,CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM
Thei fnf1JOiTOrfJty'.wring'. Lorio:;trtjbcc.* . 3'atfonnitr therowth of the ccruanist acres ourto er.dr.rvor to ?id th's" ontJ ttrfl gle agjBJanrtlhe *ll-conceivedabortive Szlanta rmcluU ot:;rythe
loading membersie CE'JA nought refuse in 'iondurns and Salvador. The activities ol' the CEUA refugees or exiles lirvestudied- separate report.
Donaldcnt assigned to Stit'onemele entered into diract OOBtrct wJth two Mnfaers of lhe CJL'aon ut'lisinf. cower story that he, RsXTGES, knewewlrn business non who wore willing and anxloas toy contribute tonti-comn.unist campeign in Qunterc^le btit with the uniSsrs tending that their Identities vojld rot end could not In rOTOftled for obvious reasons. One of th* CEUAiOVld toacillating typeorn little could be done but the otfcor, who was subsecuenQy ^iven tlie cryptonyn ESSEJfCljhss beccee the ka-'t; spring of oor PP rct?vit: in Ouftepwlc.
) Over the course of tho months fol'cv.ing thao first ne/ting, ESSEhCi has organisod rn entity knownrganizaciones Antt-Soi*mi?tas Unidas (OAU) which now groups together tha Coritc Civicohe Ccnite Nacional Ferinlnouite Obrero Anticowunistand the fcomite Juvenll Anti-copaanis'r (CJA). It is flso believed Chat c'.'isr grojps will tecae asaoclr.tad with the OAU thro.^i: Infiltration by BSSaaCP sub-aynts. These probably will include the Pe-tldo 'Irtttcoc^on anttcosainiatahe Pa-tido unificacion Doiwyjrstlcond the Prrttdo inriopondi'/hte Antlncwiniata Ori-itc (PIACQ).
Tho entitys Qr'an'zacinnes Antiaa ^'nj.'as (OAU) ia dominated by titf CKUA taYIch, in tirn, is duMinated.i.W
KSJEii..r. himself tnkos? V* overtf CAU cr ol the CEUA.
Tno CiUa, alac kiio-r. ivs SAftSMd* nrct**sinds aetti
of an svowe.il" inti-cd-jSOU utjs ojtin^ -cciiarii?.
covering 'iaastsaejla. Within the omrtc ,i:pa ancrft end selected er^snlstionshich will be controlled by tSTJPCUSS.CE-3. Tillsion will engage in sovcrt aflbi-goei'iessnt mi anti-covunlst black propcgacidc, will bo cofpesedproximate!sir persons, ?nc will I. eludeand ESSE.CS-Jj who will beonly ones tMSTS of ESStXCE'sos*
The diroctctionow knCSJB asillyorking oncer tho direct instruct ons of SSSfMCE.
A courier grojp for ncinteiniag lieison wi In exilednd the couriers Hill be trusted members of SSS&CE Aofnd
' The pnti-coewunist nuws bulletin, known as ESSU.CE-E, will appear te bo the official organ of ESSSOaVA. -onLro] is exercisedfMt throghhis newspaper or news bulletin has nov: core out uncer thel Hebelde. r as is known, ths enl> issue published to act; was that of3 and ten thousand copies oreto bees been published./
It is also planned toad'o prsgspm which will bo known asnd will be handled by ESSEK& through ESSE4CE-7. It la planneda radio program shell appear to bo financed b" neanrvort'sn-nts solicited from lccffl businessmen. KEY
Tho key individuals first by DonaldDIOBR, vhc opor^Wii ondorof Le Chief of St^tJrn, Guatemala,
the individualown 'JS'^KnCli
The first individualntll
the Asociecien deUnlversltariosU>an
^in opposition toUn'.en of Students, ond prominent in Pon-eonnunLjt studentSuatemela. Subsequently, it was founds. very vacillating
individual, weak, with little organising ability, end unwilling to do neewea* which might embarrass dim. Ha was sabsax dropped and, to date, there has beer, no repercussion. Modus Opergndl
On one occasion,antl-coraraniat stickers, labels,
and fljlepvcc were released In Gucteapli City andutlying towns end Tineas.
These propaganda itemsrepsrod by ESSENCE and hisnd printed
in Guatemala Hty
in local shops, CEUA members took the lead in the distribution/but seem to have
been aided by railroad workers and iius drivers in the case of outlying towns.
Of interest "ea the observation that the best results wore retrieved with flyleaflets
which could be picked up, re?c, and redistributed. Less success was encountered
in the use of stickers. Flyars or leaflets are^lso cheeper to print rnd to
fhezmatartux The first issuo cf El Releldo wes prlnteJ in the Talleresityjthe basis for some of the articles
was supplied ESSL..CEnewspaper or news bulletin EL KllbiiLUfc
first appeared on3 and is sch<:dulsd toeekly publication. The first edition is believed to hfve been0 copies. Littlo or nothing is known ?bojl the 'A stributicr. -sceptone or tho dis tri biting centers ii locateda Av.em.ila City. El Rebeldo is sold for five cenUvos per copy and, avparently, the distribution is net interfered ui thuateit,-lan
authorities. It is assured, though not known, that distributiohational scale wJll be attempted if not already accomplished. Character of Themes:
El Rebelde is violentlynd anti-gej.ernnent and its style of presentation is regarded ps genera, iy good; probably better thai the majority of news bulletins in other Latinountries. Itrded es essential that the type of theme and langwss used be keptevel acceptable to the msBtz* target at whlcli it is aimed. The articles in El Rebelde are probably far beyond the understanding of the average Guatemalan since theevel cf education is low. However, since El Bebeldc purports to bo the organ of the anti-communi it student org-viizati on, it is regarded as normal and more or less to be expected that this bulletin, atin its first editions, should obviously aimed at the educated and at the ycung university student audience. If so desired, later editions can be slanted downward toroader audience. It is still too early tor not El Rebelde isarge a'aiience or whether or not: hr.ving the desired effect since to date and ass we know onlyas been published.
It is of interest that the first issue ofRpbeldeacsimile of one of the stickers apparently distributed onhis is regarded as unfortunate since it would here been better^rot to hrve so obviously tied up
the news bulletin with the distribution of propaganda. As mention-id previously, ESSENCE intends or intended topeciale distribution of black propaganda. In this particular case, no great violation nf fundamentals committed since ther.de distributed marnxeri on3 Carried
the words Dios-Patria-Libertad; this being the motto of El Rebelde and of the CSUA. Any black propaganda distributedin the fu'..urer no such clear indicate: Of its origin.
It;iao observed that on* of tlie loaddivesed to theof GuatSfliaH and wh-cndissue of tl
yplonynp'ova-outi thel bfrfe;
td SaftrMb was nagllgOllflUatters
-t hc't ISSSEflCE. h'pia to organiseadio program butwwti
whether or notso to date. It is bolievedadio program might be
even more successful than ths news bulletin in reaching the -illiterate masses.
Overt or Covert Support.
It is taiowi that the bulletin ft ftebelde solicits aid, both moral snd financial,
in carrying cut its campaign ond there i? reason to believe that financial
support is slsoh?infi received from RUFIiS as well as from SUli.on Cuptemala. Xt is
known thatthe proposed rield orojeot subedttod by Stetinn Cu^U'inals, which has not officially
yet been/approvednofficiallyby Herd-;carters, cslls for ten expenditure ofasport to therojoct by Station Guatemala. Thereo information as yot available concerning tho anoint op funds supplied by RUFUS from Uievanced hia. thrown otrsr chznneld by this orcanlZEtion. Control of tiediuw
Since the great majority ofe sup*Hed directly or indirectly by this agency, the result isertain amount of control can be exercised, ln the case of t* funds frcmver, it hsslearly stated tc ESCEFJCEdo Cfsi3roup oI'and Cuetension businessmen vho Oppose coremuiism pmfling Ui contribute whileacnyMOU" but 'ri th the understanding thatE wouldree agentotliticslpuppct.orig that le accepted fin.-mcial -jupporl. froir this "anonvm^ij? grcip". Thereo indication ft presentS5&JCE can ho controlled althoush he0 guided bv-cmrla. Itall; obv-nus thrt the sonl.rolEKCE bv RliFUS willcerond ertirelv imon thy contj-ol this Acen$KRr3 ses
ctlcn ESSENCE has previously beentftariers but t'is Project has not yet been presented for formal cpprwl. The appropriate ilnadcoarters desk is currently prsrtring thsproject rlthougho still lacking concerning theed "Bribers of thaCE net.
Conclusions snd_ iteco^iendations:
Theroject offer* ^reat possibilities int an effective anti-gov eminent and anti-ccri-iunltit campaign in Guatemala. It is the wtiter's belief, however, thtt efforts must be made toeans through which the ESSENCE met xixixbHZxfcxextar.rexete^thaTg-EaexsmBXB activities will be able tc reach ami Influence tlx gr.'sts of Guatemalans who, bee-use of illiteracy, cannot be reachedews bulletin wMcn is writtenather high or "Intellectual" planfe. It is further believedtl'ft every effort must be msde to go froirgeneral te tha specific in the sense of attacking specific incidents and, if necessary, people rr-ther than keepingeneralised program. It well maybe that this is tlie plan whichntends to fclJow and it is impossible at th'i time to judge Accurately sine* we have but thes3ie of El Rebeldeand no knowledge of his future plans with respect to editorial policy.
One point of groat inter st is that the ESggrJCE Project is an excellent training ground and should resultadre of trained, capable young men who can be ccsnted on to ca-rry on their anti-communist work 'in future years and after the ESSENCE Project itself has beet, abandoned. The existence oforps of trainvd and testedl continue toefinite arset for the future.
Th; natter of financial control and of control in general is tlie greatest weaknessay must be fcuiia to check on sums advanced and on utilization of funds supplies so as to insure that thegreetest possible advantage ir, achieved. If properly Itandled, it is pojrible thst the prcperaiministr^ti on of fiunda tisyecome the wedge through ihich lasting control oan be attained over ESSENCE. SE^RtTOriginal document.