and Vegetables

Fruit and Vegetables

Milk

Estimated Labor Forceour Shift

50

500

2-

Estimated

Annual Capacity (Thousand Standard UOO-Gram Cans)

Moot Recent

Date cf Infonsation-

otherwise indicated, all Information is postwar.

A confectionery plant which may have done some wartime canning.

Plants by Economic Region Republic, Kray, or Oblast

'eatral European USSR (Til) (Continued)

Type of Product Canned

Estimated Labor Forceour Shift

Estimated

Au.uii'. Capacity (Thousand Standard UOO-Gram Cans)

Most Recent

Data of Inf creation*

*3l/ Oboyac' ky2f

Rudnya UV

Staryy Oaaol Vj5/

/

Voronezh HeatJ Vyshnly/

Oblaat Kursk Oblaat

Smolensk Oblaat

Mordva ASSR

Kurik Oblast

Tula Oblaat Karl ASSR

Voronezh Oblast Kalinin Oblast

Vegetable* Fruit and

Vegetables Milk

Meat, Milk, Fruit, bib) Vege tables

Fruit and Vegetables

Fish

Fruit and Vegetables Meat

Fruit

0

8

'nless otherwise indicated, all Information Is postwar.

TableContinued)

Plants by Economic Region trmls (VIII)//

Chelyabinsk Heat; Chkalov Heat// Magnitogorsk Neat/T Hlaaa Meat/ Holotov

Heat/

/ Hlihnly/ Orak Heat CombineeVerouraTak

Republic,r Cblaat

Holotov Cblaat

Bashkir ASSR Chelyabinsk Cblaat Chkalov Cblaat Chkalov Oblast

Chelyabinsk Cblaat Bashkir ASSR Chelyabinsk Oblaat holotov Oblast

Sverdlovsk Oblast Chkalov Oblaat. Sverdlovsk Oblast

'ype of Product Canned

fruit and

Vegetables Fish Meat Meat Meat

Meat

Milk Meat

Meat Fish Meat

Meat

Meat and Fish

Estimated

labor Forceour Shlft

150

no

too

OO

)00

Estimated

Annual Capacity (Thousandram Cans)

Most Recent

Date of Information*

1

9

Table 17

(Conti-ued)

Plan to by Economic Region

Urals (VIII) (Continued)

/ Sverdlovsk

Meat Combine -W

FishV Troitsk Masttrkhne Neyvlnsk fcflf^ Zlatoust Heat

Vast Siberia (DC)

Anxhero-SudjhenskBarnaul Meat Combine tic// Kerne rovoTpg/ amal'mmr//

Milk

of Product per, Kray, or

Fish Heat Meat Heat

Bashkir ASSR Sverdlovsk Oblast

290

eat Milk

Fish Fish

Chelyabinsk Oblast Sverdlovsk Obaet Chelyabinsk Oblast

Kemerovo Oblast Altay Kray Novosibirsk Oblast Kemerovo Oblast Tyumen' Oblast Novosibirsk

Annual Capacity (Thousand Standard ItOO-Gram Cans)

Most Recent

Date of Inf ormatlon"

19V89

9

Unless otherwise Indicated, all information is postwar.

-

TableContinued)

ncalc Region

Vest Siberia (TX) (Ccotinued)

//

Kazakh SSR (Xa)

Akmolinsk Heatktyubinsk Meat Combine' Alma-Ata

Meat/

/

///

Kemerovo Oblaat Tyissen' Oblaat

Akmolinsk Oblaat Aktyubinsk Oblast Alma-Ata Oblast

Kzyl Or da Oblast Karaganda Oblast Kzyl Orda Oblaat Taldy-Kurgan Oblast Bzhaabul Oblast

Type of Product Canned

Milk Milk

Meat Meat

Meat

Fruit and Vegetables Fish

Meat and Pish

Fish

Fish

Vegetables

Estimated Labor Forceour Shift

250

15c

Estimated

Annual Capacity (Thousandran Cans)

Most Recent

Date of Information*

7

TableContinued)

Plants by Economic Region

Kazakh SSB (Xa) (Continued)

Fort/ Cur'yev

Kaganovlch/

Meat//

KaxagandaMeat Combine Uqg//

UnlnogorskMeat/

Merkc

Petropavlovsk Meat/ Semlpslatinsk

Meat

Cannery

Republic, Kray, or Oblast

Our'yev Oblaet Gur"yev Oblaat

Pavlcdar Oblast Karaganda Oblast Kokchetav Oblast Vostochno-KazokhBtan

Oblast Dzhambul Oblast

Severo-Kazakhstan Oblast

Semlpalatlnsk Oblast

Type of Product Canned

Fish

Fish Me it Milk Meat Fish

Meat

Fruit undeat

MS :

Milk

Estimated labor Forceour Shift

Estimated Annual Gapacity (Thousand Standard UCO-Crum Cans)

Most Recent

Date of Informaticn#

2

Plants by Economic Pegior. Kazakh SSR (Xa) (Continued)

Republic,r Oblaat

Type of Product Canned

Irtimtttad Labor Forceour Shift

Estimated Annual Capacity {Thousandram Cans)

Most Recent

Date of Information*

ral'sk Meat Conbln< Zhllayn/

Central(Xb)

Andizhan xb/

Ashkhabad

Meat/

/ Bagir/

/7

Oblast Zapadno-Kazakhstan Oblasl Cur'yev Cblast

'Jibak Cblast Turkmen SSR

Turkmen SSR TadihU SSR

Tadshlk SSR Uzbek SSR

Meat

run

Fruit and Vegetables

Meat

Fruit

Vegetables Fruit and Vegetsbles

Meat and Fruit

75

850

otherwise Indicated, all information is postwar.

ll

i

*

TableContinued)

Plants by Economic Region

Far East (XII)

/

Avacha Fish/

/

jy

/

/

Chernyshevka Floating

'?/

Dunay TPutyatin////

///

Republic, Kray, or Oblast

Khabarovsk Kray Khabarovsk Kray Khabarovsk Kray Sakhalin Oblast Khabarovsk Kray Sakhftlit OMast

Primorskiy Kray Frimciskiy Kray Primorskiy Kray Khabarovsk Kray Sakhalin Oblast Khabarovsk Kray Primorskiy Kray Primorskiy Kray Khabarovsk Kray

Type ol* Product Cannod

Fish M

Fishish

Fish and Crab Crab

Fish and Crab

Fish

Fish

Crab

Fish and Crab

Vegetables

Fish

Annual Capacity (Thousandram

-1

.

IR

7 1 " r

Plant* by Economic Region

Far(XII) (Continued)

Ptlchly//opocrjoyTToV Sovetsfcaye/

vshlro (Oblavo)

Klchlro Crab/// Ual'-Kuachatik Fish CCaMna 6pg/

Republic, Kray, or Cblas'.

Khabarovsk Kray Khabarovsk Kray Sakhalin Oblast Sakhalin Oblast Khabarovsk Kray Primorskiy Kray Khabarovsk Kray Prlaorskly Kray Sakhalin Cblast

Khabarovsk Kray Khabarovsk Kray

Khabarovsk Kray

Type of Product Canned

Crab Crab Fish Fish

Fish and Crab Fish

Vagal ri las Fish and Crab

Crab Fish Fish

Fish and Crab

Estimated Labor Forceour Shift

BOO

no

TOO

Annual Capacity (Thousandram

Most Recent

Date of Information*

Urileii 'otherwise Indicated, all information Is postwar.

- -Ct -

Enterprises servicing the Soviet food-canning industry include plants manufacturing tin, glass, wooden, and cardboard containers (many canning plants manufacture their own tin cans),machinery and equipment, tools, and fixtures. Many of these auxiliary plants arc owned and operated by the three ministriesin food canningFood Industry, Meat and Dairy Industry, and Fish Industry. When highly complex machinery or tools are required by these ministries but not produced by them, they nay turn to other ministries such as the Ministry of Machine' and Instrument Building, for their requirements.

Tableartial listing of enterprises servicing the Soviet food-processing industry and its food-canning branch.

Table 18

Regional Distribution of Enterprises Servicing the Food-Canning Industry in the USSR

by Economic ReHior. Northwest (la)

Kray, or Obiast

Responsible Ministry

Krasnayu Vagranka Machine-Building Plant 6ll/ Leningrad Oblast

Latvian SSR Estonian SSR

Baltic (Ila)

Riga Food-Machine-Building

/r- t. ,rj_ merit/

Food Industry

Footnotes to Table l8 follow on p. HO.

Republic, by Economicor

Food Industry Food Industry b/ Food Industry

Vinnitsa Oblast Kherson Oblast Odessa Oblast

Ukraine (III)

Bar Pood-Machine-Building

Plant 6U/ Kherson Glass Container

/ Odessa Canning Equipment

Plant a/

I .over Don-Korth Caucasus (IV)

Glass Container

Plant/ Rostov Food-Machlne-Bulldlng

Plant/ Transcaucasus (v)

Batumi Machine-Buildlng Plant

imeni Beriya/ Klrovakan Machine-Building

/ Kutaisi Glass Container

Plant/ Tbg

Plant imeni

/

Volga (VI)

Kamyshin Class Container Plant/

Osetian ASSR Rostov Oblast

Adzhar ASSRn SSH

Georgian SSR Georgian SSR

Stalingrad Oblast

Food Industry Food Industry

Meat and Dairy Industry

Food Induatrjr

Food Industry

Plants by Economic Region

Central European USSR (VII)

Bol'ohevo Maehine-Building

Plant a/ feUf Moscow Class Container

Machinery Plant/ Moscow Cardboard Container

/ Moscow Wood-Packaging Materials/ Moscow Calibrating

Instrument/ Moscow Ideal Machinery

/ Hogcow Machinery Plant imeni

/ Podol'sk Maehlne-Bulldlng

/ Vludyklnskiy Food-Machine-Bullding/

Urals (VIII)

HUhnly TagilPlant/

West Siberia (DO

Kurgan Food-Machlne-Bullding

Kray, or Oblast

Moscow Oblast

Hoscow Oblast

Moscow Oblast

Moscow Oblast

Hoscow Oblast Moscow Oblast

Moscow Oblast

Moscow Oblast Moscow Oblast

SvcrdlovRk Oblust

Kurgan Oblast

Responsible Ministry

Meat and Dairy Industry

Food Industry

Food Industry Meat and Dairy Industry

Food Industry

Heat and Dairy Industry

Food Industry

Food Industry

Plants by Economic rtegtnn

Central Asia (Xb)

Leninabad Class Container Plant/

Far East (Xll)

Khabarovsk Pack: rig Materials

/ Petropavlovsk Tin Can

Factory/ Ust'-Kamchatsk Tin Can

Factory/ Vladivostok Machine-Building

/

Kray, or Oblast

Tadzhlk SSR

Khabarovsk Kray Khabarovsk Kray Khabarovsk Kray Primorskiy Kray

Responsible Ministry

b/

b/

Confirmed as doing work !'or the rood-cunning industry. The-other plants listed may ulso be doing work for thc food-canningbut as yet not enough Is known about them to make anystatements.

b. Probably the responsible ministry, although responsible ministry is not yet certainly known.

VARIETIES, SiaiS, AND MAKKIKGS OF SOVIET CANNED FOOD

1. Assortment of Canned Food.

a. By Varieties.

0 varieties of canned food vere produced in Ruarieties vere being produced, as shown in/

Table 19

Varieties of Canned Food Produced in the9

Canrodof Varieties

Meat

or Vegetables

b. By Method of Production.

Canned food may be grouped according to the method ofas follows.

Naturalin its own Juice.

Processed.

In tomato sauce (meat, fish, vegetables).

In bouillon (neat, meat and vegetables).

In oil (fish).

In sugar syrup (fruit).

Man ma ted (meat, vegetables).

(3) Concentrated.

Tomato products.

Fruit sauces.

MiLk products-

Pastes (meat, fish).

Ground (meat, fish)-.

Puree (vegetables, fruit).

For Civilian Consumption.

of Canned Meat, frig/

(braised beef, pork, or mutton).

Sboynyye (mixed offals).

Fried meat.

Sausages in pork fat.

Sausages in tomato sauce.

Kidneys ln tomato sauce.

Hearts in tomato* sauce.

pork andin Jelly.

noodles, or vermicelli with beef, perk,

peas, und lentilseef, pork, or rn.if.ton.

pies,

and sour meat,

of Canned pish. Oxj/

(a) In vegetable oil (sunflower, cottonseed, ir.usT.ard).

Sardines.

Mackerel.

Red mullet.

tomato sauce.

Sturgeon.

Pike-perch.

Red mullet.

Mackerel.

whitefish.

Carp.

Bream.

Goby.

the natural Juice of the fish.

Sturgeon.

Salmon.

Caspian roach.

vinegar.

Anchovies.

Sprats.

Sardines.

In fishcakes.

Ground.

Mixed with vegetables.

(3) Varieties of Canned Fruit.

the natural Juice of the fruit.

Sliced apricots.

Sliced apples.

sugar syrup (compote).

Apricots.

Quince.

5 6

7

b

9 li-

Raisins.

Tangerines.

Plums.

Peaches.

Apples.

Puree.

Apricots.

Pears.

Peaches.

Varieties of Canned Vegetables.

(u) In the natural juice of the vegetable.

Green peas.

Whole tana tees.

Beans.

corn.

Cauliflower.

Asparagus.

Beets.

Carrots.

(b) Tn tomato sauce with vegetable oil.

Sliced eggplant.

Eggplant paste.

andand squash.

Vegetable marrow.

Sliced vegetables.

(c) Concentrated tomato products.

Tomato puree.

Tomato paste.

Tomato catsup.

- ill- -

Spinach.

Sorrel.

lieu pepper.

food.

3. Green pea puree.

puree. Carrot puree. Spinach puree.

Vegetable soup, (f) Dietetic foods.

Vegetable marrow.

Vegetable marrow stuffed with rice. 3- Vegetable-marrow in tomato sauce.

(5) Varieties, of Canned Milk.

Condensed and dried milk constitute the most common canned

milk/

d. For Military Consumption, (l) Canned Meat.

following types of canned meat are included in the

ration of the Soviet

(a) Tushonka.

The difference in the contents of the army ration type of tushonka and the type distributed to thc civilian economy isin It will be noted that the fat content of military tushonka is greater than that of its civilian/ The caloric valueram can of military tushonka5 net/

Table 20

Comparison of the Contents of Military and Commercial Tushonka

before Cooking

Grams

Net Height

Terr,

Tushonka

Tushonka

Meat

Pat

Salt

Onions

Net Weight

Pepper Bay Leaf

eaf

eaf

The contents of these two types of tushonka afterand Cooking ure shown in*

" Tableollows.-

Comparison of the Contents of Military and Commercial Tushonka

after/

Grama

Net Weight

Pieces of Cooked Meat Fat on Meat and Melted Fat

Meat Bouillon with "Salt and Onions

Total Het Weight

MilitaryJ9

Comgercial

Sboynyye kpnservy (cannedopular commercial canned product, occasionally fed to the Soviet Army, has thes shown in

Table 22

Contents of Sboynyye Konservy (Canned

Weight

ail, Ends, und

Offals (Udder, Liver, Heart, Kidneys, and so

3-5

Fat

Onions

r.-

Total Net

Black

leaf

(2) Conned Fish.

The following types of canned fish are included in the ration of the Soviet/

Sturgeon.

Chastik" species (perch, pike, and carp).

Far Eostern species (dog and humpback salmon).

Fish for the Soviet Array is not canned in tomato sauce, vegetable oil, or marinated sauce but is processed in its own/

The net weight of the cans utilized for various types of canned fish and their caloric value are indicated in/

Table 23

Net Weight of Cans and Caloric Value per Can for Various Varieties of Fish Packed in the USSR

Net Weight of Cans

Type ofValue, per1.

Chastik

" Chastik is thc ccmmerclal nameroup of fish which hay scales and are caught ln close-mesh nets. This group is subdivarge chastik, which include sheatfish, perch-pike,ream, carp, croaker, mackerel, mullet, burbot, barbel, roseflsH| and wachna cod;mall chastik, which include minnow, zru gudgeon, crucian carp, perch, tench, smelt, and goby.

(3) Canned Vegetables.

Canned vegetables Tor Soviet Army consumption Include stuffed peppers, eggplant, and vegetable marrow. When available, they may be eaten cold or heated but are usually servedomponent of one of the following soups: potato, macaroni, barley, sour cabbage; and millet.

2. Customary Sizes of Cans Used for Food in the USSR.

Although admittedlyonsiderable amount ofis available concerning 'il types of metal cans used in the food-canning industry of thc USSR.

Table 2k* gives all available information known about kl types of cans that'are used In the food-canning industry. Canning plants in the USSR use cans of vurying sizes und shapes according to the kind of food they .process. Tablendicates the type of can used, its number and description, volume in cubic centimeters, the kind offor which it Is used, and its relationshiptandard ItCO-gram canylindrical).. Where information was available, the weight of certain cans filled with specific products has been given.

- Tableollows on. ** Tableollows on Tableollows on.

There is very little interchongeaMlIty between the types of cans used in plants directed by the three ministries engaged in food Of thc kl types of cans identified as food containers in this report,ypes are used by not moreypes are usedinistries, andypes are used byinistries. No data were available,to indicate which ministries used the fourtypes. howing standard sizes of cans used for fruit .and vcgetables,and* shoving standard sizes used forin the US,ist nearly as long and equally as varied as that for thc USSR. Whereas the USSR has Ik types of cans for fruit and vegetables, the US list hasypes of such cans. The US listypes of cans used principally for fish products, whereas the USSR list includesypes used exclusively for fish or other sea food.

Standard Sizes, Volumes, and Heights of Cans for Fruit, Vegetable! Meat, and Fish Used In the/

(Cubic Cent lite ters)

Volume

Inches)- (Grans

(Ounces)

Frcduc- Cnr-ned

to Standard Can

Number ur.fi "rescription

(Continued)

Pyramidal

Pyramidal

Pyramidal

Pyramidal

Pyramidal

Rectangular (Pendant)

Rectangular (Mayak)

Big Oval (Bclshaya)Oval (Malaya)Oval (Malaya)

(Cubic Centimeters)

nches)

5

5

3

Weight (Grans)

Product Canned

Fish

Salmon

Salmon

Crab

Fish

Fish

Fish

Salmon

Fish

Fish

Fish

Fish

Crab

Relation to Standard Can

Specified

Tr duct

Buby Food

Juices (except Pineappleushrooms, Tomato Paste

Citrus and Crape Juice Olives, Pimlentoa Baby Food, Dry Beans, Spaghetti Mushrooms

Dry Beans, Tomato Sauce Fruit, Juices, Olives, Soups,

Spaghetti, Vegetables Dry Beans, Kraut Juice,

Mushrooms, Soups, Vegetables Juices, Pineapple,

Prunes (Dried) Olives Plnientos Dry Beans Mushrooms

Aopuragus, Citrus Segments, Cranberries, Dry Beans, Juices (except Pineappleimlentos, Spaghetti

Fruit (exceptegetables, Olives

Footnotes to Tableollow on.

Minimum Volunc

Pill b/

Can Number Diameter and g/

303

Beans, Fruit (exceptominy, Soups, Vegetables

Cylinder

Flat

Beans

Vacuum

(Vacuum Packed)

Beans, Snap Beans (Asparagus Style)

Beans, Fruit, Hominy, Juices, Vegetables

Dry Beans, Mushrooms

Cylinder

(except Pineappleoups

Beans, Fruit, Hominy, Kraut Juice, Olives, Plnientos, Soups, Vegetables

Vacuum

Potatoes

Cylinder

Products (except Pineapple)

Products

In the statement Of each dimension, the first digit gives the

number of whole inches, and the second and third give the fractionin sixteenths of an inch. eans that the cannd ll/l6 inches in diameternches high. These dimensions apply only to regular type sanitary or open-top cans. 0. Minimum volume fill means the minimum volume of food ir. the cart after processing and cooling.

C. Cubic inches may be converted to fluid ounces by multiplying by 0-

Ounces

Item

Sardine

Tuna

Flat

Sardine

Tuna

Oval

Flat

N.A.

3. Box and Can Markings.

Cans are packed in wooden boxes made of dry woodater' content of not overercent. Every box of canned food bears the following

of plant.

of canned food.

of cans ln the box.

weight of can.

weight of box.

of manufacture of conned product.

information is written on each

of ministry, main administration, and plant.

of the main administration.

of the plant

of the product.

(superior, first class, second class).

weight.

In addition to the above, thc following information Is stamped body of the

code letter.

Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry.

RMinistry of Fish Industry.

Kinistry Of Food Industry.

nunber.

of output, designated by the lust number of thelid of the can is stamped as

o. Number of the shiftone digit.

of month of manufacture two digits.

ne of the following letters:

o

A

D

V

January February March April

Day

EJune

ZhJuly

(8) ZAugust

epteabe

KOctober

LNovember

MDecember

numberthree digits.

ESTIMATED UTILIZATION PATTERN FOR CANNED FOOD IN THE USSR

1. Outlets.

Canned food produced ln the USSR is consumed by the military or the civilian population, exported, or stockpiled. It is difficult to

determine accurately the quantity of canned food going into each of the above channels, but the military takes priorityonsumer,

either for immediate use or for future use of stockpiled canned food.

a. Civilian Consumption.

BaseS on evidence in Section VI,t is assumed that most of the Soviet canned-food output going into civilian channels is preserved in glass jars. erhaps as much asercent of the food preserved in glass jars, orillion glass Jars, could have been made available for Soviet civilian consumption. mall number of tin cans, rejects for military consumption orneeds, could have reached the civilian market. An allowanceercent of the food preserved in tin cans, or about k& million tin cans, might be added to the glass Jars noted aboveotalillion standard Uoo-gram cans distributed through commercial channels. This figure compares with1 US figure for civilian consumption of canned goods ofillion toillion standard US

consumption of canned food according to type of container is shown in

b. Military Consumption.

estimated a

1-yeur peacetimefood atetric tons

* bove.

Tableollows on.

of canned meat andetric tons of canned fish, which, whenwould totalrare/ At the rateans of meat or fishear's peacetime divisional reserve,illion cons of meat andillion cans of meat5 million cans ofhich would neet the

itlmated Civilian Consumption of Canned Food In the USSR According to Type of1

Klllion Units

Tin Can Pack

Glass Jar Pack

Tin Can and Glass Jar Pack

Food Industry

Fruit and

Vegetables Meat Products Fish and Dairy Products

Meat and Dairy Industry

Total

Meat Products Dairy Products

Total

Fish Industry

Fish Products Total

Civilian Consumptionercentage of Total Production

*5

373

96>

15

5

c

675

Production

k

h

m

90

Total Production

r86

1*7

983

366

-de

Total Estimated 'ivlllan Consumption

5"2

21

6

U8 39

peacetime reserve requirements on the assumptionivisions, or

million soldiers, seems an adequate amount to allocate to military consumption

Under normal peacetime garrison conditions in East Germany or the USSR, the Soviet Array apparently does not consume very ouch canned food. Each division's annual needs is met through consumption of the previous ycur's divisional reserves, with little or no canned food being consigned for immediate/

Detailed information on exports of canned fish is found in Section VI, mall tonnage of canned fish from other arcus such as the Baltic or Volga regions are added to Far Eastern exports, an estimate ofillion cans of fish la obtained as the export total

Stockpilingajor factor in Soviet wartime supply Soviet defectors have indicated that considerable quantities of canned food are currently going into/ Accurate figures on thc number of cans of food stockpiled are not obtainable, but by adding the hypothetical consumptionor civilians, the military, and exports, and subtracting the result of this addition from totalemainder which might indicate theoretical stockpiling availabilities is obtained. " breaks down thc utilization pattern of canned goods for civilian, military, and export consumption. onsumer categories are estimated toillion cans of food Subtractedotal productionillion cans of food, the above consumption figureemainder of anillion cans available for stockpiling. Of this total, an estimatedillion cans are meat products and anillion cans are fish products. The estimated totallilion cans of food thus made available for stockpiling represents Overercent 'of1 productionillion cans.

" Tableollows on.

I I'lj s

a

EST1HATED FRCDXTION OF CANNED FOOD In TIIK USSR

irst step in determining Soviet canned food production by econtxoic region, the production of canned food by ministry given inas regrouped by type of product canned, fruit and vegetables, meat, fish, and milk, without regard to ministry.

The tables on plant capacity (see Appendix E) servedough guide for comparing regional productive possibilities and determining regional production. An approximation was made of plant sizesategoriesextra-large, large, medium, and small- ough ratior more for extru-largeor largeor medium plants,or small plants was worked out. The totals for each region were added, end percentages were computed to establish the relative position of each region to the over-all total. The actual total figures for each Of thc commodities of fruit and vegetables, meat, and dairy products, were then fractionated according to thealready computed to obtain regional production figures as shown in*

A different procedure was followed for the computation of canned fish production. The breakdown of fish canning by fishing areasercentage basis is indicated In

These fishing areas were next redefinedegional basis and the relative position of each regionishing area wasfrom the plant list. The percentage of the total fish canned for eaci fishing area was multiplied by percentages representing each region's relative position within the urea to obtain the weighted percentages of regional production. The acf.ial canned fish production for each region was computed by multiplying the actual total by each regional weighted percentage. Tableindicates the various stages in this process.

w. :I. re.

** Tableollows on. Tableollows on p.i.

Estimated Production of Canned roodoy Econonic Reclon a/

fruit and Vegetables Cencad food

Tabic 30

Location of Fish Canneries and Types of Fish Canned in the/

Location of Fish Canneries

Pacifichabarovsk Kray Coast, especially Southeastern and Southwestern Coasts of Kamchatka; Priraorskiy Kray Coast centered at Vladivostok; and Sakhalin Island, especially the South

Solnon, Crab, Sardines, Plaice

of Total Fish Canned

50

Caspian Sea Coast

Coasts of Barents Sea, White Sea, and Arctic Ocean

Sturgeon, Caviar, Caspian Roach

Ccd, Herring, Whitefiah

10

Coasts of Black Sea and Sea of Azov

Southeast Coast of Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland

Red Mullet, Sheatrish, Pike-Perch, Mackerel

and East Coasts of Lake Baytcal

turgcon

h

i^i

&

01

a

B

C -1

S3

ai

fAiAH

GAPS IN IHTELLXGEICE

The principal gap in Information on tho Soviet food-canning industry is in regard to consumption of canned food by both military and civilian consumers. Consumption data are lackingurrent basis and evenistorical basis, although future research might help to clarify the historical picture.

Information on all phases of stockpiling of canned food is large! lacking and ia generally conjectural in this report.

A further point awaiting future clarification is theand functional relationship of various organizations canning food: that is, the relationship between All-Union and Unlon-Repbulic ministries, between main administrationsinistry, and between ministries, as well as other similar relationships.

SOURCES AND EVALUATION OF SOURCES 1. Evaluation of Sources.

Overt Soviet sources including books, journals, and newspapers have furnished the basis for most of the material contained in this report. Of these Soviet sources, the aost valuable for statistical data vere publications of the USSR State Planning Commission,the various Plans as well as details of actual accomplishments announced in the Socialist Construction series or ln reports of Plan fulfillments. Statistical and nonatatistlcal information dealing with the food-processing industries in the USSR (and Including food-conning) were obtained free handbooks on food processing by Cryuner, Smlrnov, Skrobanskly, and others and from semiofficial statements by Mlkoyan, former Commissar of the People's Commissariat of Pood Industry and Zotov and Slvolap, former ministers of the Ministry of Food Industry- Publications of the prewar USSR Chamber of Commerce, along with the Soviet Agricultural encyclopedia, also supplied useful materials. The Soviet Journals Myasnayu Induatriya SSSR (Meatof theybnoye Khozyaystvo (Fish Economy),and Molochnaya Pruayshlcsnr^t' (Dairy Industry) furnished information on their respective subjects. Stepanov and Fetlaov added data on theand functions of the meat-packing industry in the USSR, and Poroshin threw some light on the tin can industry. An official Soviet Army publication provided materials on the organization, nutrition, and preparation of food for the Soviet Army. Foreign BroadcastDivision and Foreign Documents Division (FBID androvided supplementary data from Soviet sources.

bv the US Department of Stat*.

supplied necessary and useful'dataE

r

c

The reliability of Soviet statistics and all foreigr. sources, official and unofficial, which depend primarily on published Soviet material, is suspectonsequence of the official Soviet state policy restricting the dissemination of information about all phases of Soviet activity. Statistics, when published by the Russians, frequently take the form of vague percentages set up on unknown bases and are often misleading.

Secondary Western European sources can be no more reliable than the Soviet sources quoted. The background, knowledge, intellectual integrity, and political bias of these secondary Sources, however, tend to qualify the reliability of these official and unofficial studies.

The data on the various plant names, locations, capacities, and labor force were obtained from information contained in the Industrial Register (CCD) files; in PBID and FDD and othereports; in Departn of State and Department of the Army .publications; and in primary Soviet sources, including the lists of plants given in the Second and Third Five Year7

2. Sources.

7-otov, Razvitlye pjshchevoyovoy

pyatiletke (Development of the Food Industry 3ri the New Five-Yearoli ti zdat,.

State, MOSCOW, Despatch, C

State, OTR Report1. 1. C.

*. Grower J. Sims, Meat and Meat Animals in World War Two, Agriculture Monograph No.ureau of Agricultural Economics, Department of Agriculture,

5- US legation to Latvia, Memorandum on 'he Soviet Food Industry, Riga,> pp.

USSR Chamber Of Commerce, "The Canned Food Industry ofconomic Survey, Vol. o. No.oscow,-

6. . Porcshin etpraypchnik po proizvodstvu zhestyanoy konservnoy tary THandbook on the Production of Tin Car.ishchepromizdat/. Smirnov etovarovndeuiye pishchevykh produktov (Coamodily Science of Food Pcjcmc-.s. J, Ciostorgizdat, Moscow,

-

7- Economic Survey, op.

0. US Legation to Latvia, og.

A.I. Mlkoyan, Pishchevaya industriya Sovetskogo Sovuza (Food Industry of the Soviet. 8.

9- Economic Survey, op.

Legation to Latvia, op-

Economic Survey, op.

-

Economic Survey, op. .

US Legation to Latvia, op.

Economic Survey, op.U. 7

6

Myasnaya Industriya SSSR (Meat Industry of theeople's Commissariat of Food Industry, Moscow,

US legation to

Pishchevaya Industriyaletiyu Sovetskoy vlastl

(The Food Industry of the USSR approaching the Twentieth Anniversary of the Sovietishchepromlzdat, Moscow and

US Legation to Latvia, op.ables

Industriya SSSR, op.

US Legation to. Myasnaya Industriya SSSR, og.

State Planning Commission, Tretiy pyatiletniy plan

razvitiya narodnogo khozyaystva SuyuzaThe Third Five-Year Plan for the Development of the National Economy of theosplanizdat,.

Economic Survey, op.

V.P.cvoy pyatiletke

(The Food Industry in the Kew Five-Yearravda,. 9,

State Planning Commission, Gosudarstvenyy plan razvitiya

narodnogo khozyaystva SSSRState Plan for the Development of the National Economy of the USSR, American Council Of Learned Societies Reprint, Baltimore,p..

23. Zotov, Razvitiye pishchevoyovoy

pyatiletke, op. Economic Survey, op.

25- Zotov, Razvitiye pishchevoyovpy

27.

pyatiletke, op.. IB. CIA, C. Zotov, Razvitiye pishchevoyovoy pyatiletke, op.O.

Zotov, Pishchcyayaovoy-

C.

Razvit-je pishchevoyovoy

pyatiletke, op.

on War Aid Furnished by tbe United States to the

USSR,oreigh Economic Section, Office of Foreign Liquidation, State, R-

State, Lend-lease Files, USSR Folder, Tinplate. R.

Sims, op.

Ibid.

Memoranda on the Canning of Pork and Beef Tushonka, Research Department, Continental Cannc. R.

mKrymskaya Food Cannery imeni

Mlkoyan). S.

33- CIA TP, median of plant files.

3*. CIA0

CIA C

oSlS of percentage increases given in "The

Fifth Five-Yearew York Times, New3

Razvitiye pishchevoyovoy

p.

C.

CIA CIA C.

39- Zotov, Razvitiyeovoy pyatiletkej. op.

CIA

CIA C-

CIA FDD file on Sovetskaya Kirgiziya C.

40. CIA, median of plant files. S. lil. Tbid.

U2. Naum Jasny, The Socialized Agriculture of the ussr, Plans and Performance, Stanford University Press, Stanford,-

43. Economic

kh. USSR State Planning Conmission, Vtoroy pyatiletnly plan razvitiya narodnoKoSSR (The Second Five-Year Plan for tbe Development of the Rational Economy of theosplunizdat,,f. CIA FDD file on Molochnsya Promyshlennost' (Dairy, Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry, Moscow.

45. CIA IR, median of plant files. 3.

U6. CIA FBIS,. C. CIA C

State OIR Report1 C. Eugenie Boulanovsky, Fishery Resources of the USSRoviet Economy,il Reference Service Office of International Trade, Department of Commerce,

Sybnoyc Khozyaystvo (Fishinistry of

Fish Indt"*" Moscow.

C.

C.Yu.Vereohchugin,eoRrafglz,p..

USSR: EconigicIA Map

C.

h9. US legation to Latvia,able 5m.

Razvltlye pishchevoyovoy

C.

CIA JR, weoian of plant files. S.

6 C,

6 C,

53- CIA CO, , median of plant files, * - C,

56. '.

Trud,.

Vechernyaya Moskva, Moscow,

a Feb57- Zotov, Razvitiye pishchevoyovoy

pyatiletke, og. Continental Con Company,p. clt.

59- CIA IBKrymskaya Food Cannery Imeni Mikoyan).

Rarvltlye plahchev.iyovoy

pyatiletke, op.

CIA TO

-

triya SSSR, Mo.

State, Moscow, Despatch, zvcstlya, Moscow,Myasr^iya Induatrlya SSSR, No.

U C,

*I. C, Continental Can Company,n. clt.

US Legation to Latvia, op.,

Zotov, Ruzvitlyc plshchevovovoy

pyatiletke, op. Mikoyan, op. clt.

US legution to Latvia, op.

Vtoroy pyatlletniy pltin rnzvitlya narodnogo khozyaystvu

Soyuaalt.

Razvitiye pishchevoyovoy

pya11letke, op..

Special Report, Groupo. i, Columbus, Ohio, l8

uce W. Gooser. Role of Technologyhe Future of Tin,

C.

'0. c.

Trud, Moscow,

71-

. No.e Memorial Institute,

72! Myasnaya Industriya SSSR, No.- i'1-

73- . Gryuner ctovnrovedeniyc pishchevykh produhtov

(Commodity Science of Food

Costorgizdat,, Vol. II, Zotov, Pishchevayaovoy pyatUeUe.

Clt.,

75- c.

76. C.

General Organization, Administration and Strength of Supply

Service In Peace and War.Sheet 1.

- S.

8.

79- S.

Cc"*ral Organization, Administration and Strength of SuppH

service inj War, op. cit..

US Legation to Latvia, op.

State, 0D1 Report C. Ibid.

Navy, ONI Information 4

84. 1 R.

Vneshnaya TorKPvlva (Foreigno. 1 S,

Gryuner, op.Vol..

C.

Zotov, Planchevaya.

B> CIA OO-Wy 5 S.

69. Zotov, Ratvitiye pishchevoy promyshlennost: v1 Ictke, op..

from Nutional Canning Institute,.

C, '

S.

IR, median of plant files. S.

York Times, op.. 6.

96. Data from National Canning Institute, urvey, op. . w.

.

Mikoyan, Economic Survey, op.

Zotov, Plshchevayaovoy pyatiletke,

op.r State Planning Commission, Itogi vypolneniya vtorogo pyatiletnogo plana ratvltlya nur'-lncgo khor.yuystva SoyuzaResults of the Fulfillment of the Second Five-Year Plan for the Development of- the Economy of tbeosplanizdat,

Smirnov, cp..

Ibid.. Ibid.

I07. us Legation to Latvia, op.able 9.

)6. USSR State Planning Commission, Itogi vypolneniya vtorogo pya tile tne go plana razv'.tlya narodnogo Khozyaystva Soyuza SSSP, cp.. ofa.

Clt., p

Ibid.

Plshchevaya.

ussr State Planning Commission, Gosudarstvenyynarcdnogo khozyaystva SSSR

Vechernyaya Kcskva, Moscow,

Moscow,

or, London, Moscow,

S.

Moscow,

CIA/RB S.

Ityestiya, Moscow,

Bcl'shevlk, No.oscow,

TbTT

nJTFBIS,BIS, C.

State Planning Commission, Gosudarstvenyy plan

razvitiya narodnogo.

.

Razvitiyc pishchevoyovoy

pyatilctke, op.. Ml.

FBIS, C.

yechernyaya Moskva, Moscow,.

S.

Bouianovsky, op.. 1.

USSR State Planning Commission, Oosudarstvenyy plan

razvitiya narodnogoKp-.

CLA/RR S.

CIA IR, median of plant files. S.

Bol'shevik, No.

I3U. Rybnoye Khozyaystvo, Ho.- CIA FBIS, C.

Rybnoye Khozyaystvo, No..- Ibid.

og.. 1.

CIA/RR S. Bol'shevik, No.IA FBIS, C.

og.

Rybnoye Khozyaystvo, No.ybnoye Khozyaystvo, No.

CIA Estimates.

olochnaya Promyshlennost (Meat and Dairyo., Ministry of Meat and Dairy Industry, Moscow.

l4l. Pravda, Moscow,

Ibid.

CIA FBIS, C.

Molochnayao-- Myasnaya Industriya SSSR, No-.. Pravda, Moscow,

II.7. Myasnaya Industriya SSSR, No-. 1.

Myasnaya Industriya SSSR, No.. 6.

Myasnaya Industriya SSSR, No.. 4.

. 1.

CIA CO, I' " C,

C

C.

- Sew Yorkop. cit.

Sotsialistichcskoye stroitel'stvo (Socialist Construction),

Gosplan,- Ibid.

158 Zotov, Raz-vitiye pishchevoyovoy

pyatlletke, op.. Consultation with Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines.

in the Canningin, in

Producers' Association, London, p. 7.

Porcshin, op.-

Data from American Iron and Steel Institute quoted in

Munitions' Board, Basic Data tor ftitainintt Stockpile Objectives,. . Shreve, The Chemical Process Industries, Newi.

F..R. Riegel, Industrial Chemistry, Sew.

PorosMn, op.-

Data froc National Canning Institute,.

US Legation to Latvia, Op.- 6b.

CIA IS, median Cf plant files. - Ibid.

CIA' _. 0.

'iotov, Ra^vitiye pishchevoyovoy

. C.

IaveatlyaWauktdelar.iye Ekor.oniiki i

to the United States, Special Supplement on

the Fourth Fivc-Year Plan.

States Foreign TradeAgricultural Products,

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, Department of Agriculture,5 C, CIA C, '

Department lend-lease Files,lt.

* C, '

6 C,

CIA OO-WY* C.

FBIS, C.

S.

Zaryabilisi,

Kommunlst Tadzhlklstana , Stallrabad,

erevan,

9

Zotov, Raz..viye pishchevoyovoy

pyatiletke, op.

S.

cia FDDources.

CIA FBIS, C.

S.

C.

Ibid.

C.

K.P. Fetisuv, Ciavrayaso: statistiko-ekonomicheakly

spravochnik (Main Ada! nl strati on or Meatof Economiceople'sFood Ind>^Pisbchepromlzdat, C.

Feasor,lt.

Trud,

it.

ofiles.

W^- C.

Ibid.

CIA FBIS. CIA IB,'f plant files. S.

C.

C IA C.

S, C.

CIA C.

CIA IP, median of plant files. S.

CIA FBIS Sources-

Legation to Latvia, op. clt.

Vtoroy pyatiletniy plan razvitiyu narodnogo Khozy3ystva soyuza ssr, op.-

cia Hi, median of plant files. 3.

cia ir. s.

cia ib- s.

cia ir- s.

trR No.rr. s.

cia ir. s.

. s.

tr No. s.

CIA ib. s.

cia ir No. s.

tr- S.

FDD Sources. ^.

us Legationatvia, op.

Ibid.

State, OTfi Report. S.

CIA ir

CIA IB. Si

* C,

CTA ir. S.

CTA FDD Sources. c.

CIA JR- S-

IR. *DD Sources. c.

CIA IR S.

CIA JR. S.

IR. S.

TR No. FDD Sources.*R. TR. ip. TR. FDD Sources. TR. S.

.

IP. S. CIA IR. CIA IR. S.

.

C.

CIA IR. S.

CIA FDD Sources. C.

CIA IR S.

C.

FDD Sources. C.

IR. S.

IR. S.

. S.

CIA IR. S.

CIA IR No. S.

Ibid.

CIA IR. S.

CIA IR. S.

Legation to Latvia, op.ableFBIS Sources. C.

IRO4. S.

CIA FBIS Sources. C.

CTA IR. S.

CIA LR No. S,

CIA IR Ho. S.

. S.

CIA Tfi. S.

CIA LR. S.

IRR No.R No.R No. S.

CIA FBIS Sources. c.

Ibid.

CIA TR. S.

CIA IK. S.

IR.

CIA FBIS Sources. C.

CIA LR. S.

CIA TR No. S.

Moscow,

FBIS Sources. C.

CIA FDD Sources. C.

CIA IB 3.

CIA FBIS Sources. C.

Legation to Latvia, og.

TR Ho. 9OOO77O. S.

CIA LR. S.

CIA FBIS, C.

CIA FBIS Sources. C.

CIA C.

M^-r' '6 C.

CIA IR No. S.

CIA TR. S.

CIA TR. S.

CIA TR. S.

CIA LR, S.

Legation to Latvia,ableLR. S.

CIA FDD Sources. C.

CIA IR No. S.

CIA IR. S.

CIA IR. S.

CIA IP Mo. 8.

US Legation to Latvia, og.able

CIA IR. S.

CIA FDD Sources. C.

CIA FBIS, C

, S,

Ibid.

US Legation to Latvia, og.

Ibid.

CIA IR. 8.

Sotsialistlcheskoye strolUl'sUo,Socialist

or.planizdut, Moscow and.

US Legation to Latvia, og.

Ibid.

CIA TR. S.

LRRR. S.

legation to Latvia, og.

fll'gtlchesfcoye stroitel'stvo.OD.

o. 8oiW4i. s.

TR [Co.

cia LH Bo.

cu FDD Sourcea. c.

cia ir No.

cia TR Ho.

cia ir Ho.

cia ir No.

cia ip Ho.

Legation to Latvia, op.

cia ir No.

cia ir No.

cia ir No.

cia tro.ir Ho.ir Ho.

cia ir No.

cia ii* No.

cia lr. S.

cia ffi No.

cia LR Ko.ir Ho.

o.

cia tr Ho.

cia ib Bo.

cia ip No.

cia tr No.

. s.

cia fbis Sources, c.

ctroitel'stvo,p. clt.,

w o Latvia, op.. Ibid.

cia ir S.

Sotslaliatichcakoye. on.gallon to Latvia, op.hie 5J.

CIA IR Ho. S.

IB No. S.

Legation to Latvia, og.

Industriya SSSR, No.

IR. ST"

IRoi. S.

IR Ko. S.

IR. S.

FBIS Sources. C.

Legation to Latvia, op.

IR Ho. S.

IB No. S.

IR. S.

Industrlya SSSR, No.

legation to Latvia, op.

IBt8. s.

IR. S.

TH No. 8oo6oi*. S.

TR No.. S.

IR Bo. S.

FDD Sources. C.

IB S.

IR. 8.

B No. S.

IR. S.

IB. S.

IB S.

IR. S.

IB Ko. S.

IR. S.

FDD Sources. C.

IR. S.

IR. S.

legation to Latvia, op.

. S.

TH. S.

IR. S.

m. S.

FDD Sources. C.

TH Ho. S.

IR No. S.

IB. S.

IR. S.

-

Sources. C.

55-

.

.

ia

IA

ia

Induutriya SSSK, .'Jci.

Hi S.

Prry-yshlcnnosl', No..

ir. ST

TR S.

m. S.

TR. S.

m. s.

IP. S.

Legation lo Latvia, op.

IP. S.

fdd Sources. C.

^-itn'r , , op. cit.,

.

IP. S.

IP. S.

TP. 5.

IP- S.

IR. S.

IR- S.

IR. S.

- :

Sources. C.

CTA IP.

TR Ho.

IP No.

IR No.

TR Ho.

CIA FBIS,I. C.

CIA IR Ho.

CIA IR No.

IR Ko.IS No.

CIA IR Ho.

CIA FDD Sources. C.

CIA FBIS Sources. C.

IP Ko.IR Ho.IR No.

TJTRo.

Legation to

FDD Sources. C.

TR No.

? TP Ho.

Legation to Latvia, op.

CIA FDD Sources. C.

CIA IP No.

TR Ho.IP No.IR No.rDO Sources. IP Ho.

IP Ho.

TR5 Apr

IR

No.

IR No.

TR No.

TR No.

IR No.

IR No.

CIA IR No.

CIA IR No.

CIA IR No.

CIA IR No.

IR Ho.

IR No.

TR No.

IR Ho.

IR No.lh No.

CIA IR No.

CIA FBIS Sourcea. C.

CIA IB No.

. s.

IP Ho. IOV16OI. S.

IP Ho.BIS Sources.FDD Sources.ip No. ih92ii.TPRp. S.

CIA FBIS Sources. C.

CIA IR.. CIA IB. S.

CIA tp. S.

CTA IK. S.

CIA IP Ho. ii23io9- S.

. s.

cia IR. s.

TP. S.

CIA FBIS Sources. C.

CIA IR No.

CIA LB No.

CIA IB No.

CIA IB No.

CIA IB No.IB No.

FDD Sources. C.

IB No.IB IR No.

CIA IR No.

CIA IR No.

CIA IB No.

CIA TR No.

o.

CIA FDD Sources. C.

CIA FBIS Sources- C-

IR

IR

IR

IA ili

LB

IB

IB

IB

TB

LB

IB

ir;

IR

IR

IR No-

FBIS Sources. C.

m.

LB

'

FDD Sources. C

rv.ti.

TA TR- CIA IR No. S.

C.

FDD c.

Sep-

LP. S-

CIA FBIS, Z.

cia a>. S.

FBIS,

CIA FDD Source*. C.

Ibid.

Ibid.

Ibid.

PJiZ.

CTJTFBIS, C.

cia PUIS,

CIA TP.. S-

cLA FDD Sources. c.

Told.

CIA i2 C.

CU FDD Sources. C.

LP So. . S.

IP. O*. FDD Sources. TP No. C.

cia C

rum. S.

ol.-

. Lobanov, Sel 'skokhczyayr.'- vcflnhyaed.iys.ltion, Kevised,

Vol.. .

Cryuner,

Sairnov, eg.t3. ..

"tcbanov, og..

Skrobaruk'.y, Tovarcsgde^yc pisncheryle.

Sciencedat,

it-e,.

Gryuner, og.ol.-

Ibid.

Siairnov, op..

Lobunov, op...

. lyy-

rlgotovlemyerasnoy(organization. Nutrition and Preparation of Feed

in the Redosvoycnizdat,- Srairnov, op..

Creanizatlsyarigotovler.iyerasnoy

arrall, op-. liJ3-

.

Srairnov/ og..

OrganizatiByarigotovleniyerasnoy

urniil, Og.- . - .

Poroshin, og..

US Department of Commerce, Cans for Fruits and Vegetables,

Simplified Practice. Data from National Conning Institute,.

Gryuner, Og.ol..

Skrobanskiy, og..

-

Srairnov, og..

Vol..

Skrobanskiy, og..

Data from National Cunning Institute,.

General Organization, op.- -

S-

CIA vC, S, - Bouianovsky,.op.p.

Rybnoye Khozyaystvo,

C-

Original document.

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