BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON GUATEMALA

Created: 12/1/1953

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CIA HISTORICALurtAM RELEASE IN FULL

Background InTcraaticc, ooTHnrta**ar

Pernapa tha best way to describe th* Guatemalan problen 1*

U) call It oarioufl, but transitory.

Tba problaa laauae Piwitw haa base growing and defalcating la Onatanala for at laaat tonand ia now the aoet influential political araad in tha country. Thla eraad io pot into vigorous dally practice by at laaat one honored top Onataaalan OamadMs, ana Mho hava baan trained ln tba Boelet Union, who bare esquIm atatar* aa Coaamiete go* aaa who Cora aa integral part of tha International Ocaannlat conspiracy. Behind thasa aaa ar*oyal Coasanlst Party aaahagj who ara available for tha propaganda, agitation, aod organisation workosntrnlat aaohlse requires.

The vigor aad offlolaoQy of thla finaaintat bard core far aaaaafj any other political rare* new aotirs la nuataaali, Tha Ceramists hava considerable $uBBmm vlth Onatanala'a President, Jsoobo ARBEBZ Qusaan, who by his oun WsUaony, rallaa oa tha Cosaunlata to put into affaot what ha calrograa of "socialro-Oniaipolitical parties, leftist la tings, are generallyby Conadat datarnlnatlon and aora or laea willingly follow the CcanDinlflt lead. Skillful Connuniat agltatore

aad orfiflnUara bm captured control of th* urban labor federation and bm formed an alliance, whloh aacusts to thadr baring control, wi th tba labor federation for ruralctual CoaautilatarI it ayapathiearii cocupy nauy vital position* In th*OofSRant. Through all thesehroughrbtni bUatlft Uu^xgh tba other lafttat political part lea, through tbe labor unions, andoyeiuiaait agencies, the Comaaaiata exert baavy propagsndia tic presouie and eons^darmbla oontrol over tho doBUny of

The Ixfluaooe ofrt*ma.rffl CoanmUt* nateraUr ooos not atop at bona. QoataattlaBeader* wore trained by lnUrnatlonal rorajjrnioa, aad tho/close,Inert Ualaon with tho oontor of iniaroaUoaal ftmarttai ta Jtoaoow.

Joae Hanuel FGfflJHT, tho Seorotarj Oeaaral of tho OvtowTtn CoBBunistinUrwtingly oooufh only oalla itoelfrabaJo orii laborTi si tad Moscow- as recenUy at last Gstobor and otayod for omralictor fennel coTiniitra, tho top ftaure on tho Gmtooalan labor soone,l*otalo and olooo aasootate of Ttaoaato XOtUHlX Toltdaao. tho top Coaanntat labor leader ta all Sooth Aaarloa. Oaaldelegation* can bo found at riiytuelly all the CoDBttinist aponaored peace congresses, labor ooogreamaa, and other propagaodistic rallies held behind the Iron Curtain.

Tbo role of too Gua taoalaa Cccminlat In too Kremlin oonaplrnay is not limited to diiwiplaanlp alone. In their torn, tho Guatemalan Ccoaunloto heroorxainly dcoana and probably hundred* of high and nedlm levelfron other Central imarioan and South American oouatrioa. Generally speaking,oaaunlatentral American country cats into difflmiUlaa at home,aa findall-paid Job, aodobllo peat of major reepcnalbility is Guatemala. Ia addition, tba fluntaaaliiu Goveraaaat aad Communist Jarty appear on nuaarous oooaainna to bar* fljaaaaad oi aobaidiaed rfmt1t* propaganda espionage activitiaa in eountriee that neighbor oa their a. Xaat, hot far froa least, the rumors will not die down that th* Guatemalan* araeading part In tha organisation, training, and eouipmentelatively foreddabla Coeauniat Legion vhlch could ana day be Vised to perform tha military tasks of international Ccnnualaa anywhere In tho Western Besdaphsre.

All In all, than, Guatemala roost*ormidable Communist bastion and cancer In tha Americas. Froa the American point of view we night cell Cwtaneln oar aaft underbelly. AU of these things amply Justify tba atatsjmant that tha situation in Guatemala la serious.

however, there Is also reason to belters that tbe present Guatemalan situation is transitory. The Guatemalan Cnamnnlst Party Is strong, yes, but it representsiny minorityountry

of thro* trilHon people. Whatore, oo matter what th* Cfcmmlst*clain, tbla minority doos not really spring froa thepoople but cecal rite chiefly-of rebelliousa1 pooulo Who canood Msndat Una about tba plight of the poaeaat or tba plight of tbo laborer but baread relatively little experience ln tilling tba aoU or working ln tha factory. Finally, the fjoataaalao tVaaaatlet* ara aotative laageage,unslnn one, and froa what we know of tha national pride and dignity of that la hard to ballar* tbat thoy would arar for long aeekly atfbslt to dntlnfitlnn sad exploitationlavic power fire tboaaaodway.

Ooataaala ln th* long pastlorious olTiUaaUonrilliant culture. tho aagnlfloant aoaanota of pre-Spaal sk aad SpaaUh time* give thatriking lapraaaion of what creative reacuroeeithin tha capacity of tba tatitawlinaaouioea ar* earaly ao groat tbat th* aboddy aatariallatlo phUoaophy of fViamTilav willermanently aatiafy tbaeople. Vhat la more, tho ffcrataaalan people ara intenselynd there la arary probability that their Christian conriotlona will load than to disown ite^sa-athaiaa thothay see its true laplleatlona.

Aa is elsewhere tba can* with Crrrrzt1 st-dadnatad countrlea, lt will be visa for Aaarloans to keep in Bind th* clear distinction between the Connunlat governaent of Guateaala and tha Ouataoalan people

mericana cenothing lo oawaa %dth CcamnnlaU, butbm eeer/ ratteen, duringa of trial for tho ftMtaaaiiri people, to reaffirm, to onSend, aod to Inteuelf/ the hlatorlo frlendetdp that tradlUonellr links our tvo Irrtapeitfmw'it, ecwerelgn, aalf-eorwraing, frlandV imngbbore la the aaerloao.

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